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市場調查報告書

陰極/前體材料:未來前景(到2030年,第1版)

Cathode and Precursor Materials: Outlook to 2030 1st Edition

出版商 Roskill - A Wood Mackenzie Business 商品編碼 985631
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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陰極/前體材料:未來前景(到2030年,第1版) Cathode and Precursor Materials: Outlook to 2030 1st Edition
出版日期: 2021年01月13日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

本報告分析了世界範圍內正極材料和前體材料的技術和市場趨勢,並分析了正極/前體材料的特徵和優勢,主要類型和原材料,生產方法和製造成本以及未來需求。供應/價格趨勢(到2030年),當前行業結構/供應鍊和未來的結構調整趨勢,最新的技術發展趨勢及其未來影響,鋰離子電池正極材料回收利用的趨勢等。除調查外,我們還將進行調查還總結了相關專利的申請和批准趨勢。

目錄

第1章執行摘要

第2章陰極/前體材料行業:流程圖

第3章世界市場

  • 世界生產
    • 陰極材料的製造趨勢
    • 前體材料的製造趨勢
  • 全球需求趨勢
  • 每個地區的供求趨勢
    • 中國
    • 歐洲
    • 美國
    • 日本/韓國

第4章上游流程:供應鍊和行業重組

  • 重組上游流程
    • 主要綜合製造商
    • 集成三元前體材料的生產趨勢
    • 集成正極材料的生產趨勢
    • 區域分析
  • 非集成:上游供應鏈
    • 承購合同/投資交易
  • 產業重組的好處
    • 減少供應鏈風險
    • 前體和陰極成本降低
  • 上游流程重組的前景

第5章中游過程:供應鍊和行業重組

  • 前體製造商與陰極製造商之間的主要承購合同
    • 前體/陰極供應鏈的主要特徵
    • 前體/陰極製造行業整合的優勢
    • 前體和陰極材料製造商之間的主要承購合同
  • 正極與電池製造商之間的主要承購合同
    • 陰極電池供應鏈的主要特徵
    • 正極與電池製造行業整合的優勢
    • 正極材料與電池製造商之間的重大承購合同

第6章陰極類型

  • 層狀氧化物陰極
    • LiCoO2(LCO)
    • LiNiO2(LNO)
    • NCA
    • NCM
    • NCMA
  • 尖晶石型氧化物陰極
    • LiMn2O4(LMO)
  • Olivin型氧化物陰極
    • LFP
    • LMP
    • LMFP
  • 各種正極材料的比較

第7章陰極/前體工藝技術

  • 三元陰極/前體的合成方法
    • 共沉澱法
    • 固相反應法
    • 其他方法
  • 合成其他陰極及其前體的方法
    • LFP陰極的合成
    • LCO陰極的合成
    • LMO陰極合成

第8章新型陰極材料

  • 單晶三元陰極
  • NCM811陰極/高含鎳陰極
  • 梯度陰極材料(核殼/濃縮梯度)
  • 高含鋰錳基層狀氧化物陰極
  • 5V兼容正極材料
  • LNMO

第9章陰極/前體原料

    • 鋁化工產品供求
    • 鋰離子電池的錳消耗量
    • 錳金屬的需求和價格
    • 硫酸錳的需求和價格
    • 鎳的供求
    • 鎳價

第10章製造成本

  • 前體製造成本
    • 前體製造成本:按集成水平
    • 前體製造成本:按類型
  • 前體製造成本趨勢
  • 陰極製造成本
    • 陰極製造成本:按類型
  • 陰極製造成本趨勢

第11章回收

  • 評論
  • 回收技術
    • 火法冶金
    • 直接回收
    • 濕法冶金
  • 回收趨勢預測
    • 再生陰極材料的預測
    • 從陰極材料中回收金屬的預測

第12章陰極專利情況

  • 陰極專利情況:摘要
    • 注意陰極專利情況的理由
    • 調查方法
  • NCM陰極專利情況
    • NCM陰極專利狀況:概述
    • NCM陰極專利塊1
    • NCM陰極專利塊2
    • NCM陰極專利塊3
    • NCM陰極專利模塊4
  • LFP陰極專利狀況
    • 專利情況分析
    • 許可合同
    • 中國的LFP陰極專利

