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市場調查報告書
商品編碼
1014533

變壓器(第 4 版:2021 年)

Transformers Report Ed 9 2021

出版日期: | 出版商: StatPlan Energy Limited | 英文 396 Pages, 96 Figures, 182 Tables | 訂單完成後即時交付

價格
  • 全貌
  • 簡介
  • 目錄
簡介

本報告調查了全球變壓器市場,並提供了市場概況、新型冠狀病毒感染(COVID-19)的影響分析、區域市場分析和詳細趨勢、價值鏈、供應鏈、價格趨勢等信息匯總。

目錄

執行摘要

第 1 章 電力和配電變壓器市場

第 2 章 Transformer Fleet 在世界範圍內的成長

第 3 章新型冠狀病毒感染 (COVID-19) 的影響

  • 中國新型冠狀病毒感染 (COVID-19) 大流行的起源
  • 新型冠狀病毒感染 (COVID-19) 在世界上引起的流向
  • 中國第一波,全球反應2020年一二季度
  • 對中國工業生產的影響
  • 大規模破壞
  • 電氣設備製造商:變壓器
    • 中國
    • 印度
  • 印度工業增長(與上年同月相比)
  • 混亂和切換
  • 配電變壓器
  • 對變壓器需求的影響
  • 短期和中期影響
  • 發電部門
  • 可再生能源
  • 輸配電
  • 工業自有變壓器
  • 變壓器銷售的區域趨勢

第 4 章變壓器類型:GSU:電力/配電/工業變壓器

  • 電源變壓器
  • 大型電力變壓器 (LPT)
  • 市場分類:按應用
  • 發電機升壓變壓器 (GSU)
  • 系統互連(interconnection)變壓器
  • 配電變壓器
  • 墊安裝配電變壓器
  • 極配電變壓器
  • 工業變壓器
  • 無變壓器TL逆變器

第 5 章低壓變壓器的背景資料

  • 交流電壓等級
  • 低電壓術語
  • 歐美電壓差低
  • 公用事業側配電網絡
  • 北美系統
  • 歐洲體系
  • 美國常用的6種變電站和工/商業變壓器
  • 北美工商業用戶三相四線連接低壓
  • LV 歐洲工業用戶
  • 商業建築
  • 美國LV項目示例
  • 工業領域
  • 美國工業市場
  • 住房
  • 如何使用多層建築和低壓變壓器
  • 小型建築的配電
  • 大型住宅和商業建築的配電
  • 大型建築,垂直供應系統(上升為主)。
  • Burj Kalifa Dubai
  • 一般說明

第 6 章北美變壓器市場

  • 轉運
  • 電力變壓器需求
  • 需求構成
  • 美國公用事業市場
  • 變壓器市場的驅動力
  • 公用事業投資
  • 製造審查:設施
  • 電源變壓器
  • 美國
  • 墨西哥

第 7 章歐洲變壓器市場

  • 公用事業網絡和工業中的變壓器電壓
  • 歐洲電網電壓差
  • 高效變壓器
  • 改變網絡狀況的分佈式智能電力變壓器
  • 變壓器市場的驅動力
  • MEPS 標準
  • 歐洲變壓器製造行業評論
  • 法國
  • 德國
  • 意大利
  • 西班牙
  • 瑞士
  • 英國
  • 土耳其

第 8 章獨聯體國家的變壓器市場

  • 俄羅斯
    • 轉運
    • 俄羅斯電力系統
    • 市場驅動力
    • 俄羅斯變壓器製造商
    • 烏克蘭變壓器製造商

第 9 章中東/非洲變壓器市場

  • 油價下跌和新型冠狀病毒感染 (COVID-19)
  • 伊朗
    • 轉運
    • 變壓器製造商
  • 沙特阿拉伯
  • 阿拉伯聯合酋長國

第 10 章亞太變壓器市場

  • 投資佔 GDP 的百分比
  • 中國
  • 日本
  • 印度
  • 印度尼西亞
  • 韓國
  • 台灣
  • 泰國

第 11 章拉丁美洲變壓器市場

  • 巴西
    • 轉運
    • 市場驅動力
    • 製造業概況

第 12 章 Transformer 趨勢

第 13 章光伏發電與□□無變壓器逆變器

  • 無變壓器逆變器
  • 高頻逆變器(HF)
  • 低頻逆變器(LF)
    • 歐洲 TL
    • 中文 TL
    • 美國 TL
    • 澳大利亞 TL
  • TL逆變器對配電變壓器市場的影響

第 14 章價值鏈:從材料到資本投資

  • 6 級價值鏈
  • 銷售渠道
  • 實用程序
  • 廠家直銷
  • 經銷商銷售
  • 行業
  • 原材料投入

第 15 章實用情況

第 16 章實用客戶分析

第 17 章以零售價和安裝成本銷售變壓器

第 18 章GSU/公用事業/工業電源/配電變壓器安裝容量、數量、平均每單位KVA配電變壓器

第 19 章網絡變壓器佈局

  • 轉換過程
  • 配電網絡配置:徑向、環路、網絡系統
  • 行業
  • 區域公用事業網絡實踐回顧:從中壓到低壓的鏈接
    • 北美
    • 日本
    • 歐洲
  • 變壓器類型
  • 液體介質變壓器
  • 乾式變壓器
  • 充氣變壓器
  • 電力變壓器的尺寸和容量演變
  • 離岸系統
  • 氣體到電線 GTW
  • 高壓輸電發展
  • 電力和配電變壓器的所有權
  • GSU 變壓器的所有權

