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市場調查報告書

空氣品質管理報告:2018年

Air Quality Control Report 2018

出版商 StatPlan Energy Limited 商品編碼 602322
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 177 pages, 100 figures, 22 tables
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空氣品質管理報告:2018年 Air Quality Control Report 2018
出版日期: 2018年02月01日 內容資訊: 英文 177 pages, 100 figures, 22 tables
簡介

本報告提供全球AQCS (空氣品質管理系統) 市場相關調查,主要國家市場及技術的預測,11個國家的AQCS技術的普及率與預測,CCS (二氧化碳回收儲存) 技術,及AQCS供應商的競爭分析等彙整資料。

摘要整理

第1章 環境方程式

第2章 廢氣與其排放來源

第3章 HELE (高效率、低排放) 技術

第4章 其他主要空氣品質管理法

第5章 2次性AQCS (空氣品質管理系統) 、管末處理管理法

第6章 SO2-FGD (氧化硫磺-排煙脫硫設備),燃料氣體脫硫

第7章 NOx (氮氧化物) 削減,SCR (催化劑脫硝) & SNCR (無催化劑脫硝)

第8章 歐洲的主要的煤炭發電廠的SO2 & NOx 發送器

第9章 PM粒狀污染物

第9章 空氣污染物的排放 - 水銀

第10章 粉煤灰 - 石膏

第11章 酸雨

第12章 各國的廢氣簡介、未來預測

第13章 CCS (二氧化碳回收儲存)

第14章 碳市場、價格

第15章 AQCS (空氣品質管理系統)的銷售額

第16章 AQCS (空氣品質管理系統) 供應商

用語

調查手法

目錄

Market forecasts of AQCS in $ to 2022 for each country and technology.

The penetration of each AQCS technology is tabulated for the eleven countries which account for 80% of global emissions from 2000, with forecasts of penetration to 2020.

Air Quality has made extraordinary progress in the last two decades, but is it enough? Can this progress keep up with the ever rising demand for energy in the developing world? What will happen in 25 years?

Europe, the United States and Japan have set demanding emissions limits. China, the world's largest emitter, has exceeded these limits, so has Korea. After a slow start, India is now rising to its huge challenge. Indonesia is actively studying both countries to map its own path.

The AQCS technologies are analysed in detail, and co-benefits outlined.

CCS Carbon Capture and Storage has been a successful technology in industry for 30 years. The reasons and economics are analysed and application for the power sector is analysed.

The EU ETS and UN CDM carbon markets - their structure and failures.

Competitive analysis of AQCS vendors.

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • HELE
  • Secondary air control - AQCS - Air Quality Controls Systems
  • Penetration of AQCS technologies in power sector in leading countries, 2015
  • Co-benefits
  • Control technology emission reduction effect on all technologies
  • SO2 reduction - FGD
  • NOx reduction, LNB, SCR & SNCR
  • PM Particulate matter
  • Mercury
  • Fly ash - gypsum
  • Acid rain
  • CCS - Carbon capture and storage
  • AQCS vendors
  • Alstom
  • MHPS - Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems
  • Doosan Heavy Industries
  • Babcock & Wilcox
  • Ducon
  • MET Marsulex
  • Installed bases of global AQCS leaders
  • Chinese AQCS vendors

1 THE ENVIRONMENTAL EQUATION

  • Greenhouses gases (GHGs)
  • Air pollutants
  • Primary and secondary reductions in emissions

2 THE EMISSIONS AND THEIR SOURCES

  • Focus of this report
  • Air pollutants
  • 1 Sulphur oxides - SOx
  • 2 Nitrogen oxides - NOx
  • 3 Particulate matter - PM
  • Sources of pollution
  • Stationary and mobile man-made sources of emissions
  • Stationary sources (man-made)
  • Mobile sources (man-made)
  • Natural stationary sources
  • Causes of pollution

3 HELE TECHNOLOGY

  • Supercritical technology
  • What is critical pressure - the three stages?
  • Definitions of pressure - Subcritical - Supercritical - Ultra-supercritical
  • Trend to supercritical and ultra-supercritical power plants
  • Development of supercritical technology
  • SC financing regulations
  • Fluidised bed combustion
  • Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants
  • The materials question
  • Penetration of HELE technology
  • China
  • United States
  • India
  • EU
  • Germany
  • Poland
  • Russia
  • Japan
  • South Africa
  • Australia
  • South Korea

