表紙
市場調查報告書

到稀土:2019年的展望 (第19版)

Rare Earths: Outlook to 2029, 19th Edition

出版商 Roskill Information Services 商品編碼 922258
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
價格
如有價格方面的疑問請按下「詢問」鍵來信查詢
到稀土:2019年的展望 (第19版) Rare Earths: Outlook to 2029, 19th Edition
出版日期: 2019年12月31日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

稀土產品因為在許多最終用途應用消費,稀土的需求也很多樣。由於汽車及再生能源用途中稀土永久磁鐵的使用擴大的促進,預計2019年的稀土需求增加5%以上。這支撐催化劑、陶瓷,及研磨材料的需求成長。

本報告提供全球稀土市場上最新形勢與未來展望相關分析,市場基本結構和供給、需求體制,主要的推動及阻礙市場要素,市場機會,市場規模 (生產量、消費量、貿易額) 及國際價格趨勢預測,主要企業的簡介等資訊彙整,為您概述為以下內容。

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 全球生產量

第3章 全球消費量

第4章 國際貿易

第5章 價格的轉變、趨勢

第6章 未來展望

第7章 礦物資源、蘊藏量

第8章 採礦、加工

第9章 稀土的生產、加工:各國

第10章 主要終端用戶

第11章 企業簡介

目錄

The rare earth industry continues to be an important part of not only the development and manufacture of high-end technologies, but also as a geopolitical tool in an increasingly unstable and unpredictable global market. Disruptions to supply chains caused by tariffs, the imposition of sourcing restrictions for some products and uncertainty over the future of major producers has resulted in a renewed focus on diversifying the source of rare earth products, particularly outside of China. Simultaneously, the Chinese industry has continued to introduce legislation to ‘clean-up' their domestic rare earth industry, tackling the environmental, social and governmental impact of historical production.

In 2019, China is forecast to account for 77% of global rare earth production, with six state owned enterprises forming the majority of supply. Despite its dominance of the global industry, China's production of mined rare earths has been impacted in recent years by the introduction of environmental legislation and industry consolidation. Environmental legislation has led to many operations, predominantly in southern Chinese provinces, suspending production. As a result, Chinese processors have looked to alternative sources of rare earth raw materials, creating opportunities for producers both in the Chinese domestic market and in the rest-of-world. Ion adsorption clay ores, monazite mineral concentrates and recycled rare earth materials have all been imported and processed by facilities in China, to meet growing demand for rare earth products. Illegal production remains a significant source of raw materials in China, though efforts by local and central government have reduced illegal production by almost 50% since 2016.

Rare earth production at operations outside of China is limited to a small number of locations in 2019, though there are multiple projects under development in Australia, Canada, the USA and Africa with the potential to supply rare earth concentrates to the market. The production of refined rare earth production outside China is even scarcer than the supply of mined raw materials and has been identified as a supply chain risk by some consumers.

Demand for rare earths is diverse, with rare earth products being consumed in many end-use applications which may only require one or two separated rare earth compounds or products. Roskill forecast rare earth demand to grow by over 5% in 2019, driven by the increased use of rare earth permanent magnets in automotive and renewable energy applications, supported by underlying demand growth in catalysts, ceramics and polishing powders. Rare earth magnets are forecast to form 28% of total demand in 2019, consuming a mixture of rare earths including Nd, Pr, Gd, Dy and Ce. By 2025, rare earth magnets are forecast to exceed a third of total demand, changing the focus of rare earth producers and processors. The changing emphasis towards rare earth magnet raw materials is expected to impact rare earth pricing mechanisms, with operations becoming increasingly dependent economically on a small number of individual rare earths.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • How is the Chinese domestic industry forecast to develop?
  • What alternatives are there to Chinese supply for the global industry?
  • Where will future sources of rare earths be located?
  • How have trade restrictions impacted global rare earth supply chains?
  • How will growth in REE magnet demand impact the rare earth market?
  • What opportunities are there for substitution of rare earths?
  • Is recycling expected to become a significant source of rare earths?
  • How do I understand the complexities of international trade?

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Market overview
  • 1.2. Supply
  • 1.3. Consumption
  • 1.4. Market Balance
  • 1.5. Prices

2. Rare earths flowchart

3. World production

  • 3.1. Mine production
  • 3.2. Refined production

4. World consumption

  • 4.1. Rare earth consumption by end-use sector
  • 4.2. Rare earth consumption by element
  • 4.3. Value of the rare earths market

5. International trade

  • 5.1. Chinese export quotas (2005-2014)
  • 5.2. Ores and concentrates
    • 5.2.1. Summary of primary rare earth trade outside China
  • 5.3. Compounds of rare earths
    • 5.3.1. Global trade in rare earth compounds other than cerium
      • 5.3.1.1. Global export trends
      • 5.3.1.2. Global import trends
    • 5.3.2. Global trade in cerium compounds
      • 5.3.2.1. Global export trends
      • 5.3.2.2. Global import trends
  • 5.4. Trade in rare earth metals and alloys
    • 5.4.1. Global exports
    • 5.4.2. Global imports
  • 5.5. World trade flow map and summary

