表紙
市場調查報告書
商品編碼
1024852

鐵塔和電線桿:2021 年(第 9 版)

Towers and Poles Report Ed 9 2021

出版日期: | 出版商: StatPlan Energy Limited | 英文 271 Pages, 43 Figures, 57 Illustrations, 165 Tables | 訂單完成後即時交付

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  • 簡介
  • 目錄
簡介

鐵塔和電線桿用於輸配電、電信、路燈/停車場照明等,2019 年將銷售 415,000 座鐵塔和 6300 萬根電線桿。我做到了。但是,在 2020 年,由於 Covid-19 的影響,每種產品的銷售額都下降了。

本報告調查了鐵塔和電線桿,包括市場規模和預測、按類型/材料/長度進行的市場分析、對特定國家/地區的電線桿安裝基礎和需求的評論、Covid-19-Pandemic 它提供了影響等信息公司名稱、競爭形勢和主要公司簡介。

目錄

執行摘要

  • 支撐柱的定義和術語
  • 支持列函數和類型
  • 鐵塔和電線桿:交易總數
  • 世界電力傳輸和宏通信塔和單極子安裝基地
  • 全球配電和電話線、路燈、停車電線桿安裝基地
  • 支撐支柱市場
  • 鋼塔和電線桿年銷售額(2019-2026)
  • 按類型:2020 年銷售額支持支柱銷售額
  • 按地區劃分的收入
  • 電線桿類型的需求
  • Covid-19 的影響
  • 長期需求趨勢——新換代
  • 價值鏈-保證金堆棧
  • 塔式
  • 單極增長
  • 塔和單極子的製造
  • 街道照明
  • 停車場路燈柱
  • 被動安全
  • 材料
  • 鋼和鋁
  • 混凝土
  • 複合

第一章鐵塔和電線桿概述

第 2 章電力/通信塔:安裝數量

  • 輸電塔和通信塔的發展
  • 傳輸電壓的增加及其對更換的影響

第 3 章電力/通信塔:單位銷售

  • 2020年銷售的傳輸和通信塔數量

第 4 章電力傳輸和通信的銷售

  • 實際銷售額與名義銷售額的比較

第5章電線桿、電話桿、路燈、停車場電線桿-安裝數量

  • 電線桿-電和電話
  • 路燈
  • 中央管理系統 (CMS)
  • 停車場
  • 通信小基站桿
  • 被動安全
  • 按功能劃分的已安裝電線桿數量
  • 按材料劃分的裝置數量:木材、混凝土、鋼材、複合材料

第 6 章電線桿、電線桿、路燈、停車桿-銷售

  • 對電線桿的需求

第 7 章銷售的電線桿數量

  • 電線桿按長度銷售:小於 40 英尺(12m)、40-70 英尺(12-21m)、大於 70 英尺(21m)
  • 電線桿銷售材料:木材、鋼材、混凝土、複合材料
  • 按地區銷售的電線桿數量(2019-2026)

第 8 章標稱電線桿銷售

  • 實際銷售額和名義銷售額的比較
  • 名義銷售額
  • 電線桿按長度銷售:小於 40 英尺(12m)、40-70 英尺(12-21m)、大於 70 英尺(21m)
  • 電線桿銷售材料:木材、鋼材、混凝土、複合材料
  • 按地區銷售的電線桿數量(2019-2026)

第 9 章 COVID-19 對鐵塔和電線桿市場和行業的影響

  • 政府、媒體、電力公司和供應行業之間的不匹配
    • 大流行的影響
    • 市場影響:供需兩方面
    • 北美
    • 歐洲
    • 中國
    • 印度
    • 巴基斯坦
    • 南美洲

第10章鐵塔和電線桿的長期需求週期

  • 輸配電網絡、電信和路燈的增長
    • 替換為新安裝

第 11 章配電-單極子和塔式

  • 美國
    • 歐洲
    • 荷蘭
  • 斯堪的納維亞
    • 丹麥
    • 冰島
    • 芬蘭
    • 法國
    • 德國
    • 瑞士
    • 英國
    • 意大利
  • 亞太地區
    • 中國
    • 日韓
    • 印度
  • 東盟
    • 蒙古
  • 太平洋
    • 澳大利亞和新西蘭
    • 拉丁美洲
    • 南非
  • 中東
    • 成本
    • 空間要求
    • 減少電磁場
    • 基金會