第13章公司簡介

  • 前體製造商
    • GEM
    • Tanaka Chemical
    • CNGR
    • Jinchuan Technology
    • Brunp
    • Huayou Cobalt
    • MCC Ramu
    • Jinchi Energy
    • Fangyuan
  • 陰極製造商
    • Umicore
    • Sumitomo Metal Mining
    • BASF
    • B&M
    • Changyuan Lico
    • Ronbay
    • Dynanonic
    • Easpring
    • ECOPRO
    • L&F
    • Nichia Corp
    • Xiamen Tungsten
    • Zhenhua E-chem
    • POSCO

第14章宏觀經濟學

目錄

Cathode patent landscape

Since their development in the early 1990s, Li-ion batteries have become an integral part of our daily life, from powering smart phones and laptops to electrifying transportation. The evolution of the cathode chemistry is one of the key factors that have made the modern Li-ion technology feasible. Like other technologies, patents play an important role in encouraging the technology development of Li-ion battery cathode material manufacturing.

Continuous research and development of cathode materials, in line with the growth of the market, have contributed greatly to the substantial improvement of the performance, safety and cost of Li-ion batteries, as can also be demonstrated by the cathode patenting trend.

The in-depth patent analysis in Roskill's “ Cathode and Precursor Materials report, 1st Edition” is aimed at providing a solid understanding of the global cathode materials market from a patent perspective. Rather than just listing the patents, Roskill's industry-centric primary research focuses on investigating the relationship between cathode business, and scientific and technological trends, through exploring key technologies and influential patents within the global cathode industry, analysing IP strength of the key IP players and depicting the patent license agreement network.

Precursor-cathode-battery supply chain and industry integration

Cathode materials have a more complex and longer supply chain to ensure the final products are delivered in the right quantities and quality, compared to many other battery components, involving the mining and refining of feedstocks, manufacturing of precursors and final production of active cathode materials. Preparing and manufacturing of precursor and cathode materials are closely related; with precursor-cathode production stages becoming increasingly integrated in the industry. Additionally, as competition intensifies, Li-ion battery makers have strategically participated in backward integration to the cathode materials manufacturing stage, and even further to precursor materials and raw material supply in some instances.

Costs, value and margin

In 2020, metal sulphates (including nickel, cobalt and manganese) are used to synthesize precursor materials by "Coprecipitation Method". Subsequently, the precursor materials and lithium salt are mixed and sintered to manufacture the final ternary cathode materials. Roskill's cathode report provides a detailed cost breakdown of precursor and cathode materials, showing precursor and cathode cost trend. Roskill's cost analysis also clearly presents the difference between raw material obtained from integrated and non-integrated supply chains.

Recycling

Worldwide growth in mobile electrification, largely driven by the popularity of EVs, will make it essential to have an efficient and sustainable recycling industry to return secondary materials to the supply chain for reuse. Li-ion battery recycling is of great importance not only for industry economics, but also from the environmental and geostrategic perspectives. Cobalt and nickel from the cathode are the two critical metals driving recycling industry in the near term.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • What are the benefits and drawbacks of each type of cathode materials?
  • How will prices of cathode products perform to 2030?
  • How is the supply chain for cathode raw materials structured?
  • What new technologies may impact the current cathode materials?
  • How to recycle cathode materials from spent Li-ion batteries?

Subscribe now and receive:

  • Detailed report with ten-year forecasts, for demand, supply and prices
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  • A summary PowerPoint of key report findings

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 A reflection on Li-ion battery cathode chemistry
  • 1.2 Cathode and precursor market
  • 1.3 Supply chain and industrial integration
  • 1.4 Cathode patent landscape
  • 1.5 Production cost
  • 1.6 Recycling