6. Prices

  • 6.1. Rare earth oxide prices

7. Outlook to 2029

  • 7.1. Historical market balance
  • 7.2. Supply outlook
    • 7.2.1. Mine production outlook
    • 7.2.2. Refined production outlook
  • 7.3. Demand outlook
  • 7.4. Market balance outlook
  • 7.5. Price outlook
    • 7.5.1. Price scenario risks
      • 7.5.1.1. Demand scenarios
      • 7.5.1.2. Supply scenarios

8. Background

  • 8.1. Rare earth elements
  • 8.2. Rare earth minerals
    • 8.2.1. Carbonates
    • 8.2.2. Phosphates
    • 8.2.3. Silicates
    • 8.2.4. Oxides
    • 8.2.5. Ion-adsorption clays
  • 8.3. Geological settings
    • 8.3.1. Primary
      • 8.3.1.1. Peralkaline
      • 8.3.1.2. Carbonatites
      • 8.3.1.3. Vein deposits
    • 8.3.2. Secondary
      • 8.3.2.1. Ion-adsorption clays
      • 8.3.2.2. Placer deposits
  • 8.4. Resources and Reserves
    • 8.4.1. Rare earth resource and reserves
      • 8.4.1.1. China reserves
      • 8.4.1.2. Rest of world reserves
    • 8.4.2. Yttrium resources and reserves
  • 8.5. Mining and processing
    • 8.5.1. Processing
      • 8.5.1.1. Bastnaesite
      • 8.5.1.2. Ion adsorption clays
      • 8.5.1.3. Monazite
      • 8.5.1.4. Xenotime
      • 8.5.1.5. Eudialyte
      • 8.5.1.6. Apatite
      • 8.5.1.7. Loparite
      • 8.5.1.8. Uranium raffinates
    • 8.5.2. Refining and separation
      • 8.5.2.1. Solvent extraction (Liquid-liquid extraction)
      • 8.5.2.2. Ion adsorption (Liquid-solid extraction)
      • 8.5.2.3. Molecular Recognition Technology
      • 8.5.2.4. Metal and alloy manufacture
      • 8.5.2.5. Mechanochemical processing

9. Country profiles

  • 9.1. Angola
  • 9.2. Australia
  • 9.3. Austria
  • 9.4. Belgium
  • 9.5. Brazil
  • 9.6. Burundi
  • 9.7. Canada
  • 9.8. Chile
  • 9.9. China
    • 9.9.1. Reserves and resources
    • 9.9.2. Rare earth production
    • 9.9.3. Rare earth mining and separation quota
    • 9.9.4. Consolidation of China's rare earth industry
    • 9.9.5. Rare earth resource tax
    • 9.9.6. Environmental policy and regulation
    • 9.9.7. Commercial stockpile of rare earth products
    • 9.9.8. National stockpile of rare earth products
    • 9.9.9. Illegal production
  • 9.10. Estonia
  • 9.11. France
  • 9.12. Germany
  • 9.13. Greenland
  • 9.14. India
  • 9.15. Japan
  • 9.16. Kazakhstan
  • 9.17. Laos
  • 9.18. Republic of Malawi
  • 9.19. Malaysia
  • 9.20. Madagascar
  • 9.21. Mozambique
  • 9.22. Myanmar
  • 9.23. Namibia
  • 9.24. Netherlands
  • 9.25. Norway
  • 9.26. Russia
  • 9.27. Spain
  • 9.28. South Africa
  • 9.29. South Korea
  • 9.30. Sweden
  • 9.31. Taiwan
  • 9.32. Tanzania
  • 9.33. Turkey
  • 9.34. Uganda
  • 9.35. UK
  • 9.36. USA
  • 9.37. Vietnam