第12章塔式或塔式

  • 懸塔
  • 假陽具塔
  • 角塔
  • 滯留塔
  • 換位塔
  • 鋼塔安裝
  • 塔式設計元素

第十三章塔和單極子的使用壽命和維護

  • 使用壽命
  • 維護

第14章電線桿設計競賽

第15章電線桿國內市場:配電桿和電線桿

  • 美國
  • 電線桿的歷史
  • 其他電線桿材料
  • 歐洲
  • 奧地利
  • 塞浦路斯
  • 捷克共和國
  • 芬蘭
  • 法國
  • 德國
  • 希臘
  • 愛爾蘭
  • 荷蘭
  • 挪威
  • 西班牙
  • 瑞典
  • 瑞士
  • 英國
  • 俄羅斯
  • 亞太地區
  • 日本
  • 中國
  • 印度
  • 韓國
  • 新加坡和澳門
  • 澳大利亞
  • 中東
  • 沙特阿拉伯
  • 阿拉伯聯合酋長國
  • 阿曼
  • 非洲

第16章路燈

  • 世界路燈庫存

第17章停車場

  • 美國
  • 歐洲
  • 中國
  • 日本
  • 世界停車收入
  • 停車場路燈柱

第18章被動安全

  • 被動安全道路設備主要類別
  • 無源安全桿式
  • 安全材料
  • 易碎電線桿型
  • 分離桿和滑動底座桿
  • 減震桿
  • 高能量吸收 (HE)
  • 低能量吸收 (LE)
  • 非能量吸收 (NE)
  • 被動安全概念的由來
  • 歐盟的被動安全
  • 歐盟國內法規
  • 挪威
  • 芬蘭
  • 瑞典
  • 比利時
  • 荷蘭
  • 英國
  • 斯洛文尼亞
  • 美國

第19章電線桿材料和使用壽命:常規材料木材、鋼材、混凝土

  • 材料
  • 使用
  • 概述
  • 尺寸分類
  • H5 ~ H1
  • 1-5
  • 6-10
  • 材料
  • 木材防腐劑
  • 木材防腐劑污染浸出
  • 混凝土
  • 澆築混凝土柱
  • 複合玻璃纖維
  • 丟棄
  • 木質電線桿的使用壽命
  • 維護
  • 地線處理
  • 內部處理
  • 混凝土桿的使用壽命
  • 鋼棒的使用壽命
  • 複合桿的使用壽命

第20章複合桿

  • 簡介
  • 聯合技術和極地在美國的發展
  • 價格/成本
  • 安全係數
  • 用於製造過程的複合材料和材料
  • 纖維纏繞
  • 拉擠成型
  • 綜合測試
  • 斯堪的納維亞複合材料測試
  • 挪威 Statnet
  • 英國
  • 複合桿的優點
  • 複合材料和玻璃纖維維護
  • 複合材料和其他材料的使用壽命
  • 硬件更改
  • 模塊化桿

第21章電線桿類型

  • 其他設備
  • 接地棒
  • 保留支柱
  • 物理訪問
  • 施工分類

第22章柱子之間的距離

第23章共享電線桿的空間分配

  • 供應空間
  • 安全區空間
  • 交流空間
  • 典型通信電纜

第 24 章塔和電線桿製造商-鋼、木材、混凝土

  • 中國
  • 塔製造商
  • 電線桿
  • 印度
  • 鋼塔
  • 電線桿
  • 馬來西亞
  • 太平洋
  • 澳大利亞
  • 電線桿
  • 北美
  • 鋼塔
  • 電線桿
  • 南美洲
  • 巴西
  • 塔和電線桿
  • 歐洲
  • 荷蘭
  • 瑞典
  • 英國
  • 中東
  • 塔和電線桿
  • 非洲
  • 電線桿
  • 非洲製造商
  • 肯尼亞