2. Cathode and precursor materials flowchart

3. Global market

  • 3.1 Global production
    • 3.1.1 Production of cathode materials
      • 3.1.1.1 Production of NCM
      • 3.1.1.2 Production of NCA
      • 3.1.1.3 Production of LFP
      • 3.1.1.4 Production of LCO
      • 3.1.1.5 Production of LMO
    • 3.1.2 Production of precursor materials
  • 3.2 Global demand
  • 3.3 Self-sufficiency of region
    • 3.3.1 China
      • 3.3.1.1 Self-sufficiency of cathode and precursor
      • 3.3.1.2 Self-sufficiency of raw materials
    • 3.3.2 Europe
      • 3.3.2.1 Self-sufficiency of cathode and precursor
      • 3.3.2.2 Self-sufficiency of raw materials
    • 3.3.3 USA
      • 3.3.3.1 Self-sufficiency of cathode and precursor
      • 3.3.3.2 Self-sufficiency of raw materials
    • 3.3.4 Japan & South Korea
      • 3.3.4.1 Self-sufficiency of cathode and precursor
      • 3.3.4.2 Self-sufficiency of raw materials

4. Upstream supply chain and industry integration

  • 4.1 Upstream integration
    • 4.1.1 Major integrated manufacturers
      • 4.1.1.1 Mining & intermediates & refining integrated manufacturers
      • 4.1.1.2 Intermediates & refining integrated manufacturers
      • 4.1.1.3 Refining integrated manufacturers
    • 4.1.2 Production of integrated ternary precursor materials
    • 4.1.3 Production of integrated cathode materials
    • 4.1.4 Geographic analysis
  • 4.2 Non-integrated: Upstream supply chain
    • 4.2.1 Off-take/investment deals
  • 4.3 Benefits of integration
    • 4.3.1 Risk reduction for supply chain
    • 4.3.2 Reduction of precursor and cathode cost
  • 4.4 Outlook for upstream integration

5. Midstream supply chain and industry integration

  • 5.1 Major off-take agreements between precursor and cathode manufacturers
    • 5.1.1 Main features of precursor-cathode supply chain
    • 5.1.2 Benefits of precursor-cathode manufacturing vertical integration
    • 5.1.3 Major off-take agreements between precursors and cathode materials manufacturers
  • 5.2 Major off-take agreements between cathode and battery manufacturers
    • 5.2.1 Main features of cathode-battery supply chain
    • 5.2.2 Benefits of cathode-battery manufacturing vertical integration
    • 5.2.3 Major off-take agreements between cathode materials and battery makers

6. Cathode types

  • 6.1 Layered oxide cathodes
    • 6.1.1 LiCoO2 (LCO)
      • 6.1.1.1 Structure
      • 6.1.1.2 Advantages and disadvantages
      • 6.1.1.3 Competitive landscape
    • 6.1.2 LiNiO2 (LNO)
    • 6.1.3 NCA
      • 6.1.3.1 Advantages and disadvantages
      • 6.1.3.2 Competitive landscape
    • 6.1.4 NCM
      • 6.1.4.1 Advantages and disadvantages
      • 6.1.4.2 Competitive landscape
    • 6.1.5 NCMA
  • 6.2 Spinel oxide cathodes
    • 6.2.1 LiMn2O4 (LMO)
      • 6.2.1.1 Structure
      • 6.2.1.2 Advantages and disadvantages
      • 6.2.1.3 Competitive landscape
  • 6.3 Olivine oxide cathodes
    • 6.3.1 LFP
      • 6.3.1.1 Structure
      • 6.3.1.2 Advantages and disadvantages
      • 6.3.1.3 Competitive landscape
    • 6.3.2 LMP
    • 6.3.3 LMFP
  • 6.4 Comparison of different cathode materials

7. Cathode and precursor process technology

  • 7.1 Preparation of ternary cathode and its precursor
    • 7.1.1 Coprecipitation method
      • 7.1.1.1 Preparation of ternary precursor by Batch Process
      • 7.1.1.2 Preparation of ternary precursor by Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR) technology
      • 7.1.1.3 Preparation of ternary precursor by Taylor Vortex Flow Reactor (TVFR) technology
    • 7.1.2 Solid-state reaction method
    • 7.1.3 Other methods
  • 7.2 Preparation of other cathodes and their precursors
    • 7.2.1 Preparation of LFP cathode
      • 7.2.1.1 Solid-state synthesis
      • 7.2.1.2 Hydrothermal synthesis
    • 7.2.2 Preparation of LCO cathode
      • 7.2.2.1 Solid-state synthesis
      • 7.2.2.2 Hydrothermal synthesis
    • 7.2.3 Preparation of LMO cathode
      • 7.2.3.1 Solid-state synthesis
      • 7.2.3.2 Hydrothermal synthesis