第 20 章世代回顧

  • 世代類別
  • 中央一代
  • 獨立發電 (IPP) 和商業發電機
  • 自備電力生產商 (CPP)
  • 嵌入式或分佈式發電(DG 或 DER)
  • 隱藏生成器
  • 電費單
  • 功耗:按部門
  • 專屬電力生產商
    • 印度
    • 中國
    • 印度尼西亞
    • 日本
    • 撒哈拉以南非洲
    • 南非
    • 尼日利亞
    • 中東
  • 分佈式電源
  • 美國分佈式發電
  • 歐洲分佈式發電
  • 德國分佈式發電
    • 陸上風力發電
    • 海上風力發電
  • 意大利分佈式發電
  • 西班牙分佈式發電
  • 英國分佈式發電
  • 日本的分佈式發電
  • 巴西分佈式發電
  • 中國的分佈式發電

第 21 章配電網和分佈式發電滲透的託管功能

  • 過電壓
  • 過載和斷電問題
  • 電能質量問題
  • 保護問題
  • 解決方案
  • 網絡重構和強化
  • 無功功率控制
  • 使用公路分接開關 (OLTC) 進行電壓控制
  • 減少有功功率
  • 電池儲能技術 (BESS)
  • 成本
  • 結論

第 22 章單位容量配電變壓器

  • 歐洲主要市場
    • 法國
    • 德國
    • 愛爾蘭
    • 意大利
    • 荷蘭
    • 波蘭
    • 西班牙
    • 英國
  • 亞洲主要市場
    • 菲律賓
    • 印度
    • 印度尼西亞
    • 馬來西亞
    • 巴基斯坦
    • 泰國
    • 越南
  • 太平洋地區的主要市場
  • 澳大利亞
  • 新西蘭

第 23 章長期需求週期

  • 安裝容量
  • 裝機容量和需求
    • 中國因素
    • 供求關係

第 24 章變壓器發電機比:MVA和MW

第 25 章智能變壓器

  • 智能變壓器和智能電網
  • 智能變壓器的基本特性
  • 智能變壓器的基本技術要求
  • 智能變電站
  • 用於當前基礎設施的智能變壓器
  • 溶解氣體分析 (DGA)

第 26 章N+1標準,N+2和2N,冗餘和交換

  • 網絡故障
  • 變壓器故障
  • 工業可靠性
  • 冗餘級別
  • N+1 冗餘
  • N+2 冗餘
  • 2N 冗餘
  • 容錯
  • 2N + 1 冗餘
  • 網絡可靠性
  • N+1 和網絡
  • 可靠性標準 SAIFI 和 SAIDI
  • 電力傳輸
  • 大型電力變壓器 (LPT)
  • 變壓器/發電機比率和冗餘
  • 世代
  • 感染;感染
  • 分佈

第 27 章價格趨勢和變壓器價格趨勢

  • PPI:生產者價格指數
    • 美國
    • 歐盟
    • 中國
    • 日本
  • 影響變壓器製造成本和售價的因素
  • 製造成本
  • 售價
  • 材料成本
  • 核心電工鋼
  • 非晶鋼
  • 盤繞銅和鋁
  • 銅繞組的優點
  • 銅繞組的缺點
  • 鋁繞線的優點
  • 鋁繞組的缺點
  • 變壓器油
  • 產品價格波動
  • 變壓器需求、市場和行業趨勢
  • 產能和利用率

第 28 章 MEPS(最低能效標準)

  • MEPS(最低能效標準)
  • 美國
  • 效率監管
    • 加拿大
    • 巴西
    • 墨西哥
    • 歐盟
  • 歐洲標準 EN50588-1:2014 和 EU No548/2014
  • 澳大利亞/新西蘭
    • 以色列
    • 越南
    • 日本
    • 中國
    • 韓國
    • 印度
  • 效率標準摘要

第 29 章高效變壓器

  • 新技術開發:非晶鐵芯變壓器
  • AMT 市場
  • AMT 製造商
  • 非晶金屬帶製造商
  • 非晶金屬變壓器:AMT
    • 日本
    • 中國
    • 美國
    • 印度
    • 台灣
    • 其他
  • HTS:高溫超導變壓器

第 30 章變壓器生產能力

  • 按世界/地區劃分的製造能力
  • 入住率
  • 北美(美國、加拿大)
    • 日本
    • 歐洲
    • CIS
    • 墨西哥
    • 拉丁美洲(不包括墨西哥)
    • 中國
    • 印度
    • 韓國
    • 非洲
    • 南非

第 31 章供應鏈

  • 世界供應鏈的政治方面
  • 美國聯邦行政命令:電信
  • 日本的中國供應多元化計劃
  • 變壓器電源
  • 電氣系統設備
  • 美國LPT
  • 澳大利亞
  • 對市場的影響
  • 美國供應電力變壓器和LPT
  • 全球供應鏈
  • 變壓器零部件供應鏈
  • 武漢在全球供應鏈中的作用:新型冠狀病毒感染(COVID-19) 的影響
  • 變壓器供應鏈
  • 變壓器世界主要供應鏈
  • Reinhausen Machinenfabiken
  • Huaming/CZ
  • Hitachi ABB
  • Hyundai
  • Jin Li
  • SPX DETC
  • Brush
  • Crompton Greaves - CG Power
  • EHV bushings
  • Siemens
  • Trench
  • HSPHochspannungsgeräte GmbH
  • Hitachi ABB
  • GE - Alstom
  • Lapp, USA and Germany - Pfisterer
  • Seves Group, France
  • Aditya Birla Nuovo Ltd, India
  • China
  • Disruptions & switching
  • Distribution transformers
  • 中國
  • 混亂和切換
  • 配電變壓器