第25章複合桿及五金製造商

  • 美國
  • 橫臂
  • 歐洲
  • 中東
  • 印度
  • 中國

第26章電路相位和導體

  • 單迴路
  • 雙迴路
  • 多個導體
  • 多次使□□用走廊的限制

第27章路權

  • 在其他領域多次使用

第28章鳥的危險

  • 問題範圍
  • 電死動態
  • 碰撞緩解和預防
  • 減輕和預防觸電

調查方法

  • 安裝基礎和需求
  • 需求週期模型
  • 塔和電線桿數量:按段
  • 創建輸電塔和配電桿數據庫
  • 電線桿
  • 路燈
  • 停車燈
  • 需求
  • 輸配電網絡、電信、路燈的增長
  • 全新安裝和更換

圖表

目錄

Transmission and Telecoms Towers and Monopoles Utility Poles, Street & Parking Lights.

415,000 lattice towers and 63 million utility poles were sold in 2019 for electricity transmission and distribution, telecoms, and street and car park lighting, each fall-ing in 2020 due to Covid-19.

The installed base and annual demand of the tower and pole fleet are analysed by:

  • Geography: World / 9 Regions / 217 Countries

End-user segments:

  • Electricity transmission lattice towers
  • Telecom lattice towers
  • Electricity transmission monopoles
  • Telecom macro
  • monopoles
  • Telecom small cell poles
  • Electricity distribution poles
  • Telephone poles
  • Street-light poles
  • Car park light poles
  • Total towers & poles
  • Material: Wood / Concrete / Steel / Composite
  • Pole length: ≥70' (21m) / 40'<70' (12-21m ) / <40' (12m )
  • Annual demand; Units and $ value from 2019 to 2026
  • Covid-19 - Review of impact of the pandemic, regional commentary, analysis of supply and demand.
  • National market commentary for Utility Poles- Market commentary on installed bases and de-mand for utility poles in selected countries, with information on numbers and type of pole.
  • Long term demand cycle The long term demand cycle is charted for new additions and replace-ments since 1900 and forecast to 2050.
  • The March of the Monopoles - a growing trend from lattice towers to monopoles is analysed with country reviews.
  • Street lighting - 323 million street and 29 million parking lights in a vigorous market driven by the conversion to high efficiency LEDs, urbanisation and passive safety.
  • Parking is an urban priority and escalating population density puts pressure on demand for space. A small market for lighting poles to date but growing..........
  • Materials are changing - wood remains popular, but growing demand for steel, concrete and composite poles is analysed.
  • Composite poles industry, market development and production technology, with profiles of the main pro-ducers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • Definitions and terms for supports
  • The functions and types of supporter.
  • All towers and poles, '000 units
  • Global installed base of lattice towers and monopoles for electricity transmission and macro telecoms
  • Global installed base utility poles for electricity distribution and telephone lines, streetlights and car par lights
  • The market for supporters
  • Lattice towers and poles annual sales, units and $ 2019 to 2026
  • Sales of supporters by $ value in 2020 by type
  • Revenue by region, $ billions
  • Demand for poles by pole type
  • The impact of Covid-19
  • Long term demand trend - New and Replacement
  • The value chain - the margin stack
  • Types of lattice tower
  • The growth of monopoles
  • Production and manufacturers of towers and monopoles
  • Streetlighting
  • Lighting poles in the parking sector
  • Passive Safety
  • Materials
  • Wood
  • Steel & aluminium
  • Concrete
  • Composite

1. OVERVIEW OF SUPPORTERS - TOWERS AND POLES

  • The different infrastructures in which towers and poles are used.
  • Lattice towers, large monopoles and utility poles - owners and users
    • Lattice towers - Transco and MNO
    • Lattice towers -transco towers installed base 10.0 million,
    • Transco monopoles - installed base 6.9 million
    • Telecoms communications macro towers - installed base 5.1 million macro cell stations and MNO lattice towers 1.6 million
    • MNO macro monopoles - installed base 1.1 million
    • Utility poles installed base - electricity distribution (disco) 944 million poles - landline telephone communications 397 million poles
    • Dedicated telecoms small cell poles - 256,000
    • Streetlights - installed base 323.3 million
    • Car park lights - installed base 29.3 million
    • The market for supporters

