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市場調查報告書

地區能源報告:地區冷氣和暖氣

District Energy Report Ed 1 2017 District Heating and Cooling

出版商 StatPlan Energy Limited 商品編碼 569154
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 237 Pages
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地區能源報告:地區冷氣和暖氣 District Energy Report Ed 1 2017 District Heating and Cooling
出版日期: 2017年10月23日內容資訊: 英文 237 Pages
簡介

本報告提供全球地區冷氣和暖氣系統的市場調查, 全球熱能的生產、消費趨勢,區域供熱系統結構,地區冷氣和暖氣的CAPEX成果,設備銷售額的預測,區域供熱網的零組件,計費&熱量計的各種類型、特徵、課題,地區冷氣系統的技術趨勢,主要地區、各國的趨勢等彙整資料。

摘要整理

第1章 熱部門

第2章 地區熱消費量、網路規模

第3章 區域供熱:銷售額、價格、匯率

第4章 區域供熱的CAPEX、設備銷售額

第5章 區域供熱系統結構:開放式/關閉型、直接/間接型

  • 優點及缺點

第6章 定義、單位

  • 地區冷氣和暖氣的電力、能源的單位
  • 電力
  • 能源
  • EFLH

第7章 區域供熱系統的技術世代

  • 第1代
  • 第2代
  • 第3代
  • 地區冷氣
  • 第4代
  • 未來狀況
  • 溫度等級

第8章 區域供熱網的零組件

  • 網路開發平台
  • 暖氣、溫水用4管線系統
  • 分站
  • 群組分站 (GS)
  • 建築等級分站 (BLS)
  • 單管式、二管式中央供暖系統
  • 單管式
  • 二管式
  • HIU油壓/熱接口單元
  • 熱交換器
  • 循環幫浦
  • 儲蓄器

第9章 計費和熱量計

  • 成本的佔有率
  • 各成本零組件的計算法
  • 大樓中央暖氣供應
  • 公寓等級的熱量計、暖氣成本分配器
  • 公寓等級的熱量計的技術課題
  • 水箱用單管式系統
  • 熱量電表
  • 熱量計的結構
  • 暖氣成本分配器 (HCA)
  • 儀表讀數
  • 中央暖氣供應

第10章 全球地區冷氣部門

第11章 地區冷氣系統的技術

  • 冷卻起源、發電廠房
  • 壓縮機冷卻器
  • 吸收式冷卻器
  • 自然冷卻
  • 熱能源儲存
  • 分散冷氣系統
  • 能源轉移站

第12章 獨立國協(CIS)各國的地區冷氣和暖氣

第13章 歐洲的地區冷氣和暖氣

第14章 北歐各國的地區冷氣和暖氣

第15章 波羅的海國家的區域供熱網

第16章 東歐的地區冷氣和暖氣

第17章 西歐的地區冷氣和暖氣

第18章 中國的地區冷氣和暖氣

第19章 韓國的地區冷氣和暖氣

第20章 日本的地區冷氣和暖氣

第21章 中東的地區冷氣

第22章 北美地區冷氣和暖氣

第23章 區域供熱製造商

第24章 主要供應商

  • Danfoss
  • Logstor
  • ADC Energy Systems
  • Grundfos
  • 新菱冷熱工業
  • Alfa Laval
  • Keppel DHCS
  • Perma-Pipe
  • Isoplus
  • Rehau
  • Mibec
  • Microflex
  • Reflex
  • Watts Water Technologies Inc
目錄

DH STATISTICS AND MARKETS

  • DISTRICT HEAT CONSUMPTION AND NETWORK LENGTH, 1990-2020
  • DISTRICT HEATING TURNOVER, PRICES AND EXCHANGE RATES, 2016-2021, $ and €
  • DISTRICT HEATING CAPEX, 2016
  • EQUIPMENT SALES, 2016-2021

DH TECHNOLOGY

  • THE FOUR GENERATIONS OF DISTRICT HEATING TECHNOLOGY - 1GDH TO 4GDH

District Heating has evolved through 3 generations of technology and the current networks are a combination of these in each country. DH systems are already evolving into the 4th generation, which combines new DH technology with renewables, distributed generation and two-way supply.