第 32 章具有全球市場份額的電力和配電變壓器

第 33 章物流

  • 中國到美國LPT物流業務
  • 變壓器安全運輸指南
    • 1. 變壓器設計
    • 2. 變壓器準備
    • 3. 變壓器故障或損壞
    • 4. 航次評估
    • 5. 傳輸執行
    • 6. 處理
    • 7. 安全保護
  • 衝擊記錄儀
  • 鐵路運輸
    • 北美
    • 歐洲
    • 非洲
    • 亞太地區
  • 公路運輸
  • 後輪驅動
  • 清關
  • 替代方案

第 34 章電氣化

  • 撒哈拉以南非洲
  • 亞洲
  • 中東/北非
  • 拉丁美洲
  • 歐洲
  • 獨聯體國家
  • 北美
  • 電氣化對電源行業的影響

調查方法

目錄

The 9th edition of the ‘StatPlan Transformer Report’ sizes demand for power and distribution transformers in 2019 and 2020 and forecasts sales to 2026, with expanded coverage ncluding LV transformers, before and after the meter.

  • HV, MV, LV
  • Central Generator Transformers
  • Distributed Generator Transformers
  • Power Network Transformers
  • Distribution Network Transformers
  • Industrial Transformers
  • Low Voltage Transformers
  • TL Inverters
  • The installed base of transformers in 2020 is analysed by these factors:
    • By region and 157 countries
    • Transformer type - Central GSU, Utility PT, Industrial PT, Distributed GSU, Network DT, Industrial DT, User LV
    • Power generation capacity MW
    • Transformer capacity MVA, number of transformers, kVA per transformer
    • Power and Distribution transformers analysed by ownership - Generator, Utility, Industry
    • Distribution MV and LV transformers analysed in units
  • Sales analysis in MVA and $ value of HV, MV and LV transformers, and units for MV distribution transformers and LV:
    • Regions (in North America, Europe, CIS, Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific, LAC) and country
    • HV (CGSU & Power Network), MV(DGSU & Distribution Network), LV (Network & User)
    • 2019 to 2026
  • Unit capacity in kVA is analysed for MV and LV transformers over 10/20 kVA in the regions of Europe and North America, and in selected countries in Europe and Asia.
  • Transformer sales compared at ex-factory cost and installed cost.
  • The impact of Covid 19 on the transformer industry, markets and Supply Chain.
  • The Supply Chains for power transformers and distribution transformers are outlined. Changes in the Chinese Supply Chain for transformers and other products are reviewed, with actions by the USD Federal government and Japan to relocate it to other producing countries.
  • The long term demand cycle is plotted - based on new build and historical replacement over decades.
  • Recent trends in generation, Central and Distributed .
  • Solar PV, step-up transformers and transformerless TL inverters.
  • Transformer: Generator capacity ratios MVA: MW for each transformer segment:
    • by regions and 157 countries
    • by type - Central GSU, Power Network, DG GSU, Distribution Network
  • Hosting capacity of distribution networks for renewables load to avoid overvoltage
  • Transformer production capacity is assessed in MVA by country and major manufacturer.
  • Customer list - utility landscape with Transcos and DSOs with summary customer analysis.
  • Distribution utilities analysed by numbers of distribution transformers by country
  • Price trends and factors affecting price are analysed; input costs for raw materials, labour, energy, production capacity and capacity utilisation. .
  • Market shares of the top 21 transformer manufacturers, country reviews and listings.
  • The transformation process - transformers are needed at any stage where the voltage changes up or down. Alternative stages and parameters are mapped as power is stepped up from generating plant to the high voltage transmission grid, down to medium voltage distribution grid and down to low voltage end user.
  • N-1, N-2, 2N, 2N+1 security and redundancy - Load factors range from 40% to > 100% within networks, reflecting levels of redundancy. Ignoring these fundamentals distorts estimates of transformer populations by large factors. In the various parts of a network different load factors are used to achieve a cost-effective security standard usually N-1 or N-2. What are N-1 or N-2 security standards, where are they applied and how do they affect the transformer population?
  • The Grid Edge is impacting on electricity systems; a changing generating mixture and increases in distributed power and renewables, the growth of DER and renewables, energy efficiency, electrification and digitalisation are in flux, and the distribution networks are not yet ready for the Grid Edge.
  • Smart Transformers - The aging power grid, increasing energy demands, distributed generation and the environment all point toward the need for a smart grid. Transformers serve as a hub for collection and distribution of energy and are key components of a smart grid.
  • MEPS - Minimum Energy Performance Standards and Energy Efficiency - Losses in transmission and distribution networks constitute the single biggest loss in any electricity system and 70% of these losses occur in the distribution network. Government regulations and programmes to reduce losses are outlined for different regions, with analysis of the amorphous distribution transformer industry and market uptake. MEPS standards for transformers are listed for countries which have enacted them and the market for high efficiency transformers analysed.
  • Logistics - Power transformers can be the size of a house and weigh 400-500 tons. They often have to be transported large distances over difficult terrain with poor roads, underpasses and overpasses and limited load weight limits. For LPTs, the parameters of the move must be incorporated at the design stage before manufacture. Logistics problems and solutions are discussed together with their implications for transformers.
  • Electrification - Electrification rates around the world vary considerably and these are charted, with their impact on electrical markets

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • The power transformer market
  • The impact of Covid
    • United States
    • Europe
    • CIS
    • Middle East
    • Asia Pacific
    • China
    • Japan
    • India
    • Korea
  • LAC
  • Long term demand cycle
  • Transformer: generator capacity ratios - MVA - MW
  • Categories of generation
  • Recent trends in Generation
  • Solar PV and Transformerless inverters
  • Renewables and hosting capacity
  • Distribution Utility Customer Base
  • Channels to market
  • Transformer types
  • Efficiency transformers
  • Smart transformers
  • Manufacturing capacity, global and by region
  • Price trend
  • Redundancy
  • Logistics
  • Electrification

