表紙
市場調查報告書
商品編碼
1082743

生物分解性塑膠的全球市場:2022年

Biodegradable Plastics Global Market Report 2022

出版日期: 按訂單生產 | 出版商: The Business Research Company | 英文 175 Pages | 商品交期: 2-10個工作天內

價格
  • 全貌
  • 簡介
  • 目錄
簡介

本報告提供全球生物分解性塑膠市場相關調查分析,提供市場特徵,市場趨勢與策略,各地區分析,競爭情形等資訊。

目錄

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 生物分解性塑膠市場特徵

第3章 生物分解性塑膠市場趨勢與策略

第4章 COVID-19對生物分解性塑膠的影響

第5章 生物分解性塑膠的市場規模與成長

  • 全球生物分解性塑膠市場實際成果(2016年∼2021年)
    • 推動市場要素
    • 阻礙市場要素
  • 全球生物分解性塑膠市場預測(2021年∼2026年,2031年)
    • 推動市場要素
    • 阻礙市場要素

第6章 生物分解性塑膠市場區隔

  • 全球生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 聚乳酸 (PLA)
  • 聚己二酸對苯二甲酸丁二醇酯 (PBAT)
  • 聚丁二酸丁二醇酯 (PBS)
  • PHA(聚羥基鏈烷酸酯)
  • 澱粉混合物
  • 其他的類型
  • 全球生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測
  • 包裝
  • 農業
  • 消費品
  • 其他的終端用戶

第7章 生物分解性塑膠市場各地區·各國分析

  • 全球生物分解性塑膠市場:各地區,實際成果與預測
  • 全球生物分解性塑膠市場:各國,實際成果與預測

第8章 亞太地區的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 亞太地區的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 地區資訊,COVID-19影響,市場資訊,背景資訊,政府的舉措,法規,法規機關,主要的協會,徵收的稅金,公司稅結構,投資,主要企業
  • 亞太地區的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 亞太地區的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第9章 中國的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 中國的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 中國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 中國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第10章 印度的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 印度的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 印度的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第11章 日本的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 日本的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 日本的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第12章 澳洲的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 澳洲的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 澳洲的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第13章 印尼的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 印尼的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 印尼的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第14章 韓國的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 韓國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 韓國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第15章 西歐的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 西歐的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 西歐的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 西歐的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第16章 英國的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 英國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 英國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第17章 德國的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 德國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 德國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第18章 法國的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 法國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 法國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第19章 東歐的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 東歐的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 東歐的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 東歐的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第20章 俄羅斯的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 俄羅斯的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 俄羅斯的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第21章 北美的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 北美的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 北美的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 北美的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第22章 美國的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 美國的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 美國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 美國的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第23章 南美的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 南美的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 南美的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 南美的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第24章 巴西的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 巴西的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 巴西的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第25章 中東的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 中東的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 中東的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 中東的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第26章 非洲的生物分解性塑膠市場

  • 非洲的生物分解性塑膠市場概要
  • 非洲的生物分解性塑膠市場:各類型,實際成果與預測
  • 非洲的生物分解性塑膠市場:各終端用戶,實際成果與預測

第27章 生物分解性塑膠市場競爭情形和企業簡介

  • 生物分解性塑膠市場競爭情形
  • 生物分解性塑膠市場企業簡介
    • BASF
    • NatureWorks
    • BIOME TECHNOLOGIES PLC.
    • Novamont S.p.A.
    • Mitsubishi

第28章 生物分解性塑膠市場上主要合併和收購

第29章 生物分解性塑膠市場未來展望和潛在的分析

第30章 附錄

目錄
Product Code: h1579

“Biodegradable Plastics Global Market Report 2022” from The Business Research Company provides the strategists, marketers and senior management with the critical information they need to assess the global biodegradable plastics market.

This report focuses on biodegradable plastics market which is experiencing strong growth. The report gives a guide to the biodegradable plastics market which will be shaping and changing our lives over the next ten years and beyond, including the markets response to the challenge of the global pandemic.

Reasons to Purchase

  • Gain a truly global perspective with the most comprehensive report available on this market covering 12+ geographies.
  • Understand how the market is being affected by the coronavirus and how it is likely to emerge and grow as the impact of the virus abates.
  • Create regional and country strategies on the basis of local data and analysis.
  • Identify growth segments for investment.
  • Outperform competitors using forecast data and the drivers and trends shaping the market.
  • Understand customers based on the latest market research findings.
  • Benchmark performance against key competitors.
  • Utilize the relationships between key data sets for superior strategizing.
  • Suitable for supporting your internal and external presentations with reliable high quality data and analysis
  • Report will be updated with the latest data and delivered to you within 3-5 working days of order.

Where is the largest and fastest growing market for the biodegradable plastics? How does the market relate to the overall economy, demography and other similar markets? What forces will shape the market going forward? “The Biodegradable Plastics market global report” from The Business Research Company answers all these questions and many more.

The report covers market characteristics, size and growth, segmentation, regional and country breakdowns, competitive landscape, market shares, trends and strategies for this market. It traces the market's historic and forecast market growth by geography. It places the market within the context of the wider biodegradable plastics market, and compares it with other markets.