  • DH SYSTEM STRUCTURE - OPEN AND CLOSED, DIRECT AND INDIRECT
  • DH NETWORK COMPONENTS
  • BILLING AND HEAT METERS, MEASUREMENT AND CONSUMPTION ALLOCATION

The structure of network systems, the components and the regulating and billing methods vary by country. Modern consumption metering is fundamental to development, efficiency and capex.

DISTRICT COOLING

  • TECHNOLOGY OF DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEMS
  • NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS

NATIONAL DISTRICT HEAT AND DISTRICT COOLING PROFILES

CIS - Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan

The Russian DH networks are the world's largest and oldest, accounting for half the world's heat. With outdated technology, they are in critical need of investment and modernisation.

EUROPE

Nordics - Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Greenland

Western Europe - Austria, France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom

The Nordics and Germany are trailblazing developments of RE technology and growing networks.

Eastern Europe - Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia

Baltics - Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

The heirs of Soviet DH, some countries are investing and modernising DH, others are stagnating.

Turkey

A new geothermal DH market developing vigorously for residential and agricultural use.

ASIA

China, Korea, Japan

China rivals Russia in network size and leads the world in DH growth, drawing on the latest technol-ogy to modernise obsolete and run-down systems and to build new ones. Korea is a relative new-comer, smaller but vigorous. After some years of stagnation, Japan is growing and developing.

MIDDLE EAST

UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain

With temperatures of 40o C, GCC demand for District Cooling is expanding.

UNITED STATES

The first modern user of District Heating, the US networks stagnated for many years and many ceased operation. Some technology is still 1GDH steam, but both DH and DC have found a new lease of life, looked at European best practice and the markets are growing.

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1 THE HEAT SECTOR

  • District Heat utilities

2 DISTRICT HEAT CONSUMPTION AND NETWORK LENGTH

3 DISTRICT HEATING TURNOVER, PRICES AND EXCHANGE RATES

4 DISTRICT HEATING CAPEX AND EQUIPMENT SALES

5 DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE - OPEN AND CLOSED, DIRECT AND INDIRECT DH

  • The terminology of direct and indirect heating schemes
  • Disadvantages of an open scheme of District Heating connection
  • Specific problems of open schemes, which are common in Russia
  • Advantages of an open scheme of District Heating connection
  • Disadvantages of a direct scheme of District Heating connection
  • Closed and indirect schemes of District Heating network connection
  • Advantages of closed and indirect schemes of District Heating network connection
  • Disadvantages of closed and indirect schemes of District Heating network connection

6 DEFINITIONS AND UNITS

  • Units of Power and Energy used in District Heating and Cooling
  • POWER
  • ENERGY
  • HEAT
  • The equivalent full load hours (EFLH)

7 THE TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS - 1GDH TO 4GDH

  • 1st Generation District Heating - 1GDH
  • 2nd Generation District Heating - 2 GDH
  • 3rd Generation District Heating - 3 GDH
  • District Cooling
  • 4th Generation District Heating - 4 GDH
  • Future conditions
  • Temperature levels

8 DISTRICT HEAT NETWORK COMPONENTS

  • Network pipelines
  • 4-pipe system for heating and domestic hot water
  • Substations
  • Group substation (GS)
  • Building level substations (BLS
  • Single and two pipe central heating system
  • One-pipe system
  • Two-pipe system
  • HIU Hydraulic or Heat Interface Unit
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Circulation pump
  • Accumulator

9 BILLING AND HEAT METERS

  • Shares for basic and consumption based cost
  • Methods of calculation of each cost component
  • Building central heating
  • Apartment level meters or heat cost allocators
  • Technical issues for apartment level heat meters
  • Single pipe system for radiators
  • Heat metering
  • How a heat meter works
  • Heat Cost Allocators (HCA)
  • Meter reading
  • Central heating

10. THE GLOBAL DISTRICT COOLING SECTOR

11. TECHNOLOGY OF A DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM

  • A. Cooling Source and Generating Plant
  • Compressor chillers.
  • Absorption chillers.
  • Free cooling.
  • Thermal energy storage.
  • Cooling Distribution System
  • Energy Transfer Station

12. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN THE CIS

  • Thermostatic regulators
  • Constant flow regime
  • Steam versus hot water
  • The decline in heat production after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  • RUSSIA
  • Heat industry structure
  • Heat losses
  • Energy efficiency
  • Efficiency Law 2009
  • Heat market reform - the Heat Law of 2014
  • The Russian climate
  • The Russian District Heat Networks
  • Liberalisation and regulation
  • Tariffs
  • Centralisation versus decentralisation
  • Lack of investment
  • Moskovskaya Ob'edinennaya Energenticheskaya Kompaniya (Moscow Integrated Power Company, MIPC)
  • Moscow District Heating in brief
  • Heat metering
  • Metering legislation
  • Certification and type approval
  • Russian meter manufacturers
  • District Cooling
  • UKRAINE
  • Alternative heating sources
  • Structure and ownership
  • A typical heat producer in Ukraine
  • Tariffs
  • Connections
  • Heat metering
  • Temperature controls
  • Lack of investment
  • ZhKHs - Municipal management companies
  • Heat supply contracts
  • District Cooling
  • BELARUS
  • Tariffs
  • The heating season
  • The development of District Heating
  • Investment and reconstruction
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • KAZAKHSTAN
  • Privatisation
  • Tariffs
  • Heat losses
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling

13. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN EUROPE

  • District Heating
  • District Cooling

14. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES

  • District Heating
  • District Cooling in the Nordic countries
  • DENMARK
  • District Heating
  • District Heat structure
  • Copenhagen
  • Technical developments
  • Legislative framework
  • Heat metering
  • Rules for individual metering in Denmark
  • District Cooling
  • FINLAND
  • District Heating
  • District Heating structure
  • Helsinki
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • GREENLAND
  • District Heating
  • ICELAND
  • District Heating
  • Heat metering
  • NORWAY
  • District Heating
  • Oslo
  • Heat metering
  • SWEDEN
  • District Heating
  • Development of District Heating
  • Stockholm
  • Future development of District Heating in Sweden
  • Pricing
  • Heat metering
  • Residential metering
  • Commercial office metering
  • District cooling

15. DISTRICT HEATING NETWORKS IN THE BALTIC STATES

  • ESTONIA
  • District Heating
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • LATVIA
  • District Heating
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • LITHUANIA
  • District Heating
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling

16. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN EASTERN EUROPE

  • POLAND
  • District Heating
  • Heat consumers
  • Structure of the District Heating sector
  • DH Companies
  • Modernisation and investment
  • Heat production
  • Networks
  • Warsaw
  • Krakow
  • Tariffs
  • Climate
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • CZECH REPUBLIC
  • District Heating
  • Tariffs
  • Prague
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • HUNGARY
  • District Heating
  • Tariffs
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • ROMANIA
  • District Heating
  • Bucharest
  • Heat metering
  • Meter manufacturers
  • District Cooling
  • BULGARIA
  • District Heating
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • SLOVAKIA
  • District Heating
  • Tariffs
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • TURKEY
  • District Heating
  • District Cooling

17. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN WESTERN EUROPE

  • AUSTRIA
  • District Cooling
  • FRANCE
  • District Heating
  • District Heating network structure
  • Paris
  • Climate legislation for Paris
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • Paris
  • La Défense
  • GERMANY
  • District Heating
  • Berlin
  • Legislative support
  • Hamburg
  • Munich
  • Heat legislation
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • ITALY
  • District Heating
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • Switzerland
  • District Heating
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • UNITED KINGDOM
  • District Heating
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling

18. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN CHINA

  • District Heating
  • Northern urban heating (NUH)
  • Urban residential
  • Rural residential
  • District heat sector
  • Condition of existing buildings and District Heating networks
  • Climate
  • Chinese District Heating statistics
  • North China
  • Southern China
  • Network control
  • Heat metering
  • District Cooling
  • Players in the District Cooling Market
  • District Cooling utilities.
  • Potential demand for District Cooling in China

19. DISTRICT HEATNG AND COOLING IN KOREA

  • District Heating
  • Industry and the energy sector
  • District Heating and Cooling applications
  • Heat meters
  • District Cooling

20. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN JAPAN

  • The development of DHC in Japan
  • Government support for DHC

21. DISTRICT COOLING IN THE MIDDLE EAST

22. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN THE UNITED STATES

  • The rise and fall of District Heating in the United States
  • Legislative incentives for CHP
  • The use of steam in the United States
  • Current status of District Heating in the United States
  • St. Paul, Minnesota
  • Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  • District Cooling