1. THE POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER MARKET

2. THE GROWTH OF THE WORLD'S TRANSFORMER FLEET

3. THE IMPACT OF COVID

  • The origin of the Covid pandemic in China
  • Global waves of Covid
  • World reactions to the 1st wave in China, 1st and 2nd Quarters 2020
  • The impact on industrial production in China
  • Mass disruption
  • Electrical equipment manufacturers - transformers
    • China
    • India
  • Industrial growth in India as a % of month in previous year
  • Disruptions & switching
  • Distribution transformers
  • IMPACT ON TRANSFORMER DEMAND
  • Short to medium term impacts
  • Generation sector
  • Renewables
  • Transmission and Distribution
  • Industry owned transformers
  • Regional trend of transformer sales

4. TRANSFORMER TYPES - GSU, POWER AND DISTRIBUTION, INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMERS

  • Power transformers
  • Large Power Transformers (LPT)
  • Classification according to application
  • Generator step-up transformers (GSU)
  • System intertie (interconnecting) transformers.
  • Distribution Transformers
  • Pad mounted distribution transformers
  • Pole-mounted distribution transformers
  • Industrial transformers
  • Transformerless TL Inverters

5. LOW VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS BACKGROUND INFORMATION

  • AC Voltage levels
  • Low voltage terminology
  • Low voltage differences in Europe and the United States
  • Utility-side Distribution networks
  • North American system
  • European system
  • Six substation and industrial and commercial transformer types commonly used behind the meter in the United States
  • 3 phase 4 wire connection LV for North American industry and commercial users
  • European LV for industrial users
  • Commercial buildings
  • Examples of LV projects in the United states
  • Industry
  • USA industrial market
  • Residential buildings
  • Multi-storey buildings and the usage f LV transformers
  • Power distribution in small buildings
  • Power distribution in large residential or commercial buildings
  • Large buildings, the vertical supply system (rising mains).
  • Burj Kalifa Dubai,
  • Conclusion

6. NORTH AMERICAN TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • Transformer stock
  • Demand for power transformers
  • Composition of demand
  • The utility market in the United States
  • Transformer market drivers
  • Utility investment
  • Manufacturing industry review - facilities
  • Power transformers
  • USA plant
    • NAFTA suppliers in Canada and Mexico
    • Large power transformers (LPT)
    • Medium power transformers
    • Distribution transformers
    • MV distribution transformer
    • Liquid-immersed
    • Dry type
    • LV distribution transformers
    • Dry type
    • Amorphous core transformer manufacturers
    • Canadian manufacturers
    • Purchase considerations and delivery channels
    • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
    • CEE- Consortium for Energy Efficiency
    • MEPS standards
    • Canadian standards
  • MEXICO
    • Annual demand power and distribution transformers
    • Transformer stock
    • MEPS Standards
    • Transformer manufacturers

7. EUROPEAN TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • Transformer voltages in the utility network and industry
  • Voltage differences in the European distribution networks
    • Figure 25: Distribution voltages in Europe (EU 27)
  • High efficiency transformers
  • A changing network landscape - distributed power - smart transformers
  • Transformer market drivers
  • MEPS Standards
  • European transformer manufacturing industry review
  • FRANCE
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Market leaders - Alstom, Schneider, development in France
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • GERMANY
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Market leader - Siemens
    • SGB- SMIT
    • German energy transition and utility reorganisation
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • ITALY
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • SPAIN
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • SWITZERLAND
    • Transformer stock
    • ABB
  • UNITED KINGDOM
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • TURKEY
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Transformer manufacturers

8. CIS TRANSFORMER MARKET

  • RUSSIA
    • Transformer stock
    • The Russian power system
    • Market drivers
    • Russian transformer manufacturers
    • Ukrainian transformer manufacturer

9. MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • Oil price fall and Covid 19
  • IRAN
    • Transformer stock
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • SAUDI ARABIA
    • Transformer stock
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • UAE
    • Transformer stock
    • Transformer manufacturers

10. ASIA PACIFIC TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • Investment as a % of GDP
  • CHINA
    • Transformer stock
    • UHV AC and HVDC transformer markets in China
    • Chinese suppliers and foreign suppliers
    • UHV market participants
    • International firms in China's UHV Market
    • Power and distribution transformers ≥ 220 kV ≤ UHV
    • Power and distribution transformers ≤ 220 kV
    • Distribution transformers for MV and LV distribution
    • Market drivers
    • MEPS Standards
    • The structure of the Chinese power sector
    • Manufacturing industry review
  • JAPAN
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • MEPS Standards
    • Transformer manufacturers
    • Overseas production
  • INDIA
    • Transformer stock
    • Electrification
    • Captive generation
    • Market drivers
    • MEPS Standards
    • Manufacturing industry review
    • Capacity and utilisation
  • INDONESIA
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • KOREA
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • TAIWAN
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Transformer manufacturers
  • THAILAND
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Transformer manufacturers

11. LAC TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • BRAZIL
    • Transformer stock
    • Market drivers
    • Manufacturing industry review

12. RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSFORMER CAPACITY, CENTRAL AND DISTRIBUTED

13. SOLAR PV SOLAR PV AND TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTERS

  • Transformerless inverters
  • High Frequency Inverters (HF)
  • Low Frequency Inverters (LF)
    • TL in Europe
    • TL in China
    • TL in the USA
    • TL in Australia
  • Impact of TL inverters on the distribution transformer market

