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市場調查報告書

金屬鎂:到2029年的展望 (第13版)

Magnesium Metal: Outlook to 2030, 13th Edition

出版商 Roskill Information Services 商品編碼 930105
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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金屬鎂:到2029年的展望 (第13版) Magnesium Metal: Outlook to 2030, 13th Edition
出版日期: 2020年07月24日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

全球鎂消費,預計今後10年成長5%以上,不過,成長步調存在相當的地區差異。中國預計比起其他地區 (ROW) 以更高的比例成長。預計需求的模式依終端用途市場而有大幅不同,合金和鈦,顯示比鋼的脫硫等傳統用途更強力成長。

本報告提供全球金屬鎂市場相關調查分析,展現全球生產、消費趨勢,國際交易,及價格等,需求的展望,並提供主要企業簡介等資訊。

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 鎂的流程圖

第3章 全球生產、成本、永續性

第4章 全球消費

第5章 國際交易

第6章 價格

第7章 展望

第8章 背景

第9章 國家簡介

第10章 消費:各首次使用、最終用途

第11章 企業簡介

目錄

Global consumption of magnesium will rise by a CAGR of over 5% over the next decade, but with considerable regional differences in the pace of growth. China will experience much higher rates of increase than the ROW. Patterns of demand will also vary quite widely across end-use markets, with alloys and titanium displaying stronger growth than traditional uses, such as steel desulphurisation.

Environmental factors will play a major role in influencing future demand and supply for magnesium. The ongoing, and strengthening, impetus to reduce pollution levels will continue to focus very much on the automobile sector, which is a major market for magnesium alloys and aluminium alloys containing magnesium. The drive to reduce vehicle weight, and thus emissions, will see demand for these alloys grow. In China, for example, there are plans to increase the magnesium content of cars from 8.6kg/car in 2017 to 45kg by 2030.

At the same time, a significant change in how magnesium is produced looks highly likely. Until the early 1990s, electrolytic processes dominated global supply. Rapid growth in production in China resulted in thermal processes, notably the Pidgeon process, gaining substantial market share. At present, probably more than 80% of global supply is via the Pidgeon process, which accounts for most Chinese production; electrolytic processes remain the norm in other countries. While the Pidgeon process is relatively low-cost, it has disadvantages, including being considerably more polluting than alternative routes.

Increasingly stringent environmental regulations in China have already caused the closure of several plants using the Pidgeon process and more will probably be shuttered. Given the considerable surplus production capacity available, the market is highly unlikely to move into deficit in the immediate future. In the meantime, alternative processes are gaining ground.

There are only a handful of projects in the pipeline outside China, with Latrobe Magnesium (LMG) in Australia and Alliance Magnesium (AMI) in Canada being the most advanced.

ASX-listed LMG has announced that it is to proceed with construction of a magnesium metal plant in Victoria, Australia, following satisfactory results of a feasibility study completed in 2019. Construction is due to commence in February 2020 with initial production of 3ktpy starting during 2021. Expansion to 40ktpy will follow. The company is seeking financing for the first stage (capex A$34M - US$22.8M) and expansion (A$330M - US$221M). The LMG project is in in the Latrobe Valley, which is a major centre of power generation based on brown coal. LMG will use a patented hydromet/thermal process to produce magnesium and by-products from fly ash. About 25Mt of fly ash is already in inventory. The process is relatively environmentally friendly and would generate a total of 12t CO2 per tonne of Mg. Production in China generates at least 25t CO2 per tonne Mg.

AMI has reported that it will begin construction of a plant in Québec, Canada, during 2020, with full production starting in 2021. The C$600M (US$451M) project calls for initial output of 11.7ktpy, rising to 50ktpy. The plant will process tailings from abandoned asbestos mining operations in Québec. It will use a patented electrolytic process and hydroelectric power, making it relatively clean. The project has the backing of the Canadian government, which has invested C$12M (US$9M) in it through Sustainable Technology Development Canada, and from Japan's Marubeni, which invested a further C$16.7M (US$12.6M) in December 2019.

Combined, these two projects could contribute nearly 10% to the global market, which is not huge but might signal the start of a move away from traditional processes to “greener” magnesium.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • What are the likely supply developments across existing operations and new projects?
  • How will Chinese environmental policies affect the country's magnesium sector?
  • How is demand from the automotive industry likely to develop and how will this affect the magnesium industry?
  • How is demand across magnesium alloys, aluminium alloys, titanium sponge production and steel desulphurisation likely to develop over the next decade?
  • What is the outlook for the market balance and prices?