2. ELECTRICITY AND TELECOM LATTICE TOWERS - INSTALLED POPULATION

  • Development of transmission and telecom towers
  • The increase of transmission voltages and its impact on replacement

3. ELECTRICITY AND TELECOM LATTICE TOWERS - SALES IN UNITS

  • Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units, 2020
    • Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units, 2019-26

4. SALES OF TRANSMISSION AND TELECOM LATTICE TOWERS IN NOMINAL $ VALUE

  • The comparison of real and nominal value

5. ELECTRICITY, TELEPHONE, STREETLIGHT & CAR PARK POLES - INSTALLED POPULATION

  • Utility poles- electricity and telephone
  • Streetlights
  • Central management system (CMS)
  • Car parks
  • Telecoms small cell poles
  • Passive safety
  • Installed pole population by function
  • Installed population by material; wood, concrete, steel, composite

6. ELECTRICITY, TELEPHONE, STREETLIGHT & CAR PARK POLES - SALES IN UNITS & $ VALUE

  • Demand for poles

7. SALES OF POLES IN UNITS

  • Sales of poles by length; < 40' (12 m), 40-<70' (12-21 m), ≥70' (21 m)
  • Sales of poles by material; wood, steel, concrete, composite
  • Sales of poles in units by region, 2019-26

8. SALES OF POLES IN NOMINAL $ VALUE

  • The comparison of real and nominal value
  • Sales of Sales in nominal $
  • Sales of poles by length; < 40' (12 m), 40-<70' (12-21 m), ≥70' (21 m)
  • Sales of poles by material; wood, steel, concrete, composite
  • Sales of poles in nominal $ by region, 2019-26

9. THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE MARKET AND INDUSTRY FOR TOWERS AND POLES

  • The mismatch between government, the media, the electrical utilities and the supply industry
    • Impact of the pandemic
    • The impact on the market has two dimensions, supply and demand.
    • North America
    • Europe
    • China
    • India
    • Pakistan
    • South America

10. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLES FOR TOWERS AND POLES

  • Growth of electricity transmission and distribution line networks, telecoms and streetlighting
    • New installations and replacements

11. TRANSMISSION - MONOPOLES vs. LATTICE TOWERS

  • United States
    • Europe
    • Netherlands
  • Scandinavia
    • Denmark
    • Iceland
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Switzerland
    • United Kingdom
    • Italy
  • Asia Pacific
    • China
    • Japan and Korea
    • India
  • ASEAN
    • Mongolia
  • Pacific
    • Australia and New Zealand
    • Latin America
    • South Africa
  • Middle East
    • Cost
    • Space requirements
    • Reduction of the electromagnetic field
    • Foundations

12. TYPES OF TOWER OR PYLONS

  • Suspension tower
  • Tension towers
  • Angle suspension tower
  • Termination or dead-end towers, also called tension towers
  • Transposition towers
  • Tower Installation
    • 1. Build-up or piecemeal method.
    • 2. Section method
    • 3. Ground assembly method
    • 4. Helicopter method
  • Elements of lattice tower design

13. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES

  • Service Life
  • Maintenance
  • Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust
  • Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust
  • Phase 3 - Extensive Abrasive Rust
  • Phase 4 - Crash

14. COMPETITIONS FOR TRANSMISSION POLE DESIGN

15. NATIONAL MARKETS FOR UTILITY POLES - ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION AND TELEPHONE

  • United States
  • The history of utility poles
  • Other materials for utility poles
  • Europe
  • Austria
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Ireland
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • United Kingdom:
  • Russia
  • Asia Pacific
  • Japan
  • China
  • India
  • Korea
  • Singapore and Macau
  • Australia
  • Middle East
  • Saudi Arabia
  • UAE
  • Oman
  • Africa