14. THE VALUE CHAIN - FROM MATERIALS TO CAPEX

  • The value chain at 6 levels
  • Sales channels
  • Utilities
  • Manufacturers' direct sales
  • Distributor sales
  • Industry
  • Raw material inputs

15. THE UTILITY LANDSCAPE

16. UTILITY CUSTOMER ANALYSIS

17. TRANSFORMER SALES AT RETAIL PRICE AND INSTALLED COST

18. GSU, UTILITY & INDUSTRIAL POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER INSTALLED CAPACITY, NUMBERS AND AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER KVA PER UNIT

19. NETWORK TRANSFORMER LAYOUT

  • THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS
    • Stage 1
    • Stage 2
    • Stage 3
    • Stage 4
    • Stage 5
  • Network configurations for distribution - Radial, Loop and Network systems
  • Industry
  • Review of regional utility network practices - The link from medium voltage to low voltage
    • North America
    • Japan
    • Europe
  • Types of transformer
  • Liquid dielectric transformers
  • Dry-type transformers
  • Gas filled transformers
  • Evolution of power transformers by size and capacity
  • Offshore systems
  • Gas to Wire GTW
  • The development of high voltage transmission
  • Ownership of power and distribution transformers
  • Ownership of GSU transformers

20. A REVIEW OF GENERATION

  • Categories of generation
  • Central generation
  • Independent power producers (IPPs) and merchant generators
  • Captive power producers (CPPs)
  • Embedded or distributed generators (DG or DER)
  • Hidden generators
  • The cost of electricity
  • The use of electricity by sector
  • CAPTIVE POWER PRODUCERS
    • India
    • China
    • Indonesia
    • Japan
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • South Africa
    • Nigeria
    • Middle East
  • DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
    • In terms of size
    • StatPlan Energy Research definition of distributed generation
      • DG in the USA
      • DG in Europe
      • DG in Germany
    • Wind power onshore
    • Wind power offshore
      • DG in Italy
      • DG in Spain
        • Figure 56: Installed capacity wind power in Spain, 1998 to 2019
      • DG in the UK
      • DG in Japan
      • DG in Brazil
      • DG in China
  • HIDDEN POWER < 1 MW

21. HOSTING CAPACITY OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS AND DG PENETRATION

  • Overvoltage
  • Overloading and power loss problems
  • Power quality problem
  • Protection problems
  • Solutions
  • Network reconfiguration and reinforcement
  • Reactive power control
  • Voltage control using On Load Tap Changer (OLTC)
  • Active power curtailment
  • Battery energy storage technologies (BESS)
  • Costs
  • Conclusion

22. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS BY kVA UNIT CAPACITY

  • Europe
  • SELECTED EUROPEAN MARKETS
    • France
    • Germany
    • Ireland
    • Italy
    • Netherlands
    • Poland
    • Spain
    • UK
  • SELECTED ASIAN MARKETS
    • Philippines
    • India
    • Indonesia
    • Malaysia
    • Pakistan
    • Thailand
    • Vietnam
  • SELECTED PACIFIC MARKETS
  • Australia
  • New Zealand

23. THE LONG-TERM DEMAND CYCLE 1900-2050

  • INSTALLED CAPACITY
  • INSTALLED CAPACITY VERSUS DEMAND
    • The China Factor
    • Demand versus supply

24. TRANSFORMER GENERATOR RATIOS - MVA:MW

25. SMART TRANSFORMERS

  • Smart transformers and the smart grid
  • Basic characteristics of smart transformers
  • The basic technical requirements of smart transformers
  • Intelligent transformer substations
  • Smart transformer in current infrastructure
  • Dissolved gas analysis (DGA)

26. N+1 STANDARD, N+2 AND 2N, REDUNDANCY AND REPLACEMENT

  • Network failure
  • Transformer failure
  • Industrial reliability
  • Levels of redundancy
  • N+1 Redundancy
  • N+2 Redundancy
  • 2N Redundancy
  • Fault tolerance
  • 2N+1 Redundancy
  • Network reliability
  • N+1 and the networks
  • Reliability standards SAIFI and SAIDI
  • Electricity transmission
  • Large power transformers (LPTs)
  • Transformer/generator ratios and redundancy
  • Generation
  • Transmission
  • Distribution

27. PRICE TRENDS AND FACTORS DRIVING TRANSFORMER PRICES

  • PPI - Producer Price Index
    • USA
    • EU
    • China
    • Japan
  • Factors impacting on manufacturing cost and selling price of transformers
  • Manufacturing cost
  • Selling price
  • Cost of materials
  • The core - electrical steel
  • Amorphous steel
  • The coil - windings - copper and aluminium
  • Advantages of copper windings
  • Disadvantages of copper windings
  • Advantages of aluminium windings
  • Disadvantages of aluminium windings
  • Transformer oil
  • Fluctuations in commodity prices
  • Demand for transformers, market and industry trends
  • Production capacity and utilisation

28. MEPS - MINIMUM ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

  • MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance Standards)
  • United States
  • Efficiency regulations
    • Canada
    • Brazil
    • Mexico
    • European Union
  • The European Norms EN50588-1:2014 and EU No 548/2014 apply.
  • Australia and New Zealand
    • Israel
    • Vietnam
    • Japan
    • China
    • Korea
    • India
  • Summary of efficiency standards

29. HIGH EFFICIENCY TRANSFORMERS

  • Development of a new technology - amorphous core transformers
  • The market for AMTs
  • AMT manufacturers
  • Amorphous metal ribbon manufacturers
  • Amorphous metal transformers - AMTs
    • Japan
    • China
    • United States
    • India
    • Taiwan
    • Other
  • HTS -high temperature superconductor transformers