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Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Consumption
  • 1.2. Supply
  • 1.3. Trade
  • 1.4. Prices
  • 1.5. Outlook to 2030
    • 1.5.1. Demand
    • 1.5.2. Supply
    • 1.5.3. Supply demand balance
    • 1.5.4. Prices
    • 1.5.5. Impact of COVID-19
      • 1.5.5.1. Short-term to 2022
      • 1.5.5.2. Long-term 2022-2030: Global GDP developments

2. Magnesium supply chain flowchart

3. World production

  • 3.1. Production of primary magnesium
    • 3.1.1. Production by country and company
  • 3.2. Production of secondary magnesium
  • 3.3. Analysis of nameplate/operational capacity
    • 3.3.1. Primary magnesium production capacity
    • 3.3.2. Primary magnesium production capacity by company
    • 3.3.3. Changes in magnesium production capacity

4. Production costs

  • 4.1. Magnesium costs
  • 4.2. Ferrosilicon costs
  • 4.3. Electricity costs

5. World consumption

  • 5.1. World consumption
    • 5.1.1. Primary magnesium
    • 5.1.2. Secondary magnesium
  • 5.2. Primary magnesium consumption by first use
  • 5.3. Primary magnesium consumption by principal market
    • 5.3.1. China
    • 5.3.2. North America
      • 5.3.2.1. USA
      • 5.3.2.2. Canada
    • 5.3.3. Japan
    • 5.3.4. Europe
    • 5.3.5. CIS

6. International trade

  • 6.1. Overview
  • 6.2. Trade controls
  • 6.3. Unwrought magnesium metal
  • 6.4. Unwrought magnesium alloys
  • 6.5. Magnesium scrap
  • 6.6. Magnesium powders, turnings etc.
  • 6.7. Wrought magnesium metal

7. Prices

  • 7.1. Magnesium metal ingot
  • 7.2. Magnesium powder and alloy

8. Outlook

  • 8.1. Demand
    • 8.1.1. Aluminium alloys
    • 8.1.2. Die castings
    • 8.1.3. Reductants
    • 8.1.4. Steel desulphurisation
    • 8.1.5. Nodularisers for ductile cast iron
  • 8.2. Supply
  • 8.3. Supply/demand balance
  • 8.4. Prices

9. Background

  • 9.1. Occurrence and properties of magnesium
    • 9.1.1. Magnesium ores and resources
    • 9.1.2. Properties of magnesium
  • 9.2. Processing
    • 9.2.1. Thermal reduction methods
      • 9.2.1.1. The Pidgeon process
      • 9.2.1.2. The Zuliani process
      • 9.2.1.3. The Bolzano processes
      • 9.2.1.4. The carbothermic process
    • 9.2.2. Electrolytic methods
      • 9.2.2.1. The Alcan diaphragmless cell
      • 9.2.2.2. The Amax brine process
      • 9.2.2.3. The Dow process
      • 9.2.2.4. The IG Farben process
      • 9.2.2.5. The Hydro Magnesium process
      • 9.2.2.6. The STI/VAMI process
      • 9.2.2.7. The MagGen Process
    • 9.2.3. Processes under development
    • 9.2.4. Magnesium recycling processes
    • 9.2.5. Handling molten magnesium

10. Sustainability

  • 10.1.1. Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 10.1.1.1. Environmental
    • 10.1.1.2. Social
  • 10.1.2. Critical raw materials (CRM)