23. DISTRICT HEAT PRODUCERS

24. LEADING DHC PLANT SUPPLIERS

  • Danfoss
  • Logstor
  • ADC Energy Systems
  • Grundfos
  • Shinryo Corporation
  • Alfa Laval
  • Keppel DHCS
  • Perma-Pipe
  • Isoplus
  • Rehau
  • Mibec
  • Microflex
  • Reflex
  • Watts Water Technologies Inc

Figures

  • Figure 1: Global heat production and consumption in PJ, 1990 to 2015
  • Figure 2: Heat production from 1990 to 2013 by major regions
  • Figure 3: Shares of heat production of the major producers, 1990 to 2013
  • Figure 4: Increase/drop of heat production by major heat user country 2000 on 1990
  • Figure 5: Global consumption of heat by end user groups
  • Figure 6: Russia DH prices compared with Western European countries
  • Figure 7: Exchange rates for the Russian rouble, Ukrainian hryvnia and Kazakh tenge, to US $
  • Figure 8: Exchange rates for the Russian rouble, the Ukrainian hryvnia and the Kazakh tenge, and the euro to the US $, 2013 to 2017
  • Figure 9: DH sales in MWh
  • Figure 10: DH sales in $ million value
  • Figure 11: District heating capex in 2016, in $ million.
  • Figure 12: Main components of a District Heating System
  • Figure 13: The principle of open District Heating connection.
  • Figure 14: The principle of direct District Heating connection
  • Figure 15: The principle of the closed and indirect District Heating connection /4, p. 26/. 2.5.1
  • Figure 16: 2nd generation DH pipes, U-turn supply and return pipe placed in the lower pipelines, and a domestic hot water supply and circulation wrapped together in the same insulation, in the upper pipeline.
  • Figure 17: Pipe support principle, including supports, guides, U-turns, compensators and fixing.
  • Figure 18: Temperature levels of the 4 generations of District Heating technology
  • Figure 19: The four generations of District Heating technology - 1GDH to 4GDH
  • Figure 20: The four generations of District Heating technology, further detail - 1GDH to 4GDH
  • Figure 21: Pipe laying for District Heating
  • Figure 22: Options for pipe materials
  • Figure 23: Four pipe system for heating and hot water
  • Figure 24: Network structures of traditional group substations as used in China and building level substations as used in Finland.
  • Figure 25: Countries with main practice for substations
  • Figure 26: One pipe system
  • Figure 27: Two pipe system
  • Figure 28: HIU schematic at apartment level
  • Figure 29: Plate and coil heat exchangers
  • Figure 30: Expansion volume in an accumulator
  • Figure 31: Space heat and hot water cost allocation
  • Figure 32: Schematic of a 50 storey tower block with riser pipe after heating
  • Figure 33: One pipe radiator system, with no control devices
  • Figure 34: Comparison of vertical connections for radiators with horizontal feeders
  • Figure 35: Components of a heat meter
  • Figure 36: The components of heat energy meter
  • Figure 37: Regional shares of District Cooling capacity, 2014
  • Figure 38: Components of District Cooling Systems
  • Figure 39: Compressor Chiller
  • Figure 40: Absorption Chiller
  • Figure 41: Schematic of Compressor Chiller and Absorption Chiller
  • Figure 42: Thermal Energy Storage in Raleigh, North Carolina, US
  • Figure 43: Schematic of District Cooling Distribution System
  • Figure 44: Two Separate Two-Pipe Networks
  • Figure 45: District heat supplied in the CIS, 1990 to 2021
  • Figure 46: The condition of a Russian pipeline
  • Figure 47: MIPCs' capacity factor in winter and summer months.
  • Figure 48: Reorganisation of the Moscow District Heating companies between 2004 to 2014
  • Figure 49: Methods for connecting to a DH network
  • Figure 50: Investment needs, additional costs and efficiency gains, by option
  • Figure 51: Path to a modern District Heating system in Belarus
  • Figure 52: District Heating supply in Europe, 2016
  • Figure 53: District Cooling Supply in Europe, GWh, 2014
  • Figure 54: DH Production by type of plant
  • Figure 55: DH Network in Copenhagen
  • Figure 56: The District Heating network in QAANAAQ, Greenland
  • Figure 57: Simplified diagram of the District Heating system in Reykjavik