30. TRANSFORMER PRODUCTION CAPACITY

  • Manufacturing capacity, global and by region
  • Capacity utilisation
  • North America (United States, Canada)
    • Japan
    • Europe
    • CIS
    • Mexico
    • Latin America (excluding Mexico)
    • China
    • India
    • Korea
    • Africa
    • South Africa

31. THE SUPPLY CHAIN

  • The political dimension of the global supply chains
  • US Federal Executive Order - Telecoms
  • Japanese programme to diversify Chinese supplies
  • Supply of transformers
  • Electrical system equipment
  • US LPT Seizure
  • Australia
  • Market impacts
  • US supply of power transformers and LPTs
  • Global supply chains
  • Supply chains for transformer components
  • The role of Wuhan in the global supply chain - the impact of Covid-19
  • The transformer supply chain
  • Key global supply chains for transformers
  • Reinhausen Machinenfabiken
  • Huaming/CZ
  • Hitachi ABB
  • Hyundai
  • Jin Li
  • SPX DETC
  • Brush
  • Crompton Greaves - CG Power
  • EHV bushings
  • Siemens
  • Trench
  • HSPHochspannungsgeräte GmbH
  • Hitachi ABB
  • GE - Alstom
  • Lapp, USA and Germany - Pfisterer
  • Seves Group, France
  • Aditya Birla Nuovo Ltd, India
  • China
  • Disruptions & switching
  • Distribution transformers

32. GLOBAL MARKET SHARE POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

33. LOGISTICS

  • An LPT logistical operation from China to the USA
  • Guidance for the safe transport of transformers
    • 1. Design of transformers
    • 2. Preparation of a Transformer
    • 3. Faults or damages to transformers
    • 4. Voyage Assessment
    • 5. Transport execution
    • 6. Handling
    • 7. Securing
  • Impact Recorders
  • Rail transport
    • North America
    • Europe
    • Africa
    • Asia Pacific
  • Road transport
  • Rear wheel drive
  • Clearance
  • Alternative solutions

34. ELECTRIFICATION

  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Asia
  • MENA
  • Latin America
  • Europe
  • CIS
  • North America
  • The impact of electrification on the electrical supply industry

METHODOLOGY

  • Short term demand forecast
  • Long term demand cycle
  • Demand cycles and the market
  • StatPlan Energy Databases
  • Production and trade data
  • International and national information agencies
  • Industry interviews and cooperation
  • Review of the transformer databases
    • 1. Utility/industry ownership
    • 2. The proportion of GSU/transmission PTs
    • 3. Redundancy.
  • Transformation capacity