11. Country profiles

  • 11.1. Argentina
  • 11.2. Armenia
  • 11.3. Australia
    • 11.3.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
    • 11.3.2. Magnesium projects
  • 11.4. Austria
    • 11.4.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.5. Bahrain
  • 11.6. Belgium
    • 11.6.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.7. Brazil
    • 11.7.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.8. Canada
    • 11.8.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
    • 11.8.2. Past producers
    • 11.8.3. Magnesium projects
  • 11.9. China
    • 11.9.1. Production of primary magnesium
    • 11.9.2. Production of primary magnesium by region
    • 11.9.3. Magnesium producers
    • 11.9.4. Downstream magnesium companies
    • 11.9.5. Magnesium projects
  • 11.10. Republic of Congo
  • 11.11. Czechia
  • 11.12. France
    • 11.12.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.13. Germany
    • 11.13.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.14. Hungary
    • 11.14.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.15. India
    • 11.15.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.16. Iran
  • 11.17. Israel
    • 11.17.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.18. Italy
  • 11.19. Japan
    • 11.19.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.20. Kazakhstan
  • 11.21. Malaysia
  • 11.22. Mexico
    • 11.22.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.23. Netherlands
    • 11.23.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.24. Norway
    • 11.24.1. Magnesium producers and projects
  • 11.25. Poland
    • 11.25.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.26. Romania
    • 11.26.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.27. Russia
    • 11.27.1. Primary magnesium companies
    • 11.27.2. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
    • 11.27.3. Magnesium projects
  • 11.28. Serbia
    • 11.28.1. Primary magnesium companies
  • 11.29. Singapore
  • 11.30. Slovenia
  • 11.31. South Africa
    • 11.31.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.32. South Korea
    • 11.32.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.33. Spain
  • 11.34. Switzerland
  • 11.35. Taiwan
    • 11.35.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.36. Turkey
  • 11.37. Ukraine
  • 11.38. UK
    • 11.38.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • 11.39. USA
    • 11.39.1. Magnesium alloy and downstream companies

12. First-use consumption

  • 12.1. Aluminium alloys
    • 12.1.1. Types and characteristics of aluminium alloys containing magnesium
    • 12.1.2. Production and consumption of aluminium
    • 12.1.3. Uses of aluminium alloys
      • 12.1.3.1. Containers and packaging
      • 12.1.3.2. Motor vehicles
      • 12.1.3.3. Other transport and marine applications
      • 12.1.3.4. Construction
      • 12.1.3.5. Consumer durables
      • 12.1.3.6. Machinery and equipment
      • 12.1.3.7. Electrical applications
    • 12.1.4. Outlook
  • 12.2. Die castings
    • 12.2.1. Types of magnesium casting alloys
      • 12.2.1.1. Common magnesium alloys
    • 12.2.2. Developments in magnesium casting alloys
      • 12.2.2.1. Creep-resistant magnesium alloys
      • 12.2.2.2. Corrosion-resistant surface coatings and alloys
      • 12.2.2.3. Eco-Magnesium
      • 12.2.2.4. Thixomoulding®
      • 12.2.2.5. Silicon carbide-infused magnesium
    • 12.2.3. Production of magnesium castings
    • 12.2.4. Uses of magnesium castings
    • 12.2.5. Use of magnesium castings in motor vehicles
      • 12.2.5.1. Production of motor vehicles
      • 12.2.5.2. Consumption of primary magnesium in automotive castings
    • 12.2.6. Use of magnesium in sporting goods and athletic equipment
    • 12.2.7. Use of magnesium castings in aerospace
    • 12.2.8. Use of magnesium castings in other applications
    • 12.2.9. Outlook
  • 12.3. Steel desulphurisation
    • 12.3.1. Techniques used in the desulphurisation of steel
    • 12.3.2. Crude steel production
    • 12.3.3. Use of primary magnesium in crude steel desulphurisation
    • 12.3.4. Outlook
  • 12.4. Reductants
    • 12.4.1. Production process
    • 12.4.2. Production of titanium sponge
    • 12.4.3. Uses of titanium mill products
    • 12.4.4. Use of magnesium in titanium sponge production
    • 12.4.5. Outlook
  • 12.5. Ductile cast iron
    • 12.5.1. Techniques used in nodularising ductile cast iron
    • 12.5.2. Uses of ductile cast iron
    • 12.5.3. Production of ductile iron castings
    • 12.5.4. Consumption of magnesium in ductile iron castings
    • 12.5.5. Outlook
  • 12.6. Other uses
    • 12.6.1. Cathodic protection
    • 12.6.2. Non-casting magnesium alloys and composites
    • 12.6.3. Flameless heaters
    • 12.6.4. Hydrogen storage
    • 12.6.5. Magnesium chemicals
    • 12.6.6. Magnesium batteries
      • 12.6.6.1. Batteries with seawater electrolyte for marine applications
      • 12.6.6.2. Rechargeable magnesium batteries