  • Figure 58: Market shares of different heating sources in Sweden, 1955 to 2015
  • Figure 59: Stockholm District Cooling
  • Figure 60: District Cooling in Sweden, sales and network length
  • Figure 61: District heating's share of the residential; heating market
  • Figure 62: The largest District Heating system in the EU, Warsaw
  • Figure 63: The decline in the number of flats and in the number of persons using a District Heating system in Romania during the period 1992 to 2014.
  • Figure 64: Decline in number of localities served by a DH network between 1989 and 2013
  • Figure 65: A geothermal District Heating system flow diagram
  • Figure 66: District heating plants in Austria
  • Figure 67: Network map of CPCU with production plant
  • Figure 68: Network map of Climespace with production sites
  • Figure 69: Heat carriers used to heat new homes in Germany.
  • Figure 70: Cooling consumption in the UK in TWh, 2012 and 2025
  • Figure 71: Chinese residential building areas m2
  • Figure 72: Chinese commercial and industrial building area m2
  • Figure 73: Residential floor space and centralised heating are in China
  • Figure 74: Steam pipeline for heat supply in the cold with damaged thermal insulation
  • Figure 75: Distribution pipelines without any thermal insulation in the residential area
  • Figure 76: Residential buildings in Chaochangxiang, Urumchi with dilapidation and mildew
  • Figure 77: The 5 Chinese climate zones
  • Figure 78: Heat volumes in Chinese District Heating systems from different data sources, 1980-2010. Data sources: China statistical yearbook (NBSC, various years) and International Energy Agency (IEA, 2011)
  • Figure 79: Total pipe length and heated area of Chinese District Heating system, 1981-2012.
  • Figure 80: District heating (including both steam and hot water) supplied by CHPs, boilers
  • Figure 81: Network control method, China and Denmark
  • Figure 82: Schematic of levels of control from heat source, to GS to BLS
  • Figure 83: Comparison of Chinese and Finnish heat network chracteristics
  • Figure 84: Chinese heat billing compared with Denmark
  • Figure 85: Demonstration of heat metering/heat cost allocators retrofits in Hubei
  • Figure 86: The status of District Heating in Korea, 2015
  • Figure 87: Statistics of DH in Korea
  • Figure 88: Growth in number of buildings supplied with DC in Korea
  • Figure 89: The growth of DHC licensed districts and utilities, 1972 to 2015
  • Figure 90: DHC companies in Japan, 2008
  • Figure 91: Makuhari New City DHC Centre
  • Figure 92: District Heating and Cooling Supply Volume in TJ, 1972 to 2015
  • Figure 93: Selected other District Cooling systems in Japan
  • Figure 94: Yokohama Minato Mirai 21 District Cooling service area
  • Figure 95: Country shares of District Cooling in the GCC
  • Figure 96: Dubai, the highest DC penetration in the world
  • Figure 97: St Paul Downtown District Energy System
  • Figure 98: Annual increase in District Energy in North America
  • Figure 99: Largest 24 heat producers globally in TWh, 2015
  • Figure 100: Project Record for District Heating and Cooling systems in Japan
  • Figure 101: International District Cooling projects

Tables

  • Table 1: District Heat consumption by country in TJ, 1990 to 2020
  • Table 2: Trench length of District Heating transmission and distribution pipelines in km, 2010 to 2020
  • Table 3: District heat sales turnover in US$ million, 2000 to 2021
  • Table 4: District heat sales turnover in € million, 2000 to 2021
  • Table 5: Global sales of equipment for District Heating, $ million
  • Table 6: Implemented and on-going District Cooling projects in China
  • Table 7: GCC District Cooling market estimate in 2011
  • Table 8: GCC District Cooling market estimate in 2015
  • Table 9: Major DC Developers in the GCC
  • Table 10: Selected District Cooling systems in North America
  • Table 11: Largest heat producers globally in TWh, 2008 to 2015
  • Table 12: Largest heat producers globally by country of origin, 2009 to 2015
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