16. STREETLIGHTING

  • The world stock of streetlights

17. PARKING

  • United States
  • Europe
  • China
  • Japan
  • Global parking revenues
  • Lighting poles in the parking sector

18. PASSIVE SAFETY

  • The main categories of passive safety road equipment
  • Passive safety pole types
  • Safe materials
  • Frangible pole types
  • Breakaway and slip-base poles
  • Impact-absorbing poles
  • High energy absorbing (HE):
  • Low Energy absorbing (LE)
  • Non Energy absorbing (NE)
  • The origins of the passive safety concept
  • Passive Safety in the EU
  • EU National regulations
  • Norway
  • Finland
  • Sweden
  • Belgium
  • Netherlands
  • United Kingdom
  • Slovenia
  • United States

19. UTILITY POLE MATERIALS AND SERVICE LIFE - TRADITIONAL MATERIALS WOOD, STEEL, CONCRETE

  • Materials
  • Use
  • Description
  • Size classification
  • H5 - H1
  • 1-5
  • 6-10
  • Materials
  • Wood
  • Wood preservatives
  • Pollution from wood preservatives - Leaching
  • Steel
  • Concrete
  • Spun and cast concrete poles
  • Composites- fibreglass
  • Disposal
  • Wood poles service life
  • Maintenance
  • Ground line Treatment
  • Internal Treatment
  • Concrete poles service life
  • Steel poles service life
  • Composite poles service life

20. COMPOSITE POLES

  • Introduction
  • Development of composite technology and poles in the US
  • Price/cost
  • Safety factor
  • Materials for composites and the manufacturing processes
  • Filament winding
  • Pultrusion
  • Testing composites
  • Scandinavian trials of composites
  • Statnett Norway
  • UK
  • Advantages of composite poles
  • Composite and fibreglass maintenance
  • Service life of composites and other materials
  • Hardware modifications
  • Modular Poles
  • 21.TYPES OF POLES
  • Other equipment
  • Grounding rod
  • Dead-end (anchor or termination) poles
  • Physical access
  • Construction Classifications

22. POLE SPAN

23. SPACE ALLOCATION ON JOINT USE UTILITY POLES

  • Supply Space
  • Safety Zone Space
  • Communications Space
  • Typical communications cables

24. MANUFACTURERS OF TOWERS AND POLES - STEEL, WOOD, CONCRETE

  • China
  • Lattice tower manufacturers
  • Poles
  • India
  • Towers
  • Poles
  • Malaysia
  • Pacific
  • Australia
  • Poles
  • North America
  • Lattice towers
  • Poles
  • South America
  • Brazil
  • Towers and poles
  • Europe
  • Netherlands
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • Middle East
  • Towers and poles
  • Africa
  • Poles
  • African manufacturers
  • Kenya

25. MANUFACTURERS OF COMPOSITE POLES AND HARDWARE

  • United States
  • Cross arms
  • Europe
  • Middle East
  • India
  • China

26. CIRCUIT PHASES AND CONDUCTORS

  • Single circuit
  • Double circuit
  • Multiple conductors
  • Restrictions on multiple use of corridors

27. RIGHTS OF WAY

  • Multiple use of ROWs

28. DANGER TO AND FROM BIRDS

  • Extent of the problem
  • The mechanics of an electrocution
  • Mitigation and prevention of collisions
  • Mitigation and prevention of electrocution

METHODOLOGY

  • The installed base and demand
  • The model of the demand cycle
  • Different segments of the tower and pole population
  • Creation of the databases of electricity transmission towers and distribution poles
  • Telephone poles
  • Streetlights
  • Car Parking lights
  • Demand
  • Growth of electricity transmission & distribution line networks, telecoms and streetlighting
  • New installations and replacements