13. Company profiles

  • 13.1. Primary magnesium producers
    • 13.1.1. Dead Sea Magnesium (DSM)
    • 13.1.2. Dunan Holdings
    • 13.1.3. Esan Eczacibisi
    • 13.1.4. Jinwantong Magnesium and Fugu Magnesium Industry Group
    • 13.1.5. Ningxia Hui-Ye Magnesium Marketing
    • 13.1.6. POSCO
    • 13.1.7. Qinghai Salt Lake Magnesium (QSLM)
    • 13.1.8. Rima Industrial
    • 13.1.9. Regal Magnesium
    • 13.1.10. RSM Group
    • 13.1.11. Shaanxi Magnesium Group and Fugu Jingfu Coal & Chemical
    • 13.1.12. Shanxi Yinguang Huasheng Magnesium
    • 13.1.13. Solikamsk Magnesium Works (SMW)
    • 13.1.14. US Magnesium (USM)
    • 13.1.15. Ust-Kamenogorsk Titanium and Magnesium Plant (UKTMP)
    • 13.1.16. VSMPO-Avisma
    • 13.1.17. Zaporozhye Titanium and Magnesium Combine (ZTMK)
  • 13.2. Principal magnesium alloy and downstream producers
    • 13.2.1. Advanced Magnesium Alloys (Amacor)
    • 13.2.2. Dynacast
    • 13.2.3. Magnesium Elektron
    • 13.2.4. Magontec
    • 13.2.5. Meridian Lightweight Technologies
  • 13.3. Projects
    • 13.3.1. Alliance Magnesium (AMI)
    • 13.3.2. Latrobe Magnesium (LMG)
    • 13.3.3. MDD Mag One
    • 13.3.4. SilMag Project
    • 13.3.5. Western Magnesium
    • 13.3.6. West High Yield Resources

14. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Production of primary magnesium, 2014-2020
  • Table 2: World: Production of primary magnesium by company, 2015-2019
  • Table 3: World: Estimated production of secondary magnesium, 2015-2020
  • Table 4: World: Estimated secondary magnesium production capacity by company, 2020
  • Table 5: Estimated primary magnesium production capacity, end-2017
  • Table 6: World: Magnesium capacity start-ups and expansions, 1998-2019
  • Table 7: World: Summary of magnesium capacity closures, 1998-2019
  • Table 8: Estimates of costs for selected magnesium production processes
  • Table 9: World: Consumption of primary magnesium by country, 2010-2019
  • Table 10: China: Consumption of primary magnesium by end use, 2013-2019
  • Table 11: USA: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2013-2019
  • Table 12: Canada: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2013-2019
  • Table 13: Japan: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2013-2019
  • Table 14: Europe: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2013-2019
  • Table 15: CIS: Consumption of primary magnesium by country, 2013-2019
  • Table 16: CIS: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2013-2019
  • Table 17: World: Exports and imports of magnesium by region, 2015-2019
  • Table 18: Selected countries: Import tariffs for magnesium products (% ad valorem)
  • Table 19: World: Trade in unwrought magnesium metal (≥99.8% Mg), 2015-2020
  • Table 20: World: Trade in unwrought magnesium alloys (<99.8% Mg), 2015-2020
  • Table 21: World: Trade in magnesium scrap, 2015-2020
  • Table 22: World: Trade in magnesium powders, turnings etc., 2015-2020
  • Table 23: World: Trade in wrought magnesium metal, 2015-2020
  • Table 24: World: Forecast primary magnesium demand to 2030
  • Table 25: World: Historical and forecast growth rates in primary magnesium demand
  • Table 26: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in aluminium alloys, 2020-2030
  • Table 27: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in die castings, 2020-2030
  • Table 28: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in reductants, 2020-2030
  • Table 29: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in desulphurisation, 2020-2030
  • Table 30: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in nodularisers, 2020-2030
  • Table 31: Primary magnesium project pipeline 2020
  • Table 32: Forecast magnesium metal prices, 2020-2030
  • Table 33: Raw materials for magnesium production
  • Table 34: Properties of magnesium
  • Table 35: Summary of magnesium production processes
  • Table 36: Critical raw materials identified by key government bodies
  • Table 37: Argentina: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 38: Australia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 39: Australia: Summary of magnesium projects
  • Table 40: Austria: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 41: Belgium: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 42: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 43: Canada: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 44: Canada: Summary of past primary magnesium producers
  • Table 45: Canada: Summary of magnesium projects
  • Table 46: China: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 47: China: Principal primary magnesium and alloy producers, 2019
  • Table 48: China: Summary of other primary magnesium and alloy producers, 2020
  • Table 49: China: Summary of selected downstream magnesium companies, 2020
  • Table 50: China: New Pidgeon process production capacity under consideration, 2018
  • Table 51: Czechia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 52: France: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 53: Germany: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 54: Germany: Summary of magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • Table 55: Hungary: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 56: India: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 57: India: Summary of magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • Table 58: Israel: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 59: Italy: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 60: Japan: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 61: Japan: Summary of magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • Table 62: Kazakhstan: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 63: Mexico: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 64: Netherlands: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 65: Norway: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 66: Poland: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 67: Romania: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 68: Russia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 69: Serbia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 70: Singapore: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 71: Slovenia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 72: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 73: South Korea: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 74: Spain: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 75: Switzerland: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 76: Taiwan: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 77: Turkey: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 78: Ukraine: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 79: UK: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 80: UK: Summary of magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • Table 81: USA: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 82: USA: Consumption of magnesium, 2014-2020
  • Table 83: USA: Summary of magnesium alloy and downstream companies
  • Table 84: Summary of uses for magnesium
  • Table 85: World: Consumption of primary magnesium in aluminium alloys, 2013-2019
  • Table 86: Magnesium content and main uses of wrought aluminium alloys