  • The market characteristics section of the report defines and explains the market.
  • The market size section gives the market size ($b) covering both the historic growth of the market, the influence of the COVID-19 virus and forecasting its growth.
  • Market segmentations break down market into sub markets.
  • The regional and country breakdowns section gives an analysis of the market in each geography and the size of the market by geography and compares their historic and forecast growth. It covers the growth trajectory of COVID-19 for all regions, key developed countries and major emerging markets.
  • Competitive landscape gives a description of the competitive nature of the market, market shares, and a description of the leading companies. Key financial deals which have shaped the market in recent years are identified.
  • The trends and strategies section analyses the shape of the market as it emerges from the crisis and suggests how companies can grow as the market recovers.
  • The biodegradable plastics market section of the report gives context. It compares the biodegradable plastics market with other segments of the biodegradable plastics market by size and growth, historic and forecast. It analyses GDP proportion, expenditure per capita, biodegradable plastics indicators comparison.

Scope

Markets Covered:

  • 1) By Type: Polylactic Acid (PLA); Polybutylene Adipate Terephthalate (PBAT); Polybutylene Succinate (PBS); PHA (Polyhydroxyalkanoates); Starch Blends; Other Types
  • 2) By End User: Packaging; Agriculture; Consumer goods; Other End-users
  • Companies Mentioned: BASF; NatureWorks; BIOME TECHNOLOGIES PLC.; Novamont S.p.A.; Mitsubishi
  • Countries: Australia; Brazil; China; France; Germany; India; Indonesia; Japan; Russia; South Korea; UK; USA
  • Regions: Asia-Pacific; Western Europe; Eastern Europe; North America; South America; Middle East; Africa
  • Time series: Five years historic and ten years forecast.
  • Data: Ratios of market size and growth to related markets, GDP proportions, expenditure per capita,
  • Data segmentations: country and regional historic and forecast data, market share of competitors, market segments.
  • Sourcing and Referencing: Data and analysis throughout the report is sourced using end notes.

Executive Summary

Major players in the biodegradable plastics market are: BASF, NatureWorks, BIOME TECHNOLOGIES PLC., Novamont S.p.A., Mitsubishi, , Biome Bioplastics, Plantic, BIO-ON, Danimer Scientific, Novamont S.p.A, TORAY INDUSTRIES, INC, Kruger Inc., Total Corbion PLA, Perstorp, K.D. FEDDERSEN, UrthPact, LLC, Biotec Pvt. Ltd., BioGreen, CLONDALKIN GROUP, Plantic Technologies Limited , Amcor limited, and Mondi Group.

The global biodegradable plastics market is expected to grow from $3.74 billion in 2021 to $4.21 billion in 2022 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.6%. The market is expected to grow to $7.16 billion in 2026 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.2%.

The biodegradable plastics market consists of sales of biodegradable plastics by entities (organizations, proprietors, partnerships) that are used in the application of organic waste collection and diversion, food packaging, agricultural and horticultural sectors, and disposable tableware. Biodegradable plastics are obtained from petrochemicals that consist of biodegradable additives and are degraded by microorganisms into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass. These can be used in packing materials, injection-molded and others.

The main types of biodegradable plastics market are: polylactic acid (PLA), polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT), polybutylene succinate (PBS), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), starch blends and other types. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is a thermoplastic biopolymer and its cross-linking of chains gives rise to biodegradable plastic sheets that serve as the basis for the production of numerous non-polluting plastic products. Some of the main end users in the biodegradable plastics market include the packaging, agriculture, consumer goods, and other end-users.

North America was the largest region in the biodegradable plastics market in 2021. Asia Pacific is expected to be the fastest-growing region in the forecast period. The regions covered in the biodegradable plastics market report are Asia-Pacific, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa.

Growing concerns for the environment are expected to increase the growth of the biodegradable plastics market. The major growing concerns for the environment are plastics. The increase in the usage of plastics is a growing concern of the environment. In January 2021, according to the data published by the European environment agency, the COVID-19 pandemic had made changes in the consumption, waste, and production of plastics. A recent BCG survey involving 3,000 people across eight countries found that in the wake of the pandemic, people were now more concerned about addressing environmental challenges and are committed to changing their own behavior to advance sustainability. Nearly 40% of respondents said that they intend to adopt more sustainable behavior in the future. Therefore, growing concerns for the environment is expected to drive the biodegradable plastics market.

Product innovations are a key trend gaining popularity in the biodegradable plastics market. Many organizations are launching innovative products in the biodegradable plastics, which are cost-effective and sustainable in nature. For example, in July 2021, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) based in India had launched biodegradable packaging products that are manufactured from biodegradable plant-based food-grade materials. They are available in a water-resistant form and can be degraded in three months. These packaging bags are an ocean-safe alternative to single-use plastics, cost-effective and sustainable.