Illustrations

  • Illustration 1: European countries installing new EHV monopoles
  • Illustration 2: Some new designs being installed in Europe
  • Illustration 3: New 400 kV monopole designs in the Netherlands
  • Illustration 4: New EHV poles in Scandinavia
  • Illustration 5: New 400 kV transmission monopoles in Denmark.
  • Illustration 6: Mobile lift maintenance
  • Illustration 7: Iceland new 220 kV transmission towers
  • Illustration 8: New 400 kV and 275 kV transmission monopoles in the United Kingdom.
  • Illustration 9: A camouflaged 400 kV transmission monopole in the United Kingdom
  • Illustration 10: Terna and 380 kV monopoles
  • Illustration 11: New 380 kV monopole in Dubai
  • Illustration 12: Reduction of electromagnetic fields and space requirements
  • Illustration 13: Economy of foundations
  • Illustration 14: Suspension tower, single steel pole
  • Illustration 15: Lattice steel suspension tower (L6 used in the United Kingdom)
  • Illustration 16: Installation of transmission tower by helicopter
  • Illustration 17: Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust
  • Illustration 18: Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust
  • Illustration 19: Phase 3 - Abrasive Rust
  • Illustration 20: Phase 3 - The tower falls
  • Illustration 21: The BOLD competition winner, 2018
  • Illustration 22: STRAW, winner of the Statnett competition, 2018
  • Illustration 23: Winner of the UK competition, 2011
  • Illustration 24: Pole design offered by National Grid
  • Illustration 25: The Land of Giants, Iceland, Choi & Shine
  • Illustration 26: Early poles in the United States
  • Illustration 27: The Detroit railroad concrete catenary structure
  • Illustration 28: Early use of granite telephone poles in Switzerland
  • Illustration 29: Utility pole in Japan
  • Illustration 30: A Stobie pole in Australia
  • Illustration 31: A mechanical parking structure
  • Illustration 32: 60 mph crash test with 114 mm post
  • Illustration 33: Slip-base poles
  • Illustration 34:Impact absorbing pole
  • Illustration 35: Wood joint use pole in the USA
  • Illustration 36: Decorative Wood light pole in the USA
  • Illustration 37: Decorative Wood light pole by Tehomet in Europe, a Valmont subsidiary
  • Illustration 38: Union Metal steel pole installation, 1927 and 2018
  • Illustration 39: A Stobie pole in Australia, electricity and streetlight
  • Illustration 40: Decay in a wood utility pole
  • Illustration 41: A nest of poles for shipment
  • Illustration 42: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on wood structures
  • Illustration 43: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on galvanized steel poles
  • Illustration 44: Single-circuit 138-kV line on weathering steel
  • Illustration 45: H-frame wood structure
  • Illustration 46: Poles for single phase line in Laos
  • Illustration 47: Tower for single circuit, three phase system (three conductors)
  • Illustration 48: Tower for double circuit, three phase system (six conductors)
  • Illustration 49: Tower for multiple circuits, three phase system (twelve conductors)
  • Illustration 50: Multiple lines, lattice towers and monopoles in same corridor
  • Illustration 51: A distribution line right of way
  • Illustration 52: A wetland-scrub/shrub-dominated community the first year after a mow.
  • Illustration 53: A grass-dominated community in an agricultural matrix the first year after a mow.
  • Illustration 54: Blue crane electrocuted in South Africa
  • Illustration 55: White storks in their nest on a utility pole in Vladeni in Romania
  • Illustration 56: Distribution pole with symmetric chevron (arrow) on top as bird exclusion device
  • Illustration 57: Dedicated nesting pole next to distribution pole with bird exclusion device