  • Table 87: Chemical compositions and applications of selected aluminium casting alloys in which magnesium is the principal alloying element
  • Table 88: USA and Canada: Shipments of aluminium by market segment, 2010-2018
  • Table 89: Europe: Producers of aluminium cans
  • Table 90: Compositions of some typical aluminium alloys containing magnesium used in motor vehicles
  • Table 91: Aluminium alloys and their automotive applications
  • Table 92: World: Forecast demand for aluminium in automobiles, 2019 and 2025
  • Table 93: World: Forecast demand for aluminium in automobiles by component, 2019 and 2025
  • Table 94: Consumption of materials in select civil and military aircraft (% of airframe)
  • Table 95: World: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in aluminium alloys, 2019-2030
  • Table 96: Element codes for magnesium alloy designations
  • Table 97: Compositions of six common magnesium die casting alloys
  • Table 98: Specifications of selected magnesium casting alloys
  • Table 99: Compositions of principal magnesium alloys containing rare earth elements
  • Table 100: Automotive applications for magnesium
  • Table 101: World: Production of passenger vehicles by region, 2010-2019
  • Table 102: World: Production of light commercial vehicles by region, 2010-2019
  • Table 103: World: Estimated consumption of primary magnesium automotive castings, 2013-2019
  • Table 104: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in automotive castings, 2020-2030
  • Table 105: World: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in castings, 2020-2030
  • Table 106: World: Production of crude steel, 2010-2019
  • Table 107: World: Consumption of primary magnesium in steel desulphurisation, 2010-2019
  • Table 108: Forecast production of crude steel, 2020 and 2030
  • Table 109: World: Forecast consumption of primary magnesium in steel desulphurisation, 2019-2030
  • Table 110: World production of titanium sponge, 2013-2019
  • Table 111: World: Titanium sponge production capacity and output, 2019
  • Table 112: Consumption of primary magnesium in titanium sponge production, 2013-2019
  • Table 113: World: Production of ductile cast iron by country, 2013-2019
  • Table 114: China, Japan and the USA: Consumption of magnesium in ductile iron, 2010-2019
  • Table 115: World: Forecast consumption of magnesium in ductile cast iron, 2020-2030
  • Table 116: Summary of leading producers of magnesium anodes
  • Table 117: Dead Sea Magnesium: Operational summary
  • Table 118: Esan Eczacibasi: Operational summary
  • Table 119: Ningxia Hui-Ye Magnesium: Operational summary
  • Table 120: POSCO: Operational summary
  • Table 121: Qinghai Salt Lake Magnesium: Operational summary
  • Table 122: Rima Industrial: Operational summary
  • Table 123: Regal Magnesium: Operational summary
  • Table 124: Summary of RSM Group companies
  • Table 125: Shanxi Yinguang Huasheng Magnesium: Operational summary
  • Table 126: Solikamsk Magnesium Works: Operational summary
  • Table 127: Solikamsk Magnesium Works: Shipments of magnesium, 2010-2019
  • Table 128: US Magnesium: Operational summary
  • Table 129: UKTMP: Operational summary
  • Table 130: VSMPO-Avisma: Operational summary
  • Table 131: ZTMK: Operational summary
  • Table 132: Magontec Qinghai: Magnesium alloy production, 2018-2019
  • Table 133: Magontec: Sales of magnesium products, 2016-2019
  • Table 134: Meridian Lightweight Technologies: Details of magnesium product plants
  • Table 135: Alliance Magnesium: Project summary
  • Table 136: Latrobe Magnesium: Project summary
  • Table 137: Mag One: Project summary
  • Table 138: Mag One: Summary of anticipated serpentine feedstock
  • Table 139: Western Magnesium: Project summary
  • Table 140: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 141: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030)
  • Table 142: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 143: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 144: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 145: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 146: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 147: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 148: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2019-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: World: Estimated consumption of primary magnesium, 2010-2019
  • Figure 2: World: Consumption of primary magnesium by first end-use, 2019
  • Figure 3: Quarterly magnesium ingot prices, 2010-2020
  • Figure 4: World Forecast demand for primary magnesium, 2020-2030
  • Figure 5: Base forecast magnesium metal ingot prices, 2020-2030
  • Figure 6: Forecast Global GDP growth scenarios, 2012-2023
  • Figure 7: Forecast Chinese GDP growth scenarios, 2012-2023
  • Figure 8: Forecast long run GDP growth scenarios, 2019-2030
  • Figure 9: Primary magnesium supply flowchart
  • Figure 10: World: Production of magnesium, 2013-2020
  • Figure 11: World: Production of magnesium by principal country/region, 2013-2020
  • Figure 12: World: Production of saleable magnesium by principal country, 2013-2020
  • Figure 13: World: Production of primary magnesium, 2013-2020
  • Figure 14: World excluding China: Estimated production of primary magnesium, 2013-2020
  • Figure 15: World: Estimated primary magnesium capacity utilisation, 2019
  • Figure 16: World: Primary magnesium capacity and production, 1991-2019
  • Figure 17: Capacity of main magnesium-producing companies,
  • Figure 18: World: Magnesium capacity additions and closures, 1991-2019
  • Figure 19: Estimated global average ex-plant ferrosilicon production costs by component, 2019
  • Figure 20: Global ex-plant cash cost curve for ferrosilicon, 2019
  • Figure 21: Ferrosilicon ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2019
  • Figure 22: Average electricity tariffs for ferroalloy producers, 2006-2019
  • Figure 23: World: Estimated consumption of primary magnesium, 2010-2019
  • Figure 24: World: Estimated consumption of primary magnesium by region, 2019
  • Figure 25: World: Magnesium supply-demand balance, 2010-2019
  • Figure 26: World: International trade in magnesium scrap, 2011-2019
