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市場調查報告書

粉床方式金屬積層製造的後加工

Post-Processing for Powder Bed Fusion Metal Additive Manufacturing

出版商 SmarTech Analysis 商品編碼 908185
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 67 Pages
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粉床方式金屬積層製造的後加工 Post-Processing for Powder Bed Fusion Metal Additive Manufacturing
出版日期: 2019年08月16日內容資訊: 英文 67 Pages
簡介

本報告提供粉床方式技術相關後加工次序的相關調查,成本相關檢討事項,OEM、服務供應商,案例研究和最新的研究趨勢,在整體工作流程中帶給後加工次序很大影響的設計,及未來趨勢等相關分析。

第1章 簡介

第2章 後加工PBF零件的課題

  • 粉末消除
  • 粉末回收
  • 零件消除
  • 支援消除
  • 熱感後加工
  • 加工
  • 表面處理

第3章 後加工PBF零件的成本討論事項

  • 相關的成本促進因素:印表機技術
  • 相關的成本促進因素:各流程
  • 隱藏費用
  • 總括原價
  • 一般的合金比較

第4章 後加工OEM及服務供應商

  • 後加工設備的OEM
  • 後加工服務供應商
  • 摘要

第5章 後加工的最小化、最佳化的設計上的檢討事項

  • 粉消除
  • 支援結構
  • 新人教育
  • 內部道路
  • 熱處理
  • 表面加工
  • 加工
  • 軟體

第6章 案例研究、調查

第7章 未來趨勢

  • 端到端的解決方案、自動化
  • 資料最佳化、工業IoT
  • 軟體解決方案
  • 標準、規定

關於SmarTech的分析師

目錄
Product Code: SMP-AM-PPME-0819-1

As additive manufacturing of metal parts continues to transform from prototyping to production environments, we've seen materials expand, systems improve, and automation advance. But, until recently, we haven't seen an increased focus on post-processing of metal parts produced using powder bed fusion (PBF) technologies.

In this report, we look at the common post-processing steps associated specifically with Powder Bed Fusion technologies, what they can achieve, and the challenges observed. We will discuss the relative cost considerations to keep in mind as well as costs that often go unaccounted for in the PBF post-processing workflow. We will discuss many of the OEMs and service providers that are active PBF post-processing, as well as some specific case studies and research that has been recently conducted. And, often forgotten, we will discuss some of the critical considerations in the design stage that can greatly influence the post-processing stage in the overall workflow. We finish with a discussion on the future trends, to include end-to-end solutions and automation, data optimization, software solutions, and the current state of standard and regulations as they pertain to post-processing.

Table of Contents

Chapter One: Introduction

Chapter Two: Challenges in Post-Processing PBF Parts

  • 2.1. Powder Removal
  • 2.2. Powder Recycling
  • 2.3. Part Removal
  • 2.4. Support Removal
  • 2.5. Thermal Post-processing
    • 2.5.1. Heat Treatment
    • 2.5.2. Solution Treatment Aging (STA)/Age Hardening
    • 2.5.3. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)
  • 2.6. Machining
  • 2.7. Surface Finishing
    • 2.7.1. Contact Surface Finishing
      • 2.7.1.1. Sand Blasting and Shot Peening
      • 2.7.1.2. Centrifugal Disc Finishing (CDF)
      • 2.7.1.3. Centrifugal Barrel Finishing (CBF)
      • 2.7.1.4. Reverse Drag Finishing (RDF)
    • 2.7.2. Laser Surface Finishing
      • 2.7.2.1. Benefits of Laser Surface Finishing
      • 2.7.1.2. Limitations of Laser Surface Finishing
      • 2.7.2.3. Laser Surface Finishing Methods
    • 2.7.3. Electron Beam Polishing
    • 2.7.4. Electropolishing and Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
    • 2.7.5. Chemical Polishing
    • 2.7.6. Chemically Accelerated Vibratory Finishing
    • 2.7.7. Abrasive Flow Machining

Chapter Three: Cost Considerations for Post-Processing PBF Parts

  • 3.1. Relative Cost Drivers by Printer Technology
  • 3.2. Relative Cost Drivers by Process
    • 3.2.1. Part Separation and Support Removal
    • 3.2.2. Heat Treatment, HIP and Precipitation Hardening
    • 3.3.3. Surface Finishing
  • 3.3. Hidden Costs
    • 3.3.1. Underestimation of Surface Finish Time
    • 3.3.2. Inadequate Tools for Interior Finishing
    • 3.3.3. Tolerance Issues
    • 3.3.4. Process Knowledge
    • 3.3.5. Skills Gap
    • 3.3.6. Powder Recycling
  • 3.4. Comprehensive Costs
  • 3.5. A Comparison Across Common Alloys

Chapter Four: Post-Processing OEMs and Service Providers

  • 4.1. Post-Processing Equipment OEMs
    • 4.1.1. Powder Removal / Recycling
    • 4.1.2. Thermal Treatment / HIP
    • 4.1.3. Surface Finishing
      • 4.1.3.1. Laser Surface Finishing
      • 4.1.3.2. Electron Beam Polishing
      • 4.1.3.3. Electropolishing
      • 4.1.3.4. Electro-chemical Finishing
      • 4.1.3.5. Combined Systems
    • 4.1.4. Integrated Systems
  • 4.2. Post-Processing Service Providers
  • 4.3. Summary

Chapter Five: Design Considerations to Minimize and Optimize Post-Processing

  • 5.1. Powder Removal
  • 5.2. Support Structures
  • 5.3. Orientation
  • 5.4. Internal Passages
  • 5.5. Thermal Processing
  • 5.6. Surface Finishing
  • 5.7. Machining
  • 5.8. Software

Chapter Six: Case Studies and Research

  • 6.1. Chemically Accelerated Vibratory Finishing
  • 6.2. Electropolishing and Chemical Polishing
  • 6.3. Magneto-Rheological Fluid Finishing of Copper
  • 6.4. Laser Polishing of a Superalloy
  • 6.5. Abrasive Flow Machining
  • 6.6. Heat Treatment of Ti6Al4V
  • 6.7. Heat Treatment of AlSi10Mg
  • 6.8. The Effects of Heat Treatment on the Quasi-Static Behavior and Porosity SLM Produced Inconel 718
  • 6.9. Cracking During Thermal Treatment of PBF-printed CM247LC Nickel Superalloy
  • 6.10. Surface Finishing of PBF Parts by AFM and Electrochemical Machining in Tandem

Chapter Seven: Future Trends

  • 7.1. End-to-end Solutions and Automation
  • 7.2. Data Optimization and Industrial IoT
  • 7.3. Software Solutions
  • 7.4. Standards and Regulations

About SmarTech Analysis

  • About the Analyst
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations Used In this Report

List of Exhibits

  • Exhibit 2-1: Common Variants in Macro Polishing and Micro Polishing by Laser
  • Exhibit 2-2: Advantages of the Various AFM Classifications
  • Exhibit 3-1: Common Heat Treatments for Frequently Used Alloys in Metal AM
  • Exhibit 4-1: Selected Post-processing Equipment and Service Providers