Figures

  • Figure 1: The global population of towers and poles in 2020 by primary user/owner
  • Figure 2: Lattice towers and poles annual sales, units and $ 2019 to 2026
  • Figure 3: Sales of supporters by $ value in 2020 by type
  • Figure 4: The global growth of transmission and telecoms towers from 1950 to 2020.
  • Figure 5: The evolution of transmission line voltage, the first introductions
  • Figure 6: Sales of lattice towers in real 2020 and nominal $
  • Figure 7: Road length and streetlights
  • Figure 8: Demand for poles by function, 2020
  • Figure 9: Demand for poles by pole length, 2020
  • Figure 10: Demand for poles by material, 2020
  • Figure 11: Sales of poles in real 2020 and nominal $
  • Figure 12: Installed base of poles and annual demand in million poles, 1900 to 2050
  • Figure 13: Demand for poles, new and replacement 1900 to 2050
  • Figure 14: New additions and replacements of poles with a 35-year service life, 1900 to 2040
  • Figure 15: The market for lattice towers and poles in the USA, $, 2017
  • Figure 16: Comparison of the footprint of a monopole versus a lattice tower.
  • Figure 17: Peak and Cage of a Transmission Tower
  • Figure 18: Cross Arm and Body of a Transmission Tower
  • Figure 19: 220-kV single-circuit LST
  • Figure 20: 500-kV single-circuit LST
  • Figure 21: 220-kV double-circuit LST
  • Figure 22: 500-kV double-circuit LST
  • Figure 23: The principle of exponential corrosion
  • Figure 24: Road length and streetlights
  • Figure 25: Stock of streetlights in the world 2018 to 2025
  • Figure 26: Comparison of the numbers of motor vehicles and available parking spaces in three of China's largest cities
  • Figure 27: Classification of parking as aces in Japan
  • Figure 28: HE, LE and NE passive safety poles performance in a collision
  • Figure 29: Percentage share of road deaths per road type (2007-2009 average) ranked by the percentage share of road deaths on a rural roads and motorways taken together
  • Figure 30: Outline of potential decay patterns
  • Figure 31: Space allocations on a joint utility pole
  • Figure 32: Supply space on a utility pole
  • Figure 33: Safety Zone Space on a utility pole
  • Figure 34: The Communications Space in a utility pole
  • Figure 35: An example of a single ROW corridor.
  • Figure 36: An example of parallel transmission ROW corridor
  • Figure 37: Typical European right of way cross section, self-supporting tower
  • Figure 38: Typical European right of way cross section, guyed tower
  • Figure 39: Right-of-way comparison for equivalent capacity of 765-kV and 345-kV lines
  • Figure 40: An example of a pole-mounted transformer
  • Figure 41: Installed base of poles and annual demand in million poles, 1900 to 2050
  • Figure 42 Demand for poles, new and replacement 1900 to 2050
  • Figure 43: New additions and replacements of poles with a 35 year service life, 1900 to 2040