4 OTHER PRIMARY AIR QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES

  • Supply side measures to reduce man made emissions
  • Improved efficiency in energy use
  • Appliance efficiency
  • Demand response
  • Alternative energy sources - Renewables instead of hydrocarbons
  • Use of low sulphur coal, or with lower volatile matter
  • Low-NOx burners (LNB)

5 SECONDARY AQCS, END-OF-PIPE CONTROL MEASURES

  • Penetration of AQCS technologies in leading countries
  • Average cost

6 SO2 - FGD, FLUE GAS DESULPHURISATION

  • Sulphur dioxide - SO2
  • FGD processes
  • Wet scrubbers
  • Co-benefits of wet FGD
  • Seawater scrubber
  • Lime spray dryer (LSD)
  • Dry scrubbers
  • Co-benefits of dry FGD
  • Furnace or dry sorbent injection (DSI)
  • Co-benefits of DSI
  • Alternative technologies for FGD
  • Wet versus Dry
  • Upgrades to existing wet FGD systems
  • FGD penetration
  • Legislation for FGD in Europe
  • Legislation for FGD in the USA
  • FGD wastewater
  • The history of FGD
  • Economics of FGD
  • Major FGD players
  • FGD demand

7 NOx REDUCTION, SCR & SNCR

  • Nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
  • Primary - Combustion controls
  • LNB
  • OFA
  • FGR
  • Co-benefits of combustion NOx controls
  • Secondary - Post-Combustion NOx Controls
  • Reburning
  • SCR
  • SNCR
  • Hybrid NOx controls
  • Legislation and penetration of LNB and SCR
  • United States
  • China
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • India

8 EUROPE'S MAJOR COAL PLANT EMITTERS OF SO2 & NOx

  • Europe and AQCS

9 PM PARTICULATE MATTER

  • What is particulate matter?
  • Fly ash
  • PM emission standards
  • Primary measures of PM reduction
  • Secondary measures of PM reduction
  • ESP electrostatic precipitators
  • Wet electrostatic precipitators
  • Advantages of ESPs:
  • Disadvantages:
  • ESP penetration
  • ESP manufacturers
  • Cyclones dust collectors (CYC)
  • Advantages of cyclones:
  • Disadvantages:
  • Fabric filters/Baghouses
  • Filter cake
  • HED High efficiency dedusters
  • Wet scrubbers
  • Advantages of wet scrubbers
  • Disadvantages
  • Hybrid technology
  • Co-benefits of PM controls
  • Industrial AQCS applications
  • Some industrial dedusting systems
  • Biomass and coal dedusting
  • Cement, clinker cooler and pre-heater dedusting
  • Pyrolysis, incineration and gasification
  • Glass and ceramic furnaces

9 HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS- MERCURY

  • Mercury emissions
  • Activated carbon injection (ACI)
  • Halogen addition
  • Co-benefit methods for mercury capture

10. FLY ASH - GYPSUM

  • Co-firing with biomass
  • Gypsum

11. ACID RAIN

  • Forms of acid deposition
  • Wet deposition
  • Dry deposition

12. NATIONAL EMISSIONS PROFILES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

  • United States
  • The power sector
  • The industrial sector
  • European Union
  • The power sector
  • The industrial sector
  • The transport sector
  • China
  • The outlook for air quality to 2040
  • The industrial sector
  • The transport sector
  • The buildings sector
  • India
  • The power sector
  • The industry sector
  • The transport sector
  • The buildings sector
  • Southeast Asia ASEAN
  • The power sector
  • The industry sector
  • The transport policies
  • The buildings sector
  • National profiles of Southeast Asia
  • Cambodia
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Philippines
  • Thailand
  • Viet Nam
  • Africa
  • The power sector
  • The industry sector
  • The transport sector
  • The buildings sector

13. CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE

  • Carbon abatement
  • Capture
  • Pre-combustion capture
  • Post-combustion capture
  • Oxy-fuel combustion systems
  • Transport
  • Storage
  • Clusters
  • Cost of CCS
  • Industry experience
  • Carbon capture milestones
  • Natural gas processing
  • Fertiliser production
  • Hydrogen production
  • Coal gasification
  • Iron and steel making
  • Ethanol production
  • Primary recovery
  • Secondary recovery
  • Enhanced, or tertiary recovery
  • Thermally enhanced oil recovery TEOR
  • Chemical injection
  • Gas injection, CO2-EOR
  • Liquid carbon dioxide superfluids
  • Microbial treatment
  • Next generation CO2 EOR
  • Cost of EOR
  • Japanese EOR