Figures

  • Figure 1: The global transformer population, GVA, 2020
  • Figure 2: The global transformer fleet 2010-2020, generator and transformer capacity
  • Figure 3: LPT, 265 MVA, 525 kV
  • Figure 4: MPT 60 MVA, 275 kV.
  • Figure 5: SPT with 12.5 MVA with OLTC ( On-Load Tap Changer)
  • Figure 6: An 800 kV UHVDC converter transformer by ABB
  • Figure 7: Oil-filled distribution transformer,
  • Figure 8: Dry-type distribution transformer
  • Figure 9: Pad-mounted distribution transformer
  • Figure 10: A bank of 3 single phase pole top distribution transformers for 3 phase supply
  • Figure 11: The German Electricity Grid
  • Figure 12: American distribution system
  • Figure 13: European distribution system
  • Figure 14: Wiring diagram for 3 phase 4 wire delta-wye
  • Figure 15: Wiring diagram for 3 phase 4 wire
  • Figure 16: Electrical distribution system for a small building
  • Figure 17: Single rising main
  • Figure 18: Grouped supply
  • Figure 19: Individual floor supply
  • Figure 20: A large building using distributed transformers - splitting the system into two supply sections with 2 transformer modules with 3 x 630 kVA each.
  • Figure 21: A large building using distributed transformers with main route busbars
  • Figure 22: Consumption of power transformers in US, 1990 to 2020, GVA
  • Figure 23: USA Electric power system with substation types
  • Figure 24: Imports of power transformers (Oil filled ≥ 10 MVA), into the United States from Canada, Mexico and Korea 2000-2017 $ value
  • Figure 25: Distribution voltages in Europe (EU 27)
  • Figure 26: RWE and E.ON reorganize the German power sector, splitting up Innogy.
  • Figure 27: Oil price fiscal breakevens: oil price needed for the budget to break even (2020 projections)
  • Figure 28: Investment as a % of GDP, selected countries and economic groupings, 1980-2020
  • Figure 29: Market shares for UHV AC and HVDC transformers in China
  • Figure 30: Market shares of leading transformer manufacturers for SGCC's HV, MV and LV tenders
  • Figure 31: Structure of the Chinese electric power industry
  • Figure 32: Top 20 markets for solar PV additions, 2018 to 2022.
  • Figure 33: Distribution utility customers by regions, 1950 to 2030
  • Figure 34: An example of a network before the meter, with Central and Distributed Generation
  • Figure 35: Basic scheme of an electric power system
  • Figure 36: The UK electrical power transmission and distribution system
  • Figure 37: The traditional centralised electricity system compared with distributed power
  • Figure 38: North American versus European distribution layouts.
  • Figure 39: GTW development Options
  • Figure 40: The overall concept of GTW
  • Figure 41: Evolution of transformers in voltage kV and capacity MVA
  • Figure 42: Proportion of capacity (MVA) generator, utility and private industry ownership of power and distribution transformers by region, 2018
  • Figure 43: Composition of the retail cost of electricity
  • Figure 44: The Electrification Wheel
  • Figure 45: Distributed energy, gas and electricity
  • Figure 46: Overview of distributed generation (based on [2, 3]) and of typical uses
  • Figure 47: Distributed power history
  • Figure 48: Growth in distributed generation in the US, 2010 to 2019
  • Figure 49: Residential distributed solar PV capacity, 2015 to 2050
  • Figure 50: Commercial distributed solar PV capacity, 2015 to 2050
  • Figure 51: The smart grid and distributed generation
  • Figure 52: Annual development of onshore wind energy capacity in Germany
  • Figure 53: Annual development of offshore wind energy capacity in Germany
  • Figure 54: Solar PV capacity in Germany, 1990 to 2019
  • Figure 55: Total installed and annual capacity of solar PV in Italy, 2000 to 2017
  • Figure 56: Installed capacity wind power in Spain, 1998 to 2019
  • Figure 57: The electricity network in the UK
  • Figure 58: International DSOs' experience and rules of thumb for DG integration
  • Figure 59: HC enhancement techniques
  • Figure 60: Europe, MV/LV distribution transformer population in units and total GVA capacity, by unit capacity in kVA, 2020
  • Figure 61: USA, MV/LV distribution transformer population in units and total MVA capacity, by unit capacity in kVA
  • Figure 62: Distribution transformer population in Europe, units by kVA rating,2020
  • Figure 63: Distribution transformer population in Europe, total MVA by kVA rating,2020
  • Figure 64: Installed capacity of power and distribution transformers, GVA, 1900 - 2050
  • Figure 65: Global installed transformation capacity and demand, GVA, 1900 - 2050
  • Figure 66: Global utility transformation capacity installed base by region, GVA, 1900 - 2050
  • Figure 67: Conventional grid with unidirectional power flow
  • Figure 68: Active distribution grid with intelligent transformer substations
  • Figure 69: Producer Price Indices for power and distribution transformers in the United States 1967 to 2020
  • Figure 70: EU 28 Producer Price Index for industrial manufactures 2012 to 2020
  • Figure 71: China Producer Price Index for industrial goods 2016 to 2021
  • Figure 72: Japan Producer Price Index for electrical machinery and equipment 1996 to 21
  • Figure 73: The manufacturing processes for CRGO and CNRGO
  • Figure 74: Copper prices 1970 to 2020
  • Figure 75: Aluminium prices 1970 to 2020
  • Figure 76: Transformer commodity price index 2009 to 2018
  • Figure 77: The vast majority of countries have yet to take such action.
  • Figure 78: The world's largest HVDC transformer at Xiangjiaba, China
  • Figure 79: Global market share power and distribution transformers, $ value, 2020
  • Figure 80: Schnabel car with load
  • Figure 81: The largest load ever transported by road in the United Kingdom
  • Figure 82: Goldhofer heavy duty load
  • Figure 83: Goldhofer rear wheel drive vehicle
  • Figure 84: The trailer approaches a narrow turning
  • Figure 85: The trailer's rear wheels begin the turn
  • Figure 86: The trailer has turned the corner
  • Figure 87: Overhead obstructions
  • Figure 88: Transformer off the road
  • Figure 89: Share of people without electricity access for developing countries, 2016
  • Figure 90: World electrification - % of households with electricity, 1900 - 2050
  • Figure 91: World electrification - number and % of households with electricity, 1900 - 2050
  • Figure 92: Selected major countries - % of households with electricity, 1900 - 2050
  • Figure 93: Selected major countries - Number of households with electricity, 1900 - 2050
  • Figure 94: Regional totals of electrified households 2010 to 2050
  • Figure 95: Additions of electrified households in each decade by region, 2010 to 2050
  • Figure 96: Diagram of new plus total replacement capacity