8. Novel cathode materials

  • 8.1 Single-crystal ternary cathodes
  • 8.2 NCM 811 and higher Ni cathodes
  • 8.3 Gradient cathode materials (core-shell/concentration-gradient)
  • 8.4 Li-rich Mn-based layered oxide cathode
  • 8.5 5V-capable cathode materials
  • 8.6 LNMO

9. Cathode and precursor raw materials

  • 9.1 Aluminium
    • 9.1.1 Aluminium chemicals supply and demand
  • 9.2 Cobalt
  • 9.3 Lithium
  • 9.4 Manganese
    • 9.4.1 Consumption of manganese in Li-ion batteries
    • 9.4.2 Manganese metal demand and prices
    • 9.4.3 Manganese sulphate demand and prices
  • 9.5 Nickel
    • 9.5.1 Nickel supply and demand
    • 9.5.2 Nickel prices

10. Production costs

  • 10.1 Production cost of precursor
    • 10.1.1 Production cost of precursor by integration level
    • 10.1.2 Production cost of precursor by type
  • 10.2 Trends in production cost of precursor
  • 10.3 Production cost of cathode
    • 10.3.1 Production cost of cathodes by type
  • 10.4 Trends in production cost of cathode

11. Recycling

  • 11.1 Review
  • 11.2 Recycling technology
    • 11.2.1 Pyrometallurgical processing
    • 11.2.2 Direct recycling
    • 11.2.3 Hydrometallurgical processing
  • 11.3 Recycling forecast
    • 11.3.1 Forecast of recycled cathode materials
    • 11.3.2 Forecast of recovered metals from the cathode materials

12. Cathode patent landscape

  • 12.1 Introduction to cathode patent landscape
    • 12.1.1 Why should we care about cathode patent?
    • 12.1.2 Roskill's methodology
  • 12.2 NCM cathode patent landscape
    • 12.2.1 NCM cathode patent landscape overview
    • 12.2.2 NCM cathode patent Block 1
      • 12.2.2.1 Patent landscape analysis
      • 12.2.2.2 Licensing agreement
      • 12.2.2.3 Patent distribution: Argonne-BASF vs 3M-Umicore
    • 12.2.3 NCM cathode patent Block 2
    • 12.2.4 NCM cathode patent Block 3
      • 12.2.4.1 Patent landscape analysis
      • 12.2.4.2 Licensing agreement
    • 12.2.5 NCM cathode patent Block 4
  • 12.3 LFP cathode patent landscape
    • 12.3.1 Patent landscape analysis
    • 12.3.2 Licensing agreement
    • 12.3.3 LFP cathode patents in China

13. Company profiles

  • 13.1 Precursor manufacturers
    • 13.1.1 GEM
    • 13.1.2 Tanaka Chemical
    • 13.1.3 CNGR
    • 13.1.4 Jinchuan Technology
    • 13.1.5 Brunp
    • 13.1.6 Huayou Cobalt
    • 13.1.7 MCC Ramu
    • 13.1.8 Jinchi Energy
    • 13.1.9 Fangyuan
  • 13.2 Cathode manufacturers
    • 13.2.1 Umicore
    • 13.2.2 Sumitomo Metal Mining
    • 13.2.3 BASF
    • 13.2.4 B&M
    • 13.2.5 Changyuan Lico
    • 13.2.6 Ronbay
    • 13.2.7 Dynanonic
    • 13.2.8 Easpring
    • 13.2.9 ECOPRO
    • 13.2.10 L&F
    • 13.2.11 Nichia Corp
    • 13.2.12 Xiamen Tungsten
    • 13.2.13 Zhenhua E-chem
    • 13.2.14 POSCO

14. Macro-economic

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Comparison of different cathode materials
  • Table 2: Comparison of different Li-ion battery recycling methods
  • Table 3: Production of cathode materials by major manufacturers, 2020
  • Table 4: NCM production and capacity by first-tier producers, 2020
  • Table 5: NCA production and capacity by first-tier producers, 2020
  • Table 6: LFP production and capacity by first-tier producers, 2020
  • Table 7: LCO production and capacity by first-tier producers, 2020
  • Table 8: LMO production and capacity by major producers, 2020
  • Table 9: Production and capacity of precursor by major manufacturers, 2020
  • Table 10: Mining & intermediates & refining integrated cathode/precursor manufacturers
  • Table 11: Intermediates & refining integrated cathode/precursor manufacturers
  • Table 12: Refining integrated cathode/precursor manufacturers
  • Table 13: Offtake agreements of Cobalt hydroxide intermediate by 2020
  • Table 14: Offtake agreements of Nickel hydroxide intermediate by 2020
  • Table 15: Offtake agreements of Lithium salts by 2020
  • Table 16: Main supplier-buyer relationships in ternary precursor materials markets
  • Table 17: Major off-take agreements between precursors and cathode materials manufacturers
  • Table 18: Main supplier-buyer relationships in ternary cathode materials markets
  • Table 19: Main supplier-buyer relationships in LFP cathode materials markets
  • Table 20: Revenue and net profit of major cathode producers in H1 2020
  • Table 21: Major off-take agreements between ternary cathode materials and battery makers
  • Table 22: Major off-take agreements between LFP cathode materials and battery makers
  • Table 23: Comparison of different cathode materials
  • Table 24: Cobalt used in battery technologies, 2013-2030
  • Table 25: Forecast lithium demand from lithium-ion battery cathodes, 2020-2030
  • Table 26: Manganese consumption by form in Li-ion batteries, 2011-2020
  • Table 27: Manganese consumption by form in Li-ion batteries, 2021-2030
  • Table 28: Historical and forecast manganese metal prices, 2000-2030
  • Table 29: World: Forecast manganese sulphate prices (32% Mn EXW China), 2021f-2030f
  • Table 30: Total nickel use in lithium-ion batteries by sector, 2015-2030
  • Table 31: Recoverable Materials via different technologies
  • Table 32: Comparison of different Li-ion battery recycling methods
  • Table 33: Comparison of the characteristics of Mn, Co and Ni in NCM cathodes
  • Table 34: Some influential NCM patents on material composition and manufacturing
  • Table 35: Doping elements in NCM cathode materials
  • Table 36: Surface coating on NCM cathode materials
  • Table 37: Some influential NCM patents on doping and surface coating
  • Table 38: Some influential LFP patents on carbon coating and carbothermic reduction
  • Table 39: GEM: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 40: Tanaka Chemical: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 41: CNGR: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 42: Jinchuan Technology: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 43: Brunp: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 44: Huayou Cobalt: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 45: MCC Ramu: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 46: Jinchi Energy: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 47: Fangyuan: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 48: Umicore: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 49: Sumitomo Metal Mining: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 50: BASF: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 51: B&M: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 52: Changyuan Lico: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 53: Ronbay: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 54: Dynanonic: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 55: Easpring: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 56: ECOPRO: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 57: L&F: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 58: Nichia Corp: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 59: Xiamen Tungsten New Energy: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 60: Zhenhua E-chem: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 61: POSCO: Cathode and ternary precursor capacity, 2020