14. THE CARBON MARKET AND PRICING

  • Two main types of carbon pricing; emissions trading systems (ETS) and carbon taxes.
  • EU ETS
  • Features of EU ETS phase 3
  • Outcomes of the EU ETS
  • Countries with the greatest reduction in carbon emissions

15. AQCS SALES

16. AQCS VENDORS

  • Alstom
  • MHPS - Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems
  • Doosan Heavy Industries
  • Babcock & Wilcox
  • Ducon
  • MET Marsulex
  • Chinese AQCS vendors
  • Fujian Longking Co Ltd
  • Zhejiang Feida MHPS High Efficiency Flue Gas Cleaning System Engineering Co Ltd (FMH)
  • Beijing Guodian
  • Wuhan Kaidi Electric Power Environmental Protection Co Ltd
  • China Boqi

GLOSSARY

METHODOLOGY

  • Penetration of AQCS
  • AQCS Technologies
  • Countries

Figures

  • Figure 1: The greenhouse effect - natural and human enhanced
  • Figure 2: Beijing after rain and on a day with smog
  • Figure 3: Possible reductions in GHG emissions by 2050
  • Figure 4: Mapping air pollution from sources to impacts
  • Figure 5: Selected primary air pollutants and their sources
  • Figure 6: Energy-related SO2 emissions by region and sector, 2015
  • Figure 7: Energy-related NOx emissions by region and sector, 2015
  • Figure 8: Energy-related PM2.5 emissions by region and sector, 2015
  • Figure 9: Total coal-fired power plant capacity by age and performance
  • Figure 10: Annual installed capacity of global coal fired plant capacity
  • Figure 11: China, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 12: United States, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 13: India, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 14: EU coal-fired fleet, by age
  • Figure 15: Germany, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 16: Poland, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 17: Russia, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 18: Transition of Japanese energy generation mix after the Fukushima disaster)
  • Figure 19: Japan, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 20: South Africa, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 21: Australia, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 22: South Korea, Profile of operating fleet of coal-fired power plants
  • Figure 23: Main AQCS technologies
  • Figure 24: Coal-fired power plant flue gas 'Treatment Train'
  • Figure 25: India Is Overtaking China as the World's Largest Emitter of Anthropogenic Sulphur Dioxide
  • Figure 26: The most common FGD technologies
  • Figure 27: Sub-divisions of FGD processes which included other pollutants such as NOx
  • Figure 28: Wet flue gas desulphurisation
  • Figure 29: Wet flue gas desulphurisation
  • Figure 30: SO2 air quality in the United States, 1980 to 2014
  • Figure 31: The growth of FGD in GW capacity from 1930 to 2020
  • Figure 32: FGD plants built in the US, 1969-1999
  • Figure 33: Cumulative capacity of FGD on coal-fired power plants, 1972-2005
  • Figure 34 : FGD prices in $000 per MW in the USA from
  • Figure 35: Low NOx burners with OFA
  • Figure 36: Overfire air
  • Figure 37: Fuel reburning
  • Figure 38: SCR Selective catalytic reduction
  • Figure 39: SNCR Selective con-catalytic reduction
  • Figure 40: The history of NOx regulation in Japan
  • Figure 41: Comparison of Tokyo environment in 1970 and today.
  • Figure 42: Utility shares of Europe's major emitting power stations
  • Figure 43: Alternative technologies for removing particulate matter
  • Figure 44: A typical ESP
  • Figure 45: A fabric filter or bag house
  • Figure 46: Biomass and coal dedusting
  • Figure 47: Clinker cooler and pre-heater dedusting
  • Figure 48: Pyrolysis, incineration and gasification
  • Figure 49: Glass and ceramic furnaces
  • Figure 50: US gypsum use in gypsum board
  • Figure 51: Cement production, wastes and byproducts, and the specific amount of wastes and byproducts used in cement production
  • Figure 52: Acid rain pathway
  • Figure 53: Measuring acid rain
  • Figure 54: Coal power capacity equipped with flue-gas desulphurisation and related SO2 emissions in the United States
  • Figure 55: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in the United States in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 56: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in the United States in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 57: Emissions by air pollutant and by energy sector in the EU in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 58: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in the EU in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 59: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in the EU in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 60: Emissions limits for selected air pollutants in road transport in the EU
  • Figure 61: Emissions by air pollutant and by energy sector in China in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 62: Coal power capacity equipped with flue-gas desulphurisation and related SO2 emissions in China
  • Figure 63: Change in electricity generation and air pollutant emissions in China in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 64: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in China in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 65: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in China in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 66: Energy demand in buildings and related pollutant emissions by fuel in China in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 67: Emissions by air pollutant and by energy sector in India in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 68: Change in electricity generation and air pollutant emissions in India in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 69: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in India in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 70: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in India in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 71: Energy demand in buildings and related pollutant emissions by fuel in India in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 72: Emissions by air pollutant and energy sector in Southeast Asia in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 73: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in Southeast Asia in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 74: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in Southeast Asia in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 75: Energy demand in buildings and related pollutant emissions by fuel in Southeast Asia in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 76: Emissions by pollutant and by energy sector in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 77: SO2 emissions from the power sector in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 78: Air pollutant emissions and energy mix in the industry and transformation sector in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 79: Air pollutant emissions by transport type in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 80: Energy demand in buildings and related pollutant emissions by fuel in Africa in the New Policies Scenario
  • Figure 81: Main Carbon Capture & Storage Industry Divisions
  • Figure 82: A pre-combustion capture system
  • Figure 83: Post combustion scrubbing technology
  • Figure 84: An oxy-fuel system
  • Figure 85: Diagram showing how CO2 is stored underground
  • Figure 86: Major CCS clusters
  • Figure 87: A CO2 transport network; a capture cluster, capture/collection hub and storage hub
  • Figure 88: Enhanced recovery
  • Figure 89: Gas flow from CO2 source to capture and injection facilities
  • Figure 90: Aerial photo of the CO2 capture and injection facilities
  • Figure 91: Map of existing, emerging and potential carbon pricing instruments (ETS and tax)
  • Figure 92: EU ETS emissions by main activity type in 2016
  • Figure 93: The evolution of the EU carbon price
  • Figure 94: EU coal plants
  • Figure 95: Annual sales of AQCS equipment in real (2018) and nominal $
  • Figure 96: Total AQCS sales in 2018 in $ billion by country, 2018
  • Figure 97: Historical background of Alstom since 1920
  • Figure 98: Alstom as No 1 supplier
  • Figure 99: Global AQCS base of MHPS
  • Figure 100: Babcock & Wilcox penstocks for the Hoover Dam