Tables

  • Table 1: Transformer demand, GVA and $ in real and nominal values, 2019-26
  • Table 2: World transformer demand forecast,
  • Table 3: World distribution transformer demand forecast, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 4: Ownership of power and distribution transformers by capacity, 2020
  • Table 5: The global transformer fleet before the meter by transformer type, GVA, 2020
  • Table 6: The global transformer fleet by transformer type, 2010-2020, generator & transformer capacity
  • Table 7: Typical applications for distribution transformer technologies
  • Table 8: Six substation and industrial and commercial transformer types used behind the meter
  • Table 9: Installed base of LV dry type transformers in commercial buildings in the USA
  • Table 10: Installed base of LV dry type transformers in commercial buildings in USA by kVA capacity
  • Table 11: Population of electric motors in US industry, 2002
  • Table 12: Population and residential housing stock in the United States and Europe
  • Table 13: North America, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 14: North America, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 15: North America, CGSU and network power transformer sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
  • Table 16: North America, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
  • Table 17: North America, network and user LV transformer sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 18: North America, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales forecast, 2019-2026, units
  • Table 19: North America, LV transformers after the meter sales forecast, 2019-2026, units
  • Table 20: North America, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
  • Table 21: US power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 22: Detailed shipment data for power and distribution transformers in the US, 2009
  • Table 23: Market shares of Power Transformer Producers in the United States, 2016
  • Table 24: Mexican power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 25: Europe, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 26: Europe, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 27: Europe, CGSU and network power transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 28: Europe, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 29: Europe, network and user LV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 30: Europe, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, units
  • Table 31: Europe, LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, units
  • Table 32: Europe, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
  • Table 33: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 34: French power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 35: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 36: German power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 37: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 38: Italian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 39: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 40: Spanish power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 41: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 42: Swiss power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 43: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 44: UK power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 45: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 46: Turkish power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 47: CIS, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 48: CIS, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 49: CIS, CGSU and network power sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 50: CIS, DGSU and network MV distribution sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 51: CIS network and user LV transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 52: CIS distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 53: CIS LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 54: CIS, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
  • Table 55: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 56: Russian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 57: ME & Africa, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal
  • Table 58: Middle East and Africa, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 59: ME & Africa, CGSU and network power transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 60: ME & Africa, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 61: ME & Africa, network and user LV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 62: ME & Africa, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 63: ME & Africa, LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 64: Middle East, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
  • Table 65: North Africa, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
  • Table 66: Sub-Saharan Africa, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
  • Table 67: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 68: Iranian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 69: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 70: Saudi Arabian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 71: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 72: UAE power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 73: Asia Pacific, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal
  • Table 74: Asia Pacific, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 75: Asia Pacific, CGSU and network power transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 76: Asia Pacific, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 77: Asia Pacific, network and user LV transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 78: Asia Pacific, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 79: Asia Pacific, LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 80: Asia Pacific, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
  • Table 81: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 82: Chinese power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 83: The operational UHV circuits in China in 2019
  • Table 84: UHV circuits under construction in China in 2019
  • Table 85: Key Technologies for UHV AC systems
  • Table 86: Key technologies for UVH DC systems
  • Table 87: Japanese power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 88: Transformer manufacturers in Japan
  • Table 89: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 90: Indian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 91: Indian transformer production capacity GVA
  • Table 92: Transformer manufacturers in India
  • Table 93: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 94: Indonesian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 95: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 96: Korean power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 97: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 98: Taiwanese power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 99: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 100: Thai power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 101: LAC, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 102: LAC, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
  • Table 103: LAC, CGSU and network power transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 104: LAC, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 105: LAC, network and user LV transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
  • Table 106: Latin America, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 107: Latin America, LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
  • Table 108: Latin America, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
  • Table 109: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Table 110: Brazilian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
  • Table 111: Installed transformer capacity, GVA, 1950 to 2020
  • Table 112: Costs and mark-up from Bill of Materials to Capex
  • Table 113: Electricity transmission and distribution companies of the world.
  • Table 114: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, World by Region, 2019
  • Table 115: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Europe, 2019
  • Table 116: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, CIS, 2019
  • Table 117: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Middle East, 2019
  • Table 118: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, North Africa, 2019
  • Table 119: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019
  • Table 120: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Asia, 2019
  • Table 121: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Pacific, 2019
  • Table 122: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, North America, 2019
  • Table 123: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, South America, 2019
  • Table 124: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Central America, 2019
  • Table 125: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost by region, 2018-2025, $ million
  • Table 126: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, World, 2020
  • Table 127: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, World, 2020
  • Table 128: Number and average capacity in kVA of Distribution transformers by country and ownership, World, 2020
  • Table 129: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, North America, 2020
  • Table 130: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, North America, 2020
  • Table 131: Number and average capacity in kVA of Distribution transformers by country and ownership North America, 2020
  • Table 132: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, Europe, 2020
  • Table 133: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Europe, 2020
  • Table 134: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Europe, 2020
  • Table 135: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, CIS, 2020
  • Table 136: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, CIS, 2020
  • Table 137: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, CIS, 2020
  • Table 138: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, Middle East & North Africa, 2020
  • Table 139: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Middle East & North Africa, 2020
  • Table 140: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Middle East and North Africa, 2020
  • Table 141: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 142: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 143: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019
  • Table 144: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, Asia Pacific, 2020
  • Table 145: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Asia Pacific, 2020
  • Table 146: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership Asia Pacific, 2020
  • Table 147: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, LAC, 2020
  • Table 148: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, LAC, 2020
  • Table 149: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, LAC, 2020
  • Table 150: Highest voltage levels of distribution in Europe
  • Table 151: Average consumers per LV distribution transformer in selected countries, 2018
  • Table 152: Commonly used DG technologies with size
  • Table 153: Number of installed solar PV capacity plants by size in the UK, 2010 to 2018
  • Table 154: Installed solar PV capacity plants by capacity MW in the UK, 2010 to 2018
  • Table 155: Population of distribution transformers in Netherlands by kVA rating
  • Table 156: Population of utility owned distribution transformers Meralco and two smaller utilities in Luzon and Mindanao.
  • Table 157: Population of utility owned distribution transformers in Pakistan by kVA rating
  • Table 158: Population of utility owned distribution transformers in PEA by kVA rating.
  • Table 159: Population of utility owned distribution transformers in Vietnam by kVA rating.
  • Table 160: Utility distribution transformer population in Australia by kVA rating, 2019
  • Table 161: Private distribution transformer population in Australia by kVA rating, 2019
  • Table 162: Total distribution transformer population in Australia by kVA rating, 2019
  • Table 163: Distribution transformer population in New Zealand by kVA rating, 2018
  • Table 164: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), World, 2020
  • Table 165: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Europe, 2020
  • Table 166: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), CIS, 2020
  • Table 167: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Middle East and North Africa, 2020
  • Table 168: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
  • Table 169: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Asia Pacific, 2020
  • Table 170: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), North America, 2020
  • Table 171: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Latin America, 2020
  • Table 172: Cost of materials.
  • Table 173: Network losses by region
  • Table 174: A summary of liquid filled distribution transformer efficiency programmes
  • Table 175: Summary of dry-type distribution transformer efficiency programmes
  • Table 176: Manufacturers of energy efficient transformers in China, 2013
  • Table 177: World production capacity for transformers, GVA, 2019
  • Table 178: Global leaders' production capacity power and distribution transformers, GVA, 2019
  • Table 179: CIS, production capacity power and distribution transformers, GVA, 2013
  • Table 180: China, domestic production capacity power and distribution transformers, GVA, 2019
  • Table 181: India, production capacity power and distribution transformers, GVA, 2007 - 2020
  • Table 182: Population and electrical parameters of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa