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市場調查報告書

世界Chrome市場:2030年展望,第16版

Chromium: Outlook to 2030, 16th Edition

出版商 Roskill Information Services 商品編碼 942686
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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世界Chrome市場:2030年展望,第16版 Chromium: Outlook to 2030, 16th Edition
出版日期: 2020年06月24日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

鉻是一種源自鉻鐵礦的礦物。鉻鐵礦可直接用於鑄造廠和耐火砂中,或轉化為重鉻酸鈉以提煉成其他化學品和鉻金屬,但其主要用途是用於鋼鐵行業的合金生產。它是用於鉻鐵爐的。超過95%的鉻用於冶金應用,僅不袗就佔2019年消費量的78%。另一方面,鉻鐵礦的生產集中在南非,全球超過75%的鉻鐵礦儲量和資源集中在南非,每年約佔世界鉻礦產量的60%。其他生產商包括哈薩克斯坦,印度,土耳其,芬蘭和津巴布韋,它們佔這些國家鉻鐵礦供應量的30%以上。過去20年鉻鐵礦供應的增加與中國的發展密切相關,中國的發展已增長至2019年佔世界鉻鐵產量的45%。亞鉻酸鹽和鉻鐵的價格在整個2019年繼續下跌,但由於主要生產國的減產以及由於2020年第一季度新的冠狀病毒感染性疾病(COVID-19)爆發而導致需求吃緊,價格下跌。可能會提前停止下降。未來,隨著全球不袗產量的增長,需求將迅速增長4%至10%,然後將穩定在2%至3%的增長率。

該報告是對全球鉻市場的調查,顯示了供應鏈的流動,世界生產和消費,生產成本,國際交易,未來前景,生產國和公司的概況,消費趨勢。我們提供諸如此類的信息。

內容

  • 1。執行摘要
  • 2。供應鏈流程圖
  • 3。世界生產狀況
  • 4。生產成本
  • 5。世界消費狀況
  • 6。國際貿易
  • 7。價格
  • 8。展望
  • 9。背景
  • 10。可持續發展
  • 11。原產國資料
  • 12。公司簡介
  • 13。應用消耗量
目錄

Chromium is sourced from the mineral chromite, its only currently economic occurrence. Chromite is used directly in industrial foundry and refractory sands or converted into sodium dichromate for further refinement into other chemicals and chromium metal, but the main consumption is in ferrochrome furnaces to produce an alloy used by the steel industry. Over 95% of chromium consumption is attributable to metallurgical applications, with stainless steel alone represented 78% of consumption in 2019. Trends in stainless steel production are, therefore, the main determinant for chromium demand.

South Africa hosts over 75% of the world's chromite reserves and resources and accounts for approximately 60% of annual global chromium ore production. Kazakhstan, India, Turkey, Finland and Zimbabwe together account for over 30% of global chromite supply, making up the rest of the key producers. High prices in early 2017 encouraged large volumes of additional supply from South African and over the three years that followed production increases have outpaced the growth in demand from the steel sector, solidifying a structural surplus that has suppressed prices.

Prices for chromite and ferrochrome have fallen to below the 50th percentile of their respective cost curves towards the end of 2019, making the majority of production unprofitable. The low prices have been underpinned by weak markets and growing stainless steel inventories, but also by additional low-cost by-product chromite, extracted from tailings of the platinum group metal (PGM) UG2 reef mined from South Africa's Bushveld Igneous Complex. UG2 chromite supply grew at double-digit rates for a consecutive year in 2019, while primary chromite production in South Africa declined for the first time since 2011.

The growth in chromite supply over the last two decades has closely followed developments in China, where increasing ferrochrome capacity (requiring imported feed) to service the country's stainless steel industry has outpaced other producing regions. China has grown to account for 45% of global ferrochrome production in 2019 and Roskill forecasts its market share to jump to over 50% as non-Chinese stainless steel production stagnates and existing ferrochrome producers outside of China face challenges from declining markets, hiking electricity prices and, looking forward, potential competition from Chinese producers.

The niche chromium chemical and refined metal markets accounted for just below 3% of the total market in 2019. Prices for these niche products have followed different trends to chromium ores and ferrochrome, with chromium metal having reached a potential price floor in Q1 2020. The low metal price together with surplus chromium chemical supply saw sodium dichromate prices correct downwards, after following a steady upwards trend since 2017.

The chromite and ferrochrome markets were forecast to rebalance in 2020, following closures and cutbacks in production from key producers as low prices persisted throughout 2019. The outbreak of COVID-19 over Q1 2020 has already begun to ripple through the chromium industry. With the Chinese steel industry returning its furnaces into operation, available chromite stocks will only account for three months of demand, should supply be limited from South Africa and other producers moving into lockdown in order to curb the spread of COVID-19. Even if the lockdown period can be limited, the impacts of COVID-19 will likely accelerate the rebalancing expected for the chromium industry in 2020.

After several years of 4-10%py growth in demand driven by stainless steel production, the longer-term chromium market is forecast to move into a period of more modest demand growth of 2-3%py. How is demand likely to be impacted by COVID-19? Roskill is tracking the macroeconomic data on an ongoing basis and updating its forecast assumptions with high- and low-case scenario analysis for the chromium industry.

With thorough analysis of supply, demand, trade, and prices, complete with historical trends and detailed ten-year forecasts, Roskill's offers you your comprehensive chromium report. Roskill's report includes quarterly chromium updates, which keeps you informed of industry news and trends, and allows us to provide you with up-to-date supply, demand and price forecasts on a quarterly basis.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • How do chromium ore and ferrochrome producers compare on the global cost curve?
  • Can a struggling South African ferrochrome industry recover amid further electricity tariff hikes?
  • What has been the impact of UG2 concentrate production on the sector and how will this develop in the future?
  • What are the trends underpinning demand for chromium metal and chemicals?
  • Which factors drive prices for chromium products and how will prices fare to 2030?

Subscribe now and receive:

  • Detailed report with ten-year forecasts for demand, supply and prices
  • Access to the report via Roskill Interactive for up to 5 users
  • Quarterly updates to keep you up to speed on our latest view of the industry
  • Access to Roskill specialists for key market queries
  • Option to download tables and graphs from the report
  • A summary PowerPoint of key report findings

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Market overview
  • 1.2. Chromium demand
  • 1.3. Ferrochrome
  • 1.4. Chromite ores and concentrates
  • 1.5. Speciality-grade chromite and niche markets
  • 1.6. Chromium prices and outlook

2. Chromium flowchart

  • 3. World production
  • 3.1. Chromite ores and concentrates
    • 3.1.1. Chromite supply by grade
    • 3.1.2. Chromite capacity
    • 3.1.3. UG2 chromite supply
  • 3.2. High-carbon ferrochrome and charge chrome
    • 3.2.1. High-carbon ferrochrome production by grade
    • 3.2.2. High-carbon ferrochrome capacity
  • 3.3. Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome production
    • 3.3.1. Low- and medium-carbon ferrochrome capacity
  • 3.4. Chromium chemicals
  • 3.5. Chromium metal

4. Cost of Production

  • 4.1. Chromium ore
    • 4.1.1. Trends in chromium ore production costs
      • 4.1.1.1. Mine costs
      • 4.1.1.2. Trucking and railing costs
      • 4.1.1.3. Shipping costs
      • 4.1.1.4. Royalties and sales commissions
  • 4.2. High-carbon & charge ferrochrome
    • 4.2.1. Trends in HC FeCr production costs
      • 4.2.1.1. Chromium ore costs
      • 4.2.1.2. Electricity costs
      • 4.2.1.3. Reductant costs
      • 4.2.1.4. Labour costs

5. World consumption

  • 5.1. Consumption of chromite
  • 5.2. Consumption of ferrochrome
  • 5.3. Consumption of chemicals
  • 5.4. Consumption of chromium metal

6. International trade

  • 6.1. Trade in chromite ores and concentrates
    • 6.1.1. Ore and concentrate trade flows in 2019
  • 6.2. Trade in ferrochrome
    • 6.2.1. High-carbon ferrochrome & charge chrome
    • 6.2.2. Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome
    • 6.2.3. Ferrochrome trade flows in 2019
  • 6.3. Trade in chromium chemicals
    • 6.3.1. Sodium dichromate
    • 6.3.2. Chromium sulphate
    • 6.3.3. Chromium trioxide & chromic acid
    • 6.3.4. Other chromium oxides
  • 6.4. Trade in chromium metal
    • 6.4.1. Chromium metal trade flows

7. Prices

  • 7.1. Prices for metallurgical-grade chromite
    • 7.1.1. Speciality grade ores
  • 7.2. Prices for HC ferrochrome and charge chrome
  • 7.3. Prices for medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome
  • 7.4. Prices for chromium chemicals
  • 7.5. Prices for chromium metal

8. Outlook to 2029

  • 8.1. Chromium market balance
  • 8.2. Demand outlook
    • 8.2.1. Prolonged recession and long-term low-case scenario
  • 8.3. Supply outlook
    • 8.3.1. Primary versus secondary supply
    • 8.3.2. Outlook for ferrochrome supply
      • 8.3.2.1. Ferroalloy industrial parks in Asia
      • 8.3.2.2. Listed ferrochrome projects
    • 8.3.3. Outlook for chromite supply
      • 8.3.3.1. Outlook for South African supply
      • 8.3.3.2. Listed chromite projects
  • 8.4. Chromite price outlook
    • 8.4.1. Speciality-grade chromite
  • 8.5. Ferrochrome price outlook
  • 8.6. Chromium chemicals & metal price outlook

9. Background

  • 9.1. Occurrence
  • 9.2. Reserves and resources
  • 9.3. Mining of chrome ore
    • 9.3.1. Grades of chromite
  • 9.4. Processing of ferrochrome
    • 9.4.1. Grades of ferrochrome
    • 9.4.2. Processing of high-carbon ferrochrome and charge chrome
      • 9.4.2.1. Technologies to reduce energy consumptions and costs
    • 9.4.3. Processing of low-carbon ferrochrome
  • 9.5. Processing of chromium chemicals
    • 9.5.1. Sodium dichromate
    • 9.5.2. Other chromates and dichromate chemicals
    • 9.5.3. Chromic acid
    • 9.5.4. Basic chromium sulphate (BCS)
    • 9.5.5. Chrome oxide
  • 9.6. Processing of chromium metal

10. Sustainability

  • 10.1. Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 10.1.1. Environmental
      • 10.1.1.1. Environmental pollution
      • 10.1.1.2. Energy consumption and emissions
      • 10.1.1.3. IMO shipping regulations
      • 10.1.1.4. Biodiversity and land use
    • 10.1.2. Social
      • 10.1.2.1. Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 10.1.2.2. Human rights
    • 10.1.3. Governance
      • 10.1.3.1. Corruption
      • 10.1.3.2. Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 10.2. Critical raw materials
  • 10.3. Responsible sourcing initiatives
    • 10.3.1. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 10.3.2. Global Reporting Initiative
    • 10.3.3. Responsible Mining Index
    • 10.3.4. Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance

11. Country profiles

  • 11.1. Afghanistan
  • 11.1. Albania
  • 11.2. Argentina
  • 11.3. Australia
  • 11.4. Bahrain
  • 11.5. Botswana
  • 11.6. Brazil
  • 11.7. Canada
  • 11.8. China
  • 11.8.1. Furnace regulations
  • 11.8.2. Environmental regulations
  • 11.9. Côte d'Ivoire
  • 11.10. Finland
  • 11.11. France
  • 11.12. Germany
  • 11.13. India
  • 11.14. Indonesia
  • 11.15. Iran
  • 11.16. Italy
  • 11.17. Japan
  • 11.18. Kazakhstan
  • 11.19. Kosovo
  • 11.20. Madagascar
  • 11.21. Malaysia
  • 11.22. Mauritania
  • 11.23. Mexico
  • 11.24. Myanmar
  • 11.25. New Caledonia
  • 11.26. Nigeria
  • 11.27. Oman
  • 11.28. Pakistan
  • 11.29. Papua New Guinea
  • 11.30. Philippines
  • 11.31. Poland
  • 11.32. Romania
  • 11.33. Russia
  • 11.34. Slovakia
  • 11.35. South Africa
  • 11.36. Spain
  • 11.37. Sudan
  • 11.38. Sweden
  • 11.39. Turkey
  • 11.40. UAE
  • 11.41. UK
  • 11.42. Uruguay
  • 11.43. USA
  • 11.44. Vietnam
  • 11.45. Zimbabwe

12. Company profiles

  • 12.1. Afarak
    • 12.1.1. South Africa
    • 12.1.2. Turkey
    • 12.1.3. Germany
  • 12.2. Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals Plant
  • 12.3. AMG Superalloys UK
  • 12.4. Assore
  • 12.5. CITIC Jinzhou Metal
  • 12.6. Delachaux (DCX) Chrome
  • 12.7. Elementis Chromium
  • 12.8. Fushun Ferroalloy
  • 12.9. Indian Metals and Ferro Alloys (IMFA)
  • 12.10. Glencore-Merafe
  • 12.11. Kazchrome (ERG)
  • 12.12. Lanxess
  • 12.13. MidUral Group - Russian Super Alloys (RSAMG)
    • 12.13.1. Russian chromium Chemicals 1915
    • 12.13.2. Dirox
    • 12.13.3. F.W. Winter
  • 12.14. Minfeng Chemical
  • 12.15. Mintal
  • 12.16. Novotroitsk Chromium Compounds Plant
  • 12.17. Odisha Mining Corporation (OMC)
  • 12.18. Outokumpu
  • 12.19. Samancor Chrome
    • 12.19.1. IFM South Africa (2016 acquisition)
    • 12.19.2. ASA Metals (2017 acquisition)
    • 12.19.3. Hernic (2019 acquisition)
  • 12.20. Sichuan Yinhe Chemical
  • 12.21. Soda Sanayii
    • 12.21.1. Kromsan
    • 12.21.2. Cromital
  • 12.22. Tata Steel
  • 12.23. Tharisa
  • 12.24. Vishnu Chemicals
  • 12.25. Xin Ganglian
  • 12.26. Yildirim Group / Yilmaden Holding
    • 12.26.1. Eti Krom
    • 12.26.2. Tikhvin Ferroalloy Plant (TFP)
    • 12.26.3. Vargön Alloys
    • 12.26.4. Voskhod
    • 12.26.5. YilKrom

13. Consumption in first-use applications

  • 13.1. Stainless steel
    • 13.1.1. Consumption of chromium in stainless steel
      • 13.1.1.1. Outlook for chromium in stainless steel
    • 13.1.2. Grades of stainless steel
    • 13.1.3. Historical stainless steel production
    • 13.1.4. Stainless steel scrap
      • 13.1.4.1. Impact of scrap use on ferrochrome grades consumed
    • 13.1.5. End uses of stainless steel
    • 13.1.6. Outlook for stainless steel
  • 13.2. Other metallurgical applications
    • 13.2.1. Consumption of chromium in other steel applications
      • 13.2.1.1. Outlook of chromium in other steels
    • 13.2.3. Carbon steels
      • 13.2.3.1. Types of carbon steels
    • 13.2.5. Alloy engineering steels
      • 13.2.5.1. Full alloy steels
      • 13.2.5.2. HSLA steels
    • 13.2.6. Tool and high-speed steels
      • 13.2.6.1. Plastic mould steels
      • 13.2.6.2. Cold work tool steels
      • 13.2.6.3. Hot work tool steels
      • 13.2.6.4. High-speed tool steels
    • 13.2.7. High-performance alloys
      • 13.2.7.1. Production of HPA/superalloys
      • 13.2.7.2. Definition and composition
      • 13.2.7.3. Heat-, wear- and corrosion-resistant alloys
      • 13.2.7.4. Superalloys
      • 13.2.7.5. Markets for HPA
      • 13.2.7.6. Recycling
    • 13.2.8. Minor metallurgical applications
      • 13.2.8.1. Other non-ferrous alloys
      • 13.2.8.2. Thin-film coatings
      • 13.2.8.3. Welding and hard-facing alloys
    • 13.2.9. Historical crude steel production
    • 13.2.10. Outlook for crude steel production
  • 13.3. Chromium chemicals
    • 13.3.1. Consumption of chromium in chemicals
    • 13.3.2. Outlook for chromium chemical markets
    • 13.3.3. Leather tanning
      • 13.3.3.1. Markets for leather tanning
      • 13.3.3.2. Outlook for leather tanning
      • 13.3.3.3. Environmental concerns for leather tanning
    • 13.3.4. Chromium metal
      • 13.3.4.1. Outlook for chromium metal demand
    • 13.3.5. Metal finishing
      • 13.3.5.1. Markets for metal finishing
      • 13.3.5.2. Outlook for metal finishing
      • 13.3.5.3. Environmental factors metal finishing
      • 13.3.5.4. TripleHard trivalent chromium plating
    • 13.3.6. Pigments
      • 13.3.6.1. Types of chromium pigments
      • 13.3.6.2. Outlook for pigments
    • 13.3.7. Wood preservatives
      • 13.3.7.1. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
      • 13.3.7.2. Alternative wood preservatives
      • 13.3.7.3. Outlook for wood preservatives
      • 13.3.7.4. Environmental factors of wood preservatives
    • 13.3.8. Minor applications for chromium chemicals
  • 13.4. Foundry sands
    • 13.4.1. Types of foundry sand
      • 13.4.1.1. Properties of chromite foundry sands
    • 13.4.2. Consumption of chromium in foundries
      • 13.4.2.1. Plugging sands/sliding gates in steel work ladles
      • 13.4.2.2. Substitution trends
      • 13.4.2.3. Reclamation trends
      • 13.4.2.4. Additive manufacturing
      • 13.4.2.5. Outlook for chromium consumption in foundries
    • 13.4.3. Trends in global castings production
      • 13.4.3.1. Outlook for castings to 2030
  • 13.5. Refractories
    • 13.5.1. Consumption of chromium in refractories
      • 13.5.1.1. Outlook for chromium in refractories
    • 13.5.2. Types of refractories
      • 13.5.2.1. Types of refractories containing chromium
      • 13.5.2.2. Hexavalent chromium in refractories
    • 13.5.3. Trends in refractories production
      • 13.5.3.1. Production by region
      • 13.5.3.2. Production by type
      • 13.5.3.3. Outlook for refractories to 2030
    • 13.5.4. Consumption of refractories by end-use

14. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Mine production of chromium ores and concentrates, 2014-2020
  • Table 2: World: Chromium ores and concentrates capacity, 2020
  • Table 3: World: High-carbon FeCr and charge chrome production, 2014-2020
  • Table 4: World: Ferrochrome capacity, 2020
  • Table 5: World: Ferrochrome capacity utilisation, 2019
  • Table 6: World: Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome production, 2014-2020
  • Table 7: World: Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome capacity, 2020
  • Table 8: World: Chromium chemicals production, 2014-2020
  • Table 9: Chromium chemicals capacity estimates, 2020
  • Table 10: World: Chromium metal production, 2010-2020
  • Table 11: Chromium metal capacity estimates, 2019
  • Table 12: Exchange rate developments in major chromium ore and ferrochrome producing countries, 2012-2020
  • Table 13: World consumption of chromium units, 2014-2020
  • Table 14: World consumption of chromium in steel alloys by type, 2014-2020
  • Table 15: World: Consumption of chromium chemicals, 2010-2019
  • Table 16: World: Apparent consumption of chrome metal, 2010-2019
  • Table 17: World: Exports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2014-2019
  • Table 18: World: Imports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2014-2019
  • Table 19: World: Exports of HC/charge ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Table 20: World: Imports of HC/charge ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Table 21: World: Exports of medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Table 22: World: Imports of medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Table 23: World: Exports of sodium dichromate, 2014-2019
  • Table 24: World: Imports of sodium dichromate, 2014-2019
  • Table 25: World: Exports of chromium trioxide, 2014-2019
  • Table 26: World: Imports of chromium trioxide, 2014-2019
  • Table 27: World: Exports of other chromium oxides, 2014-2019
  • Table 28: World: Imports of other chromium oxides, 2014-2019
  • Table 29: Exports of chromium metal, 2014-2019
  • Table 30: Imports of chromium metal, 2014-2019
  • Table 31: Quarterly Turkish lump and South African concentrate prices, CIF China
  • Table 32: Quarterly speciality-grade concentrate prices, FOB South Africa
  • Table 33: Quarterly high-carbon ferrochrome prices
  • Table 34: Annual export prices of lower-carbon ferrochrome
  • Table 35: Chromium market balance, 2014-2020
  • Table 36: Chromium demand outlook, 2020-2030
  • Table 37: World: Potential additional ferrochrome capacity to 2030
  • Table 38: World: Potential additional ore capacity to 2030
  • Table 39: Chromite price forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 40: Speciality-grade Chrome ores price forecast, 2019-2029
  • Table 41: Ferrochrome price forecasts, 2020-2030
  • Table 42: Sodium dichromate and chrome metal price forecasts, 2020-2030
  • Table 43: Physical properties of chromium
  • Table 44: Traditional classification of chrome ores
  • Table 45: Physical properties of chromium
  • Table 46: World: Resources of chromite
  • Table 47: USGS: Reserves of chromite
  • Table 48: Composition of typical chromite
  • Table 49: Comparison of typical UG2 and LG6 chromite concentrate composition
  • Table 50: Typical specifications for refractory-grade chromite
  • Table 51: Typical specifications for foundry-grade chromite
  • Table 52: Typical specifications for chemical-grade chromite
  • Table 53: Chromium to carbon ratio of steel alloys and ferrochrome
  • Table 54: Standard specifications for chromium ferroalloys
  • Table 55: Composition of charge chrome versus high-carbon ferrochrome
  • Table 56: Typical ferrochrome compositions using various chrome ore feedstocks
  • Table 57: Chromium recovery and energy consumption for different furnaces
  • Table 58: Outotec: Technical specifications for chromite sintering furnaces
  • Table 59: Outotec: Sintering technology installed
  • Table 60: Formulae, molecular weights and chromium contents of selected chemicals
  • Table 61: Kromsan: Properties of anhydrous sodium dichromate
  • Table 62: Vishnu Chemicals: Properties of potassium dichromate
  • Table 63: Kromsan: Properties of chromic acid
  • Table 64: Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals: Composition of chromium sulphate
  • Table 65: Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals: Composition of metallurgical-grade chrome oxide
  • Table 66: LSM: Specifications for aluminothermic chromium metal
  • Table 67: Polema: Specifications for electrolytic chromium metal
  • Table 68: Chromium chemical industry and pollution comparison, 2011
  • Table 69: Chromium recovery and energy consumption for different furnaces
  • Table 70: Chromite production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Table 71: Chromite production vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Table 72: Chromite production vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index
  • Table 73: Critical raw materials identified by key Government bodies
  • Table 74: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2019
  • Table 75: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 76: Afghanistan: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 77: Afghanistan: Details of operations
  • Table 78: Albania: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 79: Albania: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 80: Argentina: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 81: Argentina: Details of operations
  • Table 82: Australia: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 83: Australia: Details of operations and projects
  • Table 84: Bahrain: Details of project
  • Table 85: Botswana: Details of project
  • Table 86: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 87: Brazil: Details of operations
  • Table 88: Canada: Classified chromium resources in Ring of Fire
  • Table 89: Canada: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 90: Canada: Details of projects
  • Table 91: China: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 92: China: List of high-carbon ferrochrome producers and capacities, 2020
  • Table 93: China: List of major low- & medium-carbon ferrochrome producers, 2020
  • Table 94: China: List of major chromium chemicals producers, 2019
  • Table 95: China: List of major chromium metal producers and capacities, 2019
  • Table 96: China: Capacities and the number of furnaces of HC FeCr by furnace size, province and region, March 2020
  • Table 97: China: List of high-carbon ferrochrome producers with furnaces of 30,000kVA and above, March 2020
  • Table 98: Chromium chemical industry and pollution comparison, 2011
  • Table 99: Côte d'Ivoire: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 100: Finland: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 101: Finland: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 102: France: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 103: France: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 104: Germany: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 105: Germany: Details of operations
  • Table 106: India: Reserves and resources of chromium ore by state, 2015
  • Table 107: India: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 108: India: Details of chromite operations
  • Table 109: India: Details of ferrochrome, chemicals and metal operations
  • Table 110: India: Details of projects
  • Table 111: Indonesia: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 112: Indonesia: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 113: Iran: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 114: Iran: Details of operations
  • Table 115: Iran: Small-scale chromite producers
  • Table 116: Iran: Details of projects
  • Table 117: Italy: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 118: Italy: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 119: Japan: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 120: Japan: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 121: Kazakhstan: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 122: Kazakhstan: Details of operations
  • Table 123: Madagascar: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 124: Madagascar: Details of operations
  • Table 125: Mexico: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 126: Mexico: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 127: Oman: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 128: Oman: Details of operations
  • Table 129: Oman: Details of projects
  • Table 130: Pakistan: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 131: Pakistan: Details of projects &operations
  • Table 132: Papua New Guinea: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 133: Philippines: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 134: Philippines: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 135: Poland: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 136: Poland: Details of operations
  • Table 137: Romania: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 138: Romania: Details of operations
  • Table 139: Russia: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 140: Russia: Details of operations
  • Table 141: Russia: Details of projects
  • Table 142: South Africa: Typical LG6, MG2 and UG6 chromite concentrate compositions
  • Table 143: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 144: South Africa: Details of primary chromite operations and projects
  • Table 145: South Africa: Details of UG2 operations
  • Table 146: South Africa: Details of ore processing plants
  • Table 147: South Africa: Details of ferrochrome operations
  • Table 148: South Africa: Details of chromium chemicals operations
  • Table 149: Spain: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 150: Spain: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 151: Sudan: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 152: Sudan: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 153: Sweden: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 154: Sweden: Details of projects
  • Table 155: Turkey: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 156: Turkey: Details of main operations
  • Table 157: UAE: Details of projects
  • Table 158: UAE: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 159: UAE: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 160: UK: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 161: UK: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 162: Uruguay: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 163: Uruguay: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 164: USA: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 165: USA: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 166: Vietnam: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 167: Vietnam: Details of operations
  • Table 168: Zimbabwe: Summary statistics, 2014-2019
  • Table 169: Zimbabwe: Details of ore operations and projects
  • Table 170: Zimbabwe: Details of ferrochrome operations and projects
  • Table 171: List of company profiles and product capacity
  • Table 172: Afarak
  • Table 173: Afarak: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 174: Afarak: South African resources and reserves (excluding Zeerust)
  • Table 175: Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals Plant
  • Table 176: Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals Plant: Overview of capacities
  • Table 177: AMG Superalloys UK
  • Table 178: Assore
  • Table 179: Assore: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 180: CITIC Jinzhou Metal
  • Table 181: CITIC Jinzhou Metal: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 182: DCX
  • Table 183: Elementis Chromium
  • Table 184: Fushun Ferroalloy
  • Table 185: Fushun Ferroalloy: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 186: IFMA
  • Table 187: IFMA: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 188: Glencore (79.5%)
  • Table 189: Merafe (20.5%)
  • Table 190: Glencore-Merafe: Summary overview of chromium operations
  • Table 191: Kazchrome
  • Table 192: Kazchrome: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 193: Kazchrome: Chromium resources and reserves
  • Table 194: Lanxess
  • Table 195: Lanxess: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 196: MidUral
  • Table 197: MidUral: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 198: Minfeng Chemical
  • Table 199: Minfeng Chemical: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 200: Mintal
  • Table 201: Comparison operating statistics of new and old plant
  • Table 202: Mintal: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 203: Novotroitsk
  • Table 204: Odisha Mining Corporation
  • Table 205: Odisha Mining Corporation: Overview of mining leases, March 2017
  • Table 206: Outokumpu
  • Table 207: Outokumpu: Summary overview of chromium operations
  • Table 208: Outokumpu: Kemi mine resources and reserves
  • Table 209: Outokumpu: Tornio production capacity for chromite
  • Table 210: Samancor Chrome
  • Table 211: Samancor: Summary overview of chromium operations
  • Table 212: Sichuan Yinhe Chemical
  • Table 213: Yinhe Chemical: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 214: Soda Sanayii
  • Table 215: Soda Sanayii: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 216: Kromsan
  • Table 217: Kromsan: Product capacity
  • Table 218: Cromital
  • Table 219: Tata Steel
  • Table 220: Tata Steel: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 221: Tharisa
  • Table 222: Tharisa: Resources and reserves, 2019
  • Table 223: Tharisa: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 224: Vishnu Chemicals
  • Table 225: Xin Ganglian
  • Table 226: Xin Ganglian: Summary overview of operations and projects
  • Table 227: Yilmaden Holding (Yildirim Group)
  • Table 228: Yildirim Group: Summary overview of chromium operations
  • Table 229: Eti Krom: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 230: Consumption of chromium in stainless steel by country, 2010-2020
  • Table 231: Forecast consumption of chromium in stainless steel by type, 2020-2030
  • Table 232: COVID-19 scenario forecast of chromium demand in stainless steel, 2020-2030
  • Table 233: Effects of alloying elements on stainless steel properties
  • Table 234: Composition of widely used stainless steels
  • Table 235: Production of crude stainless steel, 2013-2019
  • Table 236: Selected trade protection measures imposed on Indonesian stainless steel, 2020
  • Table 237: Net imports of stainless steel scrap, 2012-2019
  • Table 238: Base-case stainless steel production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 239: Typical chromium and carbon content of ferrochrome and steels products
  • Table 240: Consumption of chromium in other steels products, 2010-2020
  • Table 241: Forecast consumption of chromium in non-stainless steels, 2020-2030
  • Table 242: Composition of typical carbon steel
  • Table 243: Alloying elements and their effects
  • Table 244: Composition of selected full alloy steels containing chromium
  • Table 245: HSLA linepipe steel produced by US Steel
  • Table 246: Applications for HSLA steels in automobiles
  • Table 247: Properties of high-strength and advanced high-strength steels used in automobiles
  • Table 248: Composition of typical structural steels
  • Table 249: Comparison of properties of carbon steels and tool steels
  • Table 250: World: Leading producers of tool steels
  • Table 251: Selection of plastic mould steels containing chromium
  • Table 252: Types of cold work tool steels
  • Table 253: Compositions of cold work tool and die steels containing chromium
  • Table 254: Compositions of chromium-bearing hot work tool/die steels
  • Table 255: Composition of high-speed steels containing chromium
  • Table 256: Producers of superalloys
  • Table 257: Elements and their function in HPA
  • Table 258: Composition of typical single-crystal nickel-based superalloys
  • Table 259: World: Leading manufacturers of aircraft engines
  • Table 260: Forecast metal consumption in aeroplane turbine engines, 2018-2025
  • Table 261: Nominal composition of three leading nickel-based superalloy
  • Table 262: Applications for chromium sputtering targets
  • Table 263: Historical production of crude steel, 2009-2019
  • Table 264: Forecast production of crude steel, 2020-2030
  • Table 265: World: Consumption of chromium chemicals, 2010-2020
  • Table 266: World: Consumption of chromium chemicals, 2010-2020
  • Table 267: Forecast: Consumption of chromium chemicals, 2020-2030
  • Table 268: Leather tanning consumption of basic chromium sulphate, 2010-2020
  • Table 269: Chromium metal consumption of chromium oxide equivalent, 2010-2020
  • Table 270: Metal finishing consumption of chromic acid, 2010-2020
  • Table 271: Pigment consumption of chrome oxides, 2010-2020
  • Table 272: Wood preservation consumption of chromic acid, 2010-2020
  • Table 273: Comparison of foundry sand properties
  • Table 274: Properties of chromite foundry sands
  • Table 275: Foundry-grade chromium demand, 2010-2020
  • Table 276: Foundry-grade chromium demand by region, 2010-2020
  • Table 277: Composition of plugging sands in steel works
  • Table 278: Forecast foundry-grade chromium demand, 2020-2030
  • Table 279: World: Production of castings by type, 2010-2019
  • Table 280: World: Production of castings by region, 2010-2019
  • Table 281: Main applications for castings by type
  • Table 282: Forecast: Production of castings by region, 2020-2030
  • Table 283: Consumption of chromium in refractories, 2010-2020
  • Table 284: Properties of mag-chrome bricks produced by Sinosteel Refractories
  • Table 285: Saint-Gobain SEFPRO: Sintered high chromium oxide products
  • Table 286: World: Estimated production of refractories by country/region, 2010-2020
  • Table 287: Japan: Production of refractories by type, 2008-2018
  • Table 288: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 289: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 290: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 291: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 292: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 293: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 294: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 295: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 296: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2019-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: World: Chromium consumption by application, 2010-2030
  • Figure 2: World: Chromium consumption by region, 2010-2030
  • Figure 3: Production of HC ferrochrome and charge chrome, by country, 2000-2022
  • Figure 4: Outlook: Ferrochrome supply-demand balance, 2019-2030
  • Figure 5: Chromite production by country, 2000-2022
  • Figure 6: Outlook: Chromite supply-demand balance, 2019-2030
  • Figure 7: Chromite consumption in speciality-grade applications, 2010-2020
  • Figure 8: World: Chromium consumption in non-steel applications, 2010-2030
  • Figure 9: Index prices of chromite, HC ferrochrome, and stainless steel (January 2015 = 100)
  • Figure 10: Outlook: Annual chromite and FeCr prices, 2019-2030
  • Figure 11: Flowchart for the chromium supply chain
  • Figure 12: World: Historical production of chromite, 2000-2020
  • Figure 13: Chromite ores and concentrates production by country, 2019
  • Figure 14: Chromium supply by chromite concentrate grade, 2010-2020
  • Figure 15: Traded metallurgical-grade chromite used in speciality applications, 2010-2020
  • Figure 16: Technically recoverable chromite from UG2 platinum tailings, 2000-2020
  • Figure 17: South Africa: Production of chromite from primary and UG2 sources, 2000-2020
  • Figure 18: World: Historical production of high-carbon FeCr & charge chrome, 2000-2020
  • Figure 19: High-carbon FeCr production by country, 2019
  • Figure 20: Charge chrome versus HC ferrochrome production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 21: Top-12 HC FeCr and charge chrome production capacity, by company, 2020
  • Figure 22: Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 23: Production of medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome, 2010-2020
  • Figure 24: Production of medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome, by country, 2019
  • Figure 25: Production of chromium chemicals by country, 2010-2020
  • Figure 26: Production of chromium chemicals by country, 2019
  • Figure 27: Production of chromium metal by country, 2010-2020
  • Figure 28: Cost curve for chromite, 2020
  • Figure 29: Chromite total cash costs by region and component, 2020
  • Figure 30: Chromite total cash cost by component, global average, 2010-2020
  • Figure 31: Chromite total cash cost by component, global average, 2010-2020
  • Figure 32: Global average chromium ore cash production costs, FOB and CIF China basis, 2010-2020
  • Figure 33: Oil prices (Brent Crude)
  • Figure 34: Baltic Dry Shipping Index since 2010
  • Figure 35: Global ex-plant cash cost curve for HC & charge FeCr, 2020
  • Figure 36: HC FeCr ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2020
  • Figure 37: World: HC FeCr cash costs by component, 2010-2020
  • Figure 38: World: HC FeCr cash costs by component, 2010-2020
  • Figure 39: Average electricity tariffs for ferroalloy producers, 2010-2020
  • Figure 40: Average spot prices for metallurgical coke and energy coal since 2010 (index, January 2010=100)
  • Figure 41: World: Chromium demand and primary chromium consumption, 2000-2020
  • Figure 42: World chromium consumption by application, 2010-2020
  • Figure 43: World chromium consumption by region, 2010-2020
  • Figure 44: Chromite concentrate production by ore grade type, 2019
  • Figure 45: World: Chromite demand by intermediate product, 2010-2020
  • Figure 46: Chemical-grade chromite market, 2010-2020
  • Figure 47: Foundry-grade chromite market, 2010-2020
  • Figure 48: World: Consumption of ferrochrome in steel alloys, 2010-2020
  • Figure 49: Ferrochrome versus scrap consumption in steel alloys, 2010-2020
  • Figure 50: Consumption of primary chromium in stainless steel by country/region, 2010-2020
  • Figure 51: Consumption of chromium chemicals by application, 2010-2020
  • Figure 52: Consumption of chromium chemicals by region, 2010-2020
  • Figure 53: World apparent consumption of chromium metal, 2010-2019
  • Figure 54: World: Exports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2014-2019
  • Figure 55: World: Imports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2014-2019
  • Figure 56: China: Port stocks of chromite, Sep 2018-May 2020
  • Figure 57: Ex-China: Imports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2014-2019
  • Figure 58: Trade flows of metallurgical-grade1 concentrates, 2019
  • Figure 59: Ex-China: Trade flows of speciality-grade1 concentrates, 2019
  • Figure 60: Exports of HC versus MLC ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Figure 61: High-carbon/charge versus medium-low-carbon exports, 2019
  • Figure 62: World: Exports of HC/charge ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Figure 63: Rest of World: Exports of HC/charge ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Figure 64: World: Imports of HC/charge ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Figure 65: World: Exports of medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Figure 66: World: Imports of medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome, 2014-2019
  • Figure 67: Trade flows of high-carbon ferrochrome, 2019
  • Figure 68: Trade flows of medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome, 2019
  • Figure 69: World: Exports of sodium dichromate, 2014-2019
  • Figure 70: World: Imports of sodium dichromate, 2014-2019
  • Figure 71: Trade flows of sodium dichromate, 2019
  • Figure 72: World: Exports of chromium trioxide, 2014-2019
  • Figure 73: World: Imports of chromium trioxide, 2014-2019
  • Figure 74: Trade flows of chromium trioxide, 2019
  • Figure 75: World: Exports of other chromium oxides, 2014-2019
  • Figure 76: World: Imports of other chromium oxides, 2014-2019
  • Figure 77: Trade flows of other chromium oxides, 2019
  • Figure 78: World: Exports of chromium metal, 2014-2019
  • Figure 79: World: Imports of chromium metal, 2014-2019
  • Figure 80: World: Trade flows of chromium metal, 2019
  • Figure 81: Index prices of chromite, HC ferrochrome, and stainless steel (January 2015 = 100)
  • Figure 82: Monthly prices for chromite ores and concentrates, Jan 2015-May 2020
  • Figure 83: South African primary LG, MG versus secondary UG2 chromite prices
  • Figure 84: Average Turkish lump (40%) and South African concentrate (44%) prices
  • Figure 85: China: Weekly import prices from chromite producing regions, by grade Cr2O3
  • Figure 86: Monthly prices of speciality chromite concentrate, FOB South Africa
  • Figure 87: Monthly premiums of speciality chromite concentrates
  • Figure 88: China: Monthly high-carbon ferrochrome tender price, including VAT
  • Figure 89: Quarterly high-carbon ferrochrome prices
  • Figure 90: China: Monthly high-carbon ferrochrome prices
  • Figure 91: China: Monthly low-carbon ferrochrome tender price, including VAT
  • Figure 92: China: Prices for medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome
  • Figure 93: European versus China destination: Prices for low-carbon ferrochrome
  • Figure 94: Annual export prices of lower-carbon ferrochrome
  • Figure 95: Three-month moving average export prices of chromium chemicals
  • Figure 96: Cost of chemical-grade ore in sodium dichromate
  • Figure 97: Prices for aluminothermic chromium metal, min. 99% Cr
  • Figure 98: Cost of chrome oxide and aluminium in aluminothermic chrome metal
  • Figure 99: Chromium market balance, 2010-2020
  • Figure 100: Forecast chromium demand and "Deep-V" GDP growth, 2019-2030
  • Figure 101: Chromium demand outlook by region, 2019-2030
  • Figure 102: Chromium demand outlook by application, 2019-2030
  • Figure 103: Consumption outlook of chromium in other application, 2019-2030
  • Figure 104: Forecast GDP growth scenarios, 2019-2030
  • Figure 105: Forecast low-case chromium demand in stainless steel, 2019-2030
  • Figure 106: Primary and secondary chromium demand outlook, 2019-2030
  • Figure 107: Ferrochrome market balance, 2010-2020
  • Figure 108: Ferrochrome supply-demand balance outlook, 2019-2030
  • Figure 109: Average HC FeCr cash costs by region with estimates for Malaysia and Indonesia, 2020
  • Figure 110: Chromite supply-demand balance, 2010-2020
  • Figure 111: Chromite supply-demand balance outlook, 2019-2030
  • Figure 112: South Africa: UG2 versus LG/MG supply with short-term outlook, 2010-2022
  • Figure 113: South Africa: UG2 chromite supply forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 114: Forecast UG2 supply and suitable excess furnace capacity in China, 2019-2030
  • Figure 115: Forecast UG2 chromite supply with higher recovery, 2019-2030
  • Figure 116: Outlook: SA primary 44% Cr2O3 concentrates, 2019-2030
  • Figure 117: Outlook: Annual ore and concentrate prices, 2019-2030
  • Figure 118: Outlook: Annual speciality-grade prices, 2019-2030
  • Figure 119: Outlook: High-carbon FeCr tender price, 2019-2030
  • Figure 120: Outlook: High-carbon and low-carbon FeCr prices, 2019-2030
  • Figure 121: Outlook: Annual sodium dichromate and chromium metal prices, 2019-2030
  • Figure 122: Ferrochrome production technologies
  • Figure 123: Selected technical comparisons by process
  • Figure 124: Flow chart for the production of sodium chromate and dichromate
  • Figure 125: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 126: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 127: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 128: European CRM list 2017
  • Figure 129: China: Impact of COVID-19 on FeCr operating capacity and inventories, Jan-Apr 2020
  • Figure 130: China: HC FeCr capacity by furnace groups and region, March 2020
  • Figure 131: China: HC FeCr capacity by furnace groups and province, March 2020
  • Figure 132: South Africa: Chromite production and proportion of UG2, 2000-2019
  • Figure 133: South Africa: Average electricity tariffs, 2008-2021
  • Figure 134: Outokumpu: Flowsheet for chromium and stainless steel production
  • Figure 135: Consumption of chromium in stainless steel by country, 2000-2020
  • Figure 136: Consumption of chromium in stainless steel by type, 2010-2020
  • Figure 137: Forecast consumption of chromium in stainless steel by country, 2019-2030
  • Figure 138: Forecast consumption of chromium in stainless steel by type, 2019-2030
  • Figure 139: COVID-19: Forecast down-side scenarios on chromium demand in stainless steel 2017-2030
  • Figure 140: Apparent consumption of stainless steel, 2001-2019
  • Figure 141: Crude stainless steel production by region, 2001-2019
  • Figure 142: Crude stainless steel production by series, 2001-2019
  • Figure 143: Typical silicon content of ferrochrome grades
  • Figure 144: Stainless steel consumption by end-use, 2018
  • Figure 145: Stainless steel apparent consumption forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 146: Forecast crude stainless steel production, 2019-2030
  • Figure 147: Forecast crude stainless steel production by grade, 2019-2030
  • Figure 148: COVID-19: Global GDP forecast scenarios, 2019-2030, % change
  • Figure 149: Scenario forecasts: Stainless steel apparent consumption and production 2019-2030
  • Figure 150: Consumption and forecast of chromium in alloys steels, 2010-2030
  • Figure 151: Elemental effects of metals in HPA
  • Figure 152: Material composition of a Boeing 787
  • Figure 153: Material composition of an aircraft engine
  • Figure 154: Global crude steel production, 2010-2019
  • Figure 155: Forecast production of crude steel, 2020-2030
  • Figure 156: End uses of chromium chemicals, 2019
  • Figure 157: Consumption of chromium in chemicals production by region, 2019
  • Figure 158: Metallurgical-grade chromite demand in chemicals, 2010-2020
  • Figure 159: Consumption of chromium chemicals by application, 2010-2020
  • Figure 160: Estimated consumption of chromium in leather tanning by region, 2019
  • Figure 161: Production of leather products by region, 2019-2030 (Indexed, world output in 2010 = 100)
  • Figure 162: Forecast deliveries of civilian jet aircraft, 2019-2029 (Units, pre COVID-19)
  • Figure 163: Forecast deliveries of jet engines, 2019-2029 (Units, pre COVID-19)
  • Figure 164: Foundry-grade demand by region, 2019
  • Figure 165: Foundry-grade market balance, 2010-2020
  • Figure 166: Forecast foundry-grade chromite consumption and production of castings, 2020-2030
  • Figure 167: World: Historical consumption of chromium in refractories, 2014-2020
  • Figure 168: World: Forecast consumption of chromium in refractories, 2019-2030
  • Figure 169: World: Estimated production of refractories by country/region and global production of crude steel, 2010-2020
  • Figure 170: World: Estimated production of refractories by country/region, 2019
  • Figure 171: World: Forecast production of refractories by country/region and global production of crude steel, 2020-2030 (Mt)
  • Figure 172: World: Estimated consumption of refractories by market, 2019