  • Table 62: Base Case Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 63: Base Case Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 64: Base Case Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 65: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 66: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 67: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2019-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Progress of energy density of Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 2: Element requirements for different NCM cathode materials
  • Figure 3: Comparison of NCM cathode compositions and capacities
  • Figure 4: Production of cathode materials by cathode type, 2020
  • Figure 5: Production of cathode materials by country, 2020
  • Figure 6: Forecast NCM production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 7: Forecast NCA production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 8: Forecast LFP production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 9: Forecast LCO production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 10: Forecast LMO production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 11: Production of NCM precursor by country, 2020
  • Figure 12: Production of NCA precursor by country, 2020
  • Figure 13: Forecast ternary precursor production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 14: Production of integrated ternary precursor materials, 2020
  • Figure 15: Production of integrated cathode materials, 2020
  • Figure 16: Production of integrated ternary precursor materials by RM type,2020
  • Figure 17: Production of integrated cathode materials by RM type, 2020
  • Figure 18: Overview of NCM cathode patents
  • Figure 19: The formation of LiFePO4+C Licensing AG
  • Figure 20: Precursor production cost by type, 2020
  • Figure 21: RM cost forecast of precursors by type, 2020-2030
  • Figure 22: Production cost of cathode by type, 2020
  • Figure 23: Production cost of cathode by type, 2020
  • Figure 24: Production cost forecast of cathode by type, 2020-2030
  • Figure 25: Forecast of potentially recovered metals from the cathode materials, 2020-2030
  • Figure 26: Overview of cathode and precursor materials value chain in 2020
  • Figure 27: Production of cathode materials by cathode type, 2020
  • Figure 28: Production of cathode materials by country, 2020
  • Figure 29: Market share of cathode manufacturers by production, 2020
  • Figure 30: Production of NCM materials by country, 2020
  • Figure 31: Forecast NCM production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 32: Production of NCA materials by country, 2020
  • Figure 33: Forecast NCA production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 34: Production of LFP by country, 2020
  • Figure 35: Forecast LFP production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 36: Production of LCO by country, 2020
  • Figure 37: Forecast LCO production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 38: Production of LMO by country, 2020
  • Figure 39: Forecast LMO production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 40: Production of precursor by manufacturers, 2020
  • Figure 41: Production of NCM precursor by country, 2020
  • Figure 42: Production of NCA precursor by country, 2020
  • Figure 43: Forecast ternary precursor production capacity by country, 2020-2030
  • Figure 44: Global demand of NCM series cathode by end-use market, 2013-2030
  • Figure 45: Global demand of NCA series cathode by end-use market, 2013-2030
  • Figure 46: Global demand of LFP cathode by end-use market, 2013-2030
  • Figure 47: Global demand of LCO cathode by end-use market, 2013-2030
  • Figure 48: Global demand of LMO cathode by end-use market, 2013-2030
  • Figure 49: Self-sufficiency of cathode materials in China, 2016-2030
  • Figure 50: Self-sufficiency of ternary precursor materials in China, 2016-2030
  • Figure 51: Self-sufficiency ratio of nickel sulphate in China, 2016-2030
  • Figure 52: Self-sufficiency ratio of cobalt sulphate in China, 2016-2030
  • Figure 53: Self-sufficiency ratio of lithium salts in China, 2016-2030
  • Figure 54: Self-sufficiency of cathode materials in Europe, 2016-2030
  • Figure 55: Self-sufficiency of ternary precursor materials in Europe, 2016-2030
  • Figure 56: Self-sufficiency ratio of nickel sulphate in Europe, 2016-2030
  • Figure 57: Self-sufficiency ratio of cobalt sulphate in Europe, 2016-2030
  • Figure 58: Self-sufficiency ratio of lithium salts in Europe, 2016-2030
  • Figure 59: Self-sufficiency of cathode materials in USA, 2016-2030