  • Figure 27: USA: Consumption of secondary magnesium by end use, 2010-2019
  • Figure 28: USA: Consumption of magnesium in aluminium alloys, 2010-2019
  • Figure 29: USA: Consumption of magnesium in castings, 2010-2019
  • Figure 30: Main regional markets: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2019
  • Figure 31: Main regional markets: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2010-2019
  • Figure 32: Selected main markets: Primary magnesium consumption by first use, 2019
  • Figure 33: China: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2019
  • Figure 34: USA: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2019
  • Figure 35: Japan: Consumption of primary magnesium by first use, 2019
  • Figure 36: World: Estimated magnesium trade and consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 37: World: Comparison of total exports and imports with consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 38: World: Exports and imports of magnesium by form, 2019
  • Figure 39: China and ROW: Share of magnesium exports by product form, 2019
  • Figure 40: World: Trade in unwrought magnesium metal (≥99.8% Mg), 2019
  • Figure 41: World: Trade in unwrought magnesium alloys (<99.8% Mg), 2019
  • Figure 42: World: Trade in magnesium scrap, 2019
  • Figure 43: Selected countries: Exports of magnesium powders, turnings etc., 2019
  • Figure 44: World: Trade in magnesium powders, turnings etc., 2019
  • Figure 45: World: Trade in wrought magnesium metal, 2019
  • Figure 46: Selected countries: Production of primary magnesium, and China's exports 2000-2019
  • Figure 47: USA: Average annual magnesium metal CIF import values and domestic prices, 2000-2019
  • Figure 48: Magnesium ingot prices, 2010-2019
  • Figure 49: Quarterly magnesium ingot prices, 2010-2020
  • Figure 50: Monthly magnesium ingot prices, 2018-2020
  • Figure 51: Comparison of annual magnesium and ferrosilicon prices, 2010-2020
  • Figure 52: Quarterly magnesium powder prices, 2016-2020
  • Figure 53: Quarterly magnesium alloy AZ91D prices, 2016-2020
  • Figure 54: World: Forecast primary magnesium demand by end-use, 2030
  • Figure 55: Forecast primary magnesium supply/demand balance, 2020-2030
  • Figure 56: Probabilistic price outlook for magnesium metal, 2020-2030
  • Figure 57: Flow chart of Amax process
  • Figure 58: Flow chart of the Hydro process
  • Figure 59: UN sustainable development goals
  • Figure 60: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 61: Comparison of GHG emissions by existing and planned magnesium production processes
  • Figure 62: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 63: European CRM list, 2017
  • Figure 64: China: Production, exports and apparent consumption of magnesium, 2010-2020
  • Figure 65: China and ROW: Cumulative exports of magnesium by product, 2014-2020
  • Figure 66: China: Cumulative exports of magnesium by product, 2014-2020
  • Figure 67: China: Production of primary magnesium by province, 2019
  • Figure 68: USA: Production and consumption of magnesium, 2010-2020
  • Figure 69: USA: Cumulative exports of magnesium by product form, 2014-2020
  • Figure 70: USA: Cumulative imports of magnesium by product form, 2014-2020
  • Figure 71: USA: Cumulative imports of magnesium by country of origin, 2015-2019
  • Figure 72: World consumption of primary magnesium, and US consumption of primary and secondary magnesium, in aluminium alloys, 2010-2019
  • Figure 73: World: Estimated division of primary magnesium consumption in aluminium alloys by application, 2019
  • Figure 74: World: Production of primary aluminium, 2010-2019
  • Figure 75: World ex-China: Production of primary aluminium, 2019
  • Figure 76: USA and Canada: Shipments of aluminium, 2007-2018
  • Figure 77: USA and Canada: Domestic shipments of aluminium by market segment, 2018
  • Figure 78: Europe: Production of aluminium, 2007-2019
  • Figure 79: Europe: Demand for aluminium by market segment, 2019
  • Figure 80: Europe: Demand for aluminium flat products and extrusions by market segment, 2019
  • Figure 81: USA & Canada: Shipments of aluminium for use in containers & packaging, 2000-2017
  • Figure 82: World: Market for beverage cans, 2014
  • Figure 83: USA: Shipments of beverage cans, 1995-2018
  • Figure 84: Selected countries: Recycling rates of aluminium cans
  • Figure 85: USA & Canada: Shipments of aluminium for use in foil and semi-rigid containers, 2000-2017
  • Figure 86: Forecast world demand for primary magnesium in aluminium alloys and US demand for primary and secondary magnesium, 2020-2029
  • Figure 87: World: Production of magnesium castings, 2010-2019
  • Figure 88: World: Production of magnesium castings by region, 2019
  • Figure 89: USA: Division of magnesium casting market by shipments (value basis)
  • Figure 90: World: Production of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles by major region, 2010-2019
  • Figure 91: World: CO2 emissions per passenger car, 2000-2030
  • Figure 92: Upside and downside scenarios for plug-in passenger cars, 2019-2029 (BEV/PHEV)
  • Figure 93: Forecast sales of electric vehicles 2019-2029
  • Figure 94: World: Estimated consumption of magnesium in automotive castings, 2010-2019
  • Figure 95: World: Unit consumption of magnesium in automotive castings by region, 2010-2019
  • Figure 96: Forecast sales of passenger vehicles, 2020-2030
  • Figure 97: World: Production of crude steel, 2010-2019
  • Figure 98: Japan, USA and China: Unit consumption of primary magnesium in steel desulphurisation, 2001-2019
  • Figure 99: World: Forecast production of crude steel, 2020-2030
  • Figure 100: Estimated world consumption of titanium mill products by application, 2019
  • Figure 101: Estimated consumption of titanium mill products in aerospace applications, by country, 2019
  • Figure 102: Estimated consumption of titanium mill products in industrial applications, by country, 2018
  • Figure 103: World: Forecast demand for primary magnesium in titanium sponge production, 2020-2030
  • Figure 104: Production of ductile cast iron by region, 2018