In January 2021, Novamont, a Italy-based biodegradable bioplastics manufacturer acquired BioBag group for an undisclosed amount. With this acquisition, Novamont's service capabilities marketing in the supply chain will be strengthened by BioBag's and distribution expertise and also to create long-lasting alliances with retailers and to enhance the separate organic waste collection and composting systems. BioBag group is a biodegradable bioplastics manufacturer based in Norway.

The countries covered in the Biodegradable Plastics market report are: Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, UK, USA.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

2. Biodegradable Plastics Market Characteristics

3. Biodegradable Plastics Market Trends And Strategies

4. Impact Of COVID-19 On Biodegradable Plastics

5. Biodegradable Plastics Market Size And Growth

  • 5.1. Global Biodegradable Plastics Historic Market, 2016-2021, $ Billion
    • 5.1.1. Drivers Of The Market
    • 5.1.2. Restraints On The Market
  • 5.2. Global Biodegradable Plastics Forecast Market, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
    • 5.2.1. Drivers Of The Market
    • 5.2.2. Restraints On the Market

6. Biodegradable Plastics Market Segmentation

  • 6.1. Global Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • Polylactic Acid (PLA)
  • Polybutylene Adipate Terephthalate (PBAT)
  • Polybutylene Succinate (PBS)
  • PHA (Polyhydroxyalkanoates)
  • Starch Blends
  • Other Types
  • 6.2. Global Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • Packaging
  • Agriculture
  • Consumer goods
  • Other End-users

7. Biodegradable Plastics Market Regional And Country Analysis

  • 7.1. Global Biodegradable Plastics Market, Split By Region, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 7.2. Global Biodegradable Plastics Market, Split By Country, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

8. Asia-Pacific Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 8.1. Asia-Pacific Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • Region Information, Impact Of COVID-19, Market Information, Background Information, Government Initiatives, Regulations, Regulatory Bodies, Major Associations, Taxes Levied, Corporate Tax Structure, Investments, Major Companies
  • 8.2. Asia-Pacific Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 8.3. Asia-Pacific Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

9. China Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 9.1. China Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • 9.2. China Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F,$ Billion
  • 9.3. China Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F,$ Billion

10. India Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 10.1. India Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 10.2. India Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

11. Japan Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 11.1. Japan Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 11.2. Japan Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

12. Australia Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 12.1. Australia Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 12.2. Australia Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

13. Indonesia Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 13.1. Indonesia Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 13.2. Indonesia Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

14. South Korea Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 14.1. South Korea Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 14.2. South Korea Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

15. Western Europe Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 15.1. Western Europe Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • 15.2. Western Europe Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 15.3. Western Europe Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

16. UK Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 16.1. UK Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 16.2. UK Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

17. Germany Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 17.1. Germany Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 17.2. Germany Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

18. France Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 18.1. France Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 18.2. France Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

19. Eastern Europe Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 19.1. Eastern Europe Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • 19.2. Eastern Europe Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 19.3. Eastern Europe Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

20. Russia Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 20.1. Russia Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 20.2. Russia Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

21. North America Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 21.1. North America Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • 21.2. North America Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 21.3. North America Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

22. USA Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 22.1. USA Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • 22.2. USA Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 22.3. USA Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

23. South America Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 23.1. South America Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • 23.2. South America Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 23.3. South America Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

24. Brazil Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 24.1. Brazil Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 24.2. Brazil Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

25. Middle East Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 25.1. Middle East Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • 25.2. Middle East Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 25.3. Middle East Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

26. Africa Biodegradable Plastics Market

  • 26.1. Africa Biodegradable Plastics Market Overview
  • 26.2. Africa Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By Type, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion
  • 26.3. Africa Biodegradable Plastics Market, Segmentation By End User, Historic and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, $ Billion

27. Biodegradable Plastics Market Competitive Landscape And Company Profiles

  • 27.1. Biodegradable Plastics Market Competitive Landscape
  • 27.2. Biodegradable Plastics Market Company Profiles
    • 27.2.1. BASF
      • 27.2.1.1. Overview
      • 27.2.1.2. Products and Services
      • 27.2.1.3. Strategy
      • 27.2.1.4. Financial Performance
    • 27.2.2. NatureWorks
      • 27.2.2.1. Overview
      • 27.2.2.2. Products and Services
      • 27.2.2.3. Strategy
      • 27.2.2.4. Financial Performance
    • 27.2.3. BIOME TECHNOLOGIES PLC.
      • 27.2.3.1. Overview
      • 27.2.3.2. Products and Services
      • 27.2.3.3. Strategy
      • 27.2.3.4. Financial Performance
    • 27.2.4. Novamont S.p.A.
      • 27.2.4.1. Overview
      • 27.2.4.2. Products and Services
      • 27.2.4.3. Strategy
      • 27.2.4.4. Financial Performance
    • 27.2.5. Mitsubishi
      • 27.2.5.1. Overview
      • 27.2.5.2. Products and Services
      • 27.2.5.3. Strategy
      • 27.2.5.4. Financial Performance

28. Key Mergers And Acquisitions In The Biodegradable Plastics Market

29. Biodegradable Plastics Market Future Outlook and Potential Analysis

30. Appendix

  • 30.1. Abbreviations
  • 30.2. Currencies
  • 30.3. Research Inquiries
  • 30.4. The Business Research Company
  • 30.5. Copyright And Disclaimer