  • Figure 60: Self-sufficiency of ternary precursor materials in USA, 2016-2030
  • Figure 61: Self-sufficiency ratio of nickel sulphate in USA, 2016-2030
  • Figure 62: Self-sufficiency ratio of cobalt sulphate in USA, 2016-2030
  • Figure 63: Self-sufficiency ratio of lithium salts in USA, 2016-2030
  • Figure 64: Self-sufficiency of cathode materials in Japan & South Korea, 2016-2030
  • Figure 65: Self-sufficiency of ternary precursor materials in Japan & South Korea, 2016-2030
  • Figure 66: Self-sufficiency ratio of nickel sulphate in Japan & South Korea, 2016-2030
  • Figure 67: Self-sufficiency ratio of cobalt sulphate in Japan & South Korea, 2016-2030
  • Figure 68: Self-sufficiency ratio of lithium salts in Japan & South Korea, 2016-2030
  • Figure 69: Production of integrated precursor materials by integration level,2020
  • Figure 70: Production of integrated ternary precursor materials by RM type,2020
  • Figure 71: Production of integrated cathode materials by integration level,2020
  • Figure 72: Production of integrated cathode materials by RM type,2020
  • Figure 73: Geographic distribution of integrated ternary precursor production ,2020
  • Figure 74: Geographical distribution of integrated ternary precursor production,2020
  • Figure 75: Geographic distribution of integrated cathode production,2020
  • Figure 76: Geographical distribution of integrated cathode production,2020
  • Figure 77: Nickel market balance, 2020-2030
  • Figure 78: Cobalt market balance, 2013-2030
  • Figure 79: Forecast refined supply and demand of lithium products, 2020-2030
  • Figure 80: The category of ternary precursor producers based on vertical integration
  • Figure 81: Exports of ternary precursor materials to South Korean and Japan from China, 2015-2019
  • Figure 82: China's exports of ternary precursor materials in the first seven months, 2019-2020
  • Figure 83: Gross profit margin of manufacturing ternary precursor materials in different companies, 2015-2019
  • Figure 84: Gross profit margin of manufacturing ternary cathode materials in different companies, 2015-2019
  • Figure 85: Easpring's exports of NCM cathode materials, 2016-2019
  • Figure 86: The percentage of Easpring's NCM cathode materials exports, 2016-2020
  • Figure 87: Guoxuan: Milestones of NCM battery and cathode materials integration development
  • Figure 88: Crystal structure of ideal LiCoO2
  • Figure 89: Lithium-diffusion pathways with lower energy barriers in LCO
  • Figure 90: Evolution of LCO products
  • Figure 91: Crystal structure of ideal LiNiO2 (LNO)
  • Figure 92: Element requirements for different NCM cathode materials
  • Figure 93: Comparison of NCM cathode compositions and capacities
  • Figure 94: Crystal structure of ideal LiMn2O4 (LMO)
  • Figure 95: Lithium-diffusion pathways with lower energy barriers in LMO
  • Figure 96: Crystal structure of ideal LiFePO4 (LFP)
  • Figure 97: Lithium-diffusion pathways in LFP
  • Figure 98: Production of NCM cathode materials by coprecipitation method
  • Figure 99: Scanning electron microscope images of (Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(OH)2 powders at various pH: (a) 11.0; (b) 11.5; and (c) 12.0
  • Figure 100: Scanning electron microscope images of (Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(OH)2 powders at various concentrations of NH4OH: (a) 0.12 mol/dm3; (b) 0.24 mol/dm3; and (c) 0.36 mol/dm3.
  • Figure 101: Scanning electron microscope images of (Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(OH)2 powders at various stirring speed: (a) 400 rpm; (b) 600 rpm; (c) 1000 rpm.
  • Figure 102: Key ingredients in producing ternary cathode materials
  • Figure 103: Schematic diagram of a batch reactor used for ternary precursor production
  • Figure 104: Continuously-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) flow sheet (basic)
  • Figure 105: Schematic illustration of Taylor Vortex Flow Reactor (TVFR) and working principle
  • Figure 106: Ternary precursor and cathode processing technology options
  • Figure 107: Schematic illustration of the structure for LFP particles with typical nano-size and a complete coating
  • Figure 108: Scanning electron microscope images of polycrystalline NCM 523 materials
  • Figure 109: Scanning electron microscope of Focused ion beam cross-section image of polycrystalline NCM 111 particles
  • Figure 110: Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images of polycrystalline NMC622 electrode collected before cycling and after 300 cycles