Tables

  • Table 1: Penetration of AQCS technologies in power sector in leading countries, 2015
  • Table 2: Control technology emission reduction effect on all technologies
  • Table 3: Average costs per MW, efficiency and installation time in the US for AQCS technologies
  • Table 4: FGD penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2000 to 2020
  • Table 5: FGD penetration in industrial grate boilers by major country, 2005 to 2010
  • Table 6: Market shares for FGD in the United States
  • Table 7: SCR and LNB penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2005 to 2020
  • Table 8: LNB penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2005 to 2020
  • Table 9: LNB and SCR penetration in gas generation in East Asia, 2005 to 2010
  • Table 10: Penetration of industrial grate boilers with WET in East Asia
  • Table 11: The 108 largest emitting power plants of SO2 and NOx in Europe
  • Table 12: ESP penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2000 to 2020
  • Table 13: HED penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2005 to 2020
  • Table 14: ESP penetration in industrial grate boilers by major country, 2005 to 2010
  • Table 15: Cyclone penetration in industrial grate boilers by major country, 2005 to 2010
  • Table 16: FF penetration in coal power generation by major country, 2000 to 2020
  • Table 17: Penetration of power generation and industrial grate boilers with HED in East Asia, 2005 to 2010
  • Table 18: Penetration of power generation and industrial grate boilers with WET in East Asia, 2005 to 2010
  • Table 19: Overview of co-benefit mercury removal in AQCS
  • Table 20: Total AQCS sales in 2018 in $ million by country, 2018 to 2022
  • Table 21: Alstom AQCS offerings.
  • Table 22: Installed bases of global AQCS leaders
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