10. End Uses

  • 10.1. Permanent magnets
    • 10.1.1. Rare earth consumption in permanent magnets
    • 10.1.2. Types of permanent magnet
      • 10.1.2.1. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets
      • 10.1.2.2. Cerium-NdFeB magnets
      • 10.1.2.3. Samarium-cobalt magnets
      • 10.1.2.4. Samarium-iron-nitrogen magnets
    • 10.1.3. Research and development
      • 10.1.3.1. Off-cuttings scrap (swarf)
      • 10.1.3.2. Additive manufacturing (3D printing)
    • 10.1.4. Producers of rare earth magnets
    • 10.1.5. Recycling
    • 10.1.6. Applications for NdFeB magnets and outlook
      • 10.1.6.1. Consumer electronics
      • 10.1.6.2. Air-conditioning
      • 10.1.6.3. Wind turbines
      • 10.1.6.4. Robotics
      • 10.1.6.5. Automotive and other vehicles
    • 10.1.7. Trends in permanent magnets
      • 10.1.7.1. Substitution of other magnet technologies
    • 10.1.8. Outlook for rare earths in permanent magnets
  • 10.2. Catalysts
    • 10.2.1. Consumption of rare earths in catalysts
      • 10.2.1.1. Substitution
    • 10.2.2. Catalytic cracking
      • 10.2.2.1. Trends in crude oil refining
    • 10.2.3. Auto catalysts
      • 10.2.3.1. Trends in auto catalysts
    • 10.2.4. Producers of rare earth catalyst products
    • 10.2.5. Outlook for rare earths in catalysts
  • 10.3. Polishing
    • 10.3.1. Consumption of rare earths in polishing
    • 10.3.2. Traditional glass polishing
    • 10.3.3. Electronic components and high-precision polishing
    • 10.3.4. Producers of rare earth polishing powder
    • 10.3.5. Outlook for rare earths in polishing
  • 10.4. Batteries
    • 10.4.1. Consumption of rare earths in NiMH battery alloy
    • 10.4.2. Applications for NiMH batteries
    • 10.4.3. Producers of NiMH battery alloy
    • 10.4.4. Recycling/reuse of rare earths in NiMH battery alloy
    • 10.4.5. Research and development for rare earths in NiMH batteries
    • 10.4.6. Trends in NiMH battery production and consumption
    • 10.4.7. Outlook for rare earths in NiMH batteries
  • 10.5. Metallurgy
    • 10.5.1. Consumption of rare earths in metallurgy
    • 10.5.2. Steel additives
      • 10.5.2.1. Trends in crude steel production
      • 10.5.2.2. Trends in stainless steel
    • 10.5.3. Iron additives
      • 10.5.3.1. Trends in global castings production
    • 10.5.4. Other metallurgical applications
    • 10.5.5. Outlook for rare earths in metallurgy
  • 10.6. Glass
    • 10.6.1. Consumption of rare earths in glass
      • 10.6.1.1. Substitution
      • 10.6.1.2. Recycling and reuse
    • 10.6.2. Display panels
    • 10.6.3. La-series Optical glass
    • 10.6.4. Optical fibre amplifiers
    • 10.6.5. Other glass applications
    • 10.6.6. Outlook for rare earths in glass additives
  • 10.7. Ceramics
    • 10.7.1. Consumption of rare earths in advanced ceramics
    • 10.7.2. Yttria-stabilised zirconia
      • 10.7.2.1. Types of stabilised zirconia
      • 10.7.2.2. Production of stabilised zirconia
      • 10.7.2.3. Applications for yttria-stabilised zirconia
    • 10.7.3. Silicon nitride
      • 10.7.3.1. Production of silicon nitride
      • 10.7.3.2. Ceramic hybrid bearing applications for silicon nitride
    • 10.7.4. SiAlON ceramics
      • 10.7.4.1. Production of SiAlON ceramics
      • 10.7.4.2. Applications for SiAlON ceramics
    • 10.7.5. Ceramic capacitors
    • 10.7.6. Refractories and crucibles
    • 10.7.7. Outlook for rare earths in advanced ceramics
  • 10.8. Phosphors
    • 10.8.1. Consumption of rare earths in phosphors
    • 10.8.2. Substitution
    • 10.8.3. Trends in phosphors
      • 10.8.3.1. General lighting
      • 10.8.3.2. LCD backlighting
      • 10.8.3.3. X-ray and medical phosphors
      • 10.8.3.4. Rare earth phosphors for other applications
    • 10.8.4. Producers of rare earths phosphors and co-precipitates
    • 10.8.5. Recycling of rare earths from fluorescent lamps
    • 10.8.6. Outlook for rare earths in phosphors
  • 10.9. Pigments
    • 10.9.1. Consumption of rare earths in pigments
    • 10.9.2. Substitution
    • 10.9.3. Trends in ceramics
    • 10.9.4. Outlook of rare earth in pigments
  • 10.10. Other rare earth applications
    • 10.10.1. Fertilisers
    • 10.10.2. Textiles
    • 10.10.3. Water treatment
    • 10.10.4. Lasers
      • 10.10.4.1. Industrial applications for rare-earth-doped lasers
      • 10.10.4.2. Medical applications for rare-earth-doped lasers
      • 10.10.4.3. Fusion reactor applications for rare-earth-doped lasers
    • 10.10.5. Nuclear Reactors
      • 10.10.5.1. Neutron absorbers in nuclear reactors
    • 10.10.6. Nuclear batteries
    • 10.10.7. Radiography
    • 10.10.8. Magnetic refrigeration
    • 10.10.9. Superconductors
    • 10.10.10. Magnetostrictive alloys
    • 10.10.11. Jewellery
    • 10.10.12. Electron microscopes
    • 10.10.13. Microwave applications
    • 10.10.14. Self-cleaning ovens
    • 10.10.15. Medical uses
    • 10.10.16. Cement additives
    • 10.10.17. Geology/Geochemistry
    • 10.10.18. Paints/coating additives
    • 10.10.19. PVC stabilizers
    • 10.10.20. Outlook for rare earths in other applications

11. Company profiles

  • 11.1