  • Figure 111: Scanning electron microscope images of single-crystal NCM 622 materials
  • Figure 112: Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images of the single-crystal NMC622 electrode collected before (a) cycling and after 300 cycles (b)
  • Figure 113: Milestones of single-crystal ternary cathodes technology
  • Figure 114: The capacity of NCM 523 and NCM 811 (mAh/g)
  • Figure 115: Element requirements for NCM523 and NCM 811
  • Figure 116: The structure of core-shell NCM material
  • Figure 117: Schematic diagram of concentration-gradient NCM material
  • Figure 118: BASF cathode materials composition diagram
  • Figure 119: Cobalt demand from rechargeable battery applications versus total cobalt demand, 2020-2030
  • Figure 120: Forecast production of refined cobalt, by form, 2013-2030
  • Figure 121: Forecast production of cobalt chemicals, by form, 2013-2030
  • Figure 122: Forecast market balance of cobalt chemicals, 2013-2030
  • Figure 123: Base-case outlook for cobalt metal prices vs. 10-year average, low and high prices, 2019-2030
  • Figure 124: Lithium demand from rechargeable battery applications versus total lithium demand, 2020-2030
  • Figure 125: Distribution of lithium consumption by cathode type, 2020
  • Figure 126: Forecast refined supply and demand of lithium products, 2020-2030
  • Figure 127: Quarterly spot and contract prices for BG lithium carbonate and hydroxide, Q1-2018-Q3-2020
  • Figure 128: Forecast BG lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide prices (contract), 2020-2030
  • Figure 129: Manganese consumption in battery applications versus total manganese demand, 2011-2030
  • Figure 130: Primary nickel use in lithium-ion and non-lithium-ion uses, 2013-2030
  • Figure 131: Forecast market balance, 2020-2030
  • Figure 132: LME nickel cash price forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 133: Cost curve for NCM precursor by producers, 2020
  • Figure 134: Cost curve for NCA precursor by producers, 2020
  • Figure 135: Precursor production cost by type, 2020
  • Figure 136: Precursor RM cost structure, 2010-2020
  • Figure 137: RM cost forecast of precursors by type, 2020-2030
  • Figure 138: RM price movements forecast, based on 2020
  • Figure 139: RM cost and price forecast of NCM811 precursor, 2020-2030
  • Figure 140: Production cost of cathode by type, 2020
  • Figure 141: Production cost of cathode by type, 2020
  • Figure 142: Production cost of NCM cathode by metal content, 2020
  • Figure 143: Production cost forecast of NCM cathode,2020-2030
  • Figure 144: Production cost forecast of NCA cathode,2020-2030
  • Figure 145: Production cost forecast of LFP cathode,2020-2030
  • Figure 146: Production cost forecast of LCO cathode, 2020-2030
  • Figure 147: Production cost forecast of LMO cathode,2020-2030
  • Figure 148: Process diagram of a generic pyrometallurgical recycling process
  • Figure 149: Process diagram of a generic direct recycling process
  • Figure 150: Schematic diagram of relithiation process
  • Figure 151: Schematic diagram of cathode upcycling process
  • Figure 152: Process diagram of a generic hydrometallurgical recycling process
  • Figure 153: Li-ion battery cathode demand, EOL (End-of-life) and recycled, 2020-2030
  • Figure 154: Cathodes from Li-ion batteries reaching EOL by chemistry, 2020-2030
  • Figure 155: Forecast of potentially recovered metals from the cathode materials, 2020-2030
  • Figure 156: Forecast of potentially recycled lithium (LCE) by cathode chemistry, 2020-2030
  • Figure 157: Forecast of potentially recycled nickel by cathode chemistry, 2020-2030
  • Figure 158: Forecast of potentially recycled cobalt by cathode chemistry, 2020-2030
  • Figure 159: Forecast of potentially recycled manganese by cathode chemistry, 2020-2030
  • Figure 160: Overview of NCM cathode patents
  • Figure 161: Diagram of the relationship between NCM composition and structure
  • Figure 162: Argonne-BASF's NCM materials patent agreement
  • Figure 163: 3M-Umicore's NCM materials patent agreement
  • Figure 164: Capacity retention of doped and primary NCM811 at 45oC
  • Figure 165: Diagram of gradient materials
  • Figure 166: GEMXTM engineered grain boundaries of high-nickel, low-cobalt materials
  • Figure 167: Gradient materials patent agreement
  • Figure 168: CAMX materials patent agreement
  • Figure 169: Carbon-coated LFP particle
  • Figure 170: Carbothermic reduced LFP+carbon mixture
  • Figure 171: The formation of LiFePO4+C Licensing AG
  • Figure 172: LFP materials patent LiFePO4+C AG sub-licensing agreement