Tables

  • Table 1: The functions and types of supporter.
  • Table 2: Sales in 2020 as a % of 2019 sales in units by region
  • Table 3: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by region, 2020
  • Table 4: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 5: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 6: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 7: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 8: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 9: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 10: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 11: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 12: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 13: Installed population of transmission and telecom lattice towers by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 14: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by region, 2020
  • Table 15: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 16: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 17: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 18: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 19: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 20: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 21: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 22: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 23: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 24: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 25: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by region, 2019-26
  • Table 26: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Europe, 2019-26
  • Table 27: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, CIS, 2019-26
  • Table 28: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Middle East, 2019-26
  • Table 29: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers units by country, North Africa, 2019-26
  • Table 30: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019-26
  • Table 31: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Asia, 2019-26
  • Table 32: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Pacific, 2019-26
  • Table 33: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, North America, 2019-26
  • Table 34: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, South America, 2019-26
  • Table 35: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in units by country, Central America, 2019-26
  • Table 36: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by region, 2019-26
  • Table 37: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Europe, 2019-26
  • Table 38: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, CIS, 2019-26
  • Table 39: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Middle East, 2019-26
  • Table 40: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, North Africa, 2019-26
  • Table 41: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019-26
  • Table 42: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Asia,
  • Table 43: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Pacific, 2019-26
  • Table 44: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, North America, 2019-26
  • Table 45: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, South America, 2019-26
  • Table 46: Sales of transmission and telecom lattice towers in nominal $ by country, Central America, 2019-26
  • Table 47: Installed population of poles in units by function and region, 2020
  • Table 48: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 49: Installed population of poles in units by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 50: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 51: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 52: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 53: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 54: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 55: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 56: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 57: Installed population of poles in units by function by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 58: Installed population of poles in units by function and region, 2020
  • Table 59: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 60: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 61: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 62: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 63: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 64: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 65: Installed population poles in units by function by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 66: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 67: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 68: Installed population of poles in units by material by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 69: Sales of poles in units by function and region, 2020
  • Table 70: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 71: Sales of poles in units by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 72: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 73: Sales of poles in units by function by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 74: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 75: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 76: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 77: Sales of poles in units by function by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 78: Sales of poles in units by function by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 79: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 80: Sales of poles in units by length and region, 2020
  • Table 81: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 82: Sales of poles in units by length by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 83: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 84: Sales of poles in units by length by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 85: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 86: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 87: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 88: Sales of poles in units by length by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 89: Sales of poles in units by length by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 90: Sales of poles in units by length by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 91: Sales of poles in units by material and region, 2020
  • Table 92: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 93: Sales of poles in units by material by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 94: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 95: Sales of poles in units by material by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 96: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 97: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 98: Sales of poles in units by function by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 99: Sales of poles in units by material by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 100: Sales of poles in units by material by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 101: Sales of poles in units by material by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 102: Sales of poles in units by region, 2019-26
  • Table 103: Sales of poles in units by country, Europe, 2019-26
  • Table 103: Sales of poles in units by country, CIS, 2019-26
  • Table 104: Sales of poles in units by country, Middle East, 2019-26
  • Table 105: Sales of poles in units by country, North Africa, 2019-26
  • Table 106: Sales of in units by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019-26
  • Table 107: Sales of poles in units by country, Asia, 2019-26
  • Table 108: Sales of poles in units by country, Pacific, 2019-26
  • Table 109: Sales of poles in units by country, North America, 2019-26
  • Table 110: Sales of poles in units by country, South America, 2019-26
  • Table 111: Sales of poles in units by country, Central America, 2019-26
  • Table 112: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function and region, 2020
  • Table 113: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 114: Sales of poles in units by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 115: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 116: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 117: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 118: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 119: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 120: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 121: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 122: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 123: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length and region, 2020
  • Table 124: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 125: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 126: Sales of poles in nominal $by length by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 127: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 128: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 129: Sales of poles in nominal $by length by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 130: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 131: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 132: Sales of poles in units by length by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 133: Sales of poles in nominal $ by length by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 134: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material and region, 2020
  • Table 135: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 136: Sales of poles in nominal $by material by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 137: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, Middle East, 2020
  • Table 138: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, North Africa, 2020
  • Table 139: Sales of poles in nominal $by material by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 140: Sales of poles in nominal $by material by country, Asia, 2020
  • Table 141: Sales of poles in nominal $ by function by country, Pacific, 2020
  • Table 142: Sales of poles in nominal $by material by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 143: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, South America, 2020
  • Table 144: Sales of poles in nominal $ by material by country, Central America, 2020
  • Table 145: Sales of poles in nominal $ by region, 2019-26
  • Table 146: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Europe, 2019-26
  • Table 147: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, CIS, 2019-26
  • Table 148: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Middle East, 2019-26
  • Table 149: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, North Africa, 2019-26
  • Table 150: Sales of in nominal $ by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019-26
  • Table 151: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Asia, 2019-26
  • Table 152: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Pacific, 2019-26
  • Table 153: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, North America, 2019-26
  • Table 154: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, South America, 2019-26
  • Table 155: Sales of poles in nominal $ by country, Central America, 2019-26
  • Table 157: Description and cost of repairs
  • Table 158: Road length and streetlights
  • Table 159: Installed stock of streetlights in the world 2018 to 2025
  • Table 160: Installed base of lighting poles in parking lots by major countries, 2020
  • Table 161: Installed base of lighting poles in parking lots in Europe, 2020
  • Table 162: Annual new and replacement sales of poles for parking lots
  • Table 158: Manufacturers of Towers, with production capacity
  • Table 164: Estimates of the annual number of collision victims with above ground transmission lines (excluding distribution lines) for three different countries.
  • Table 165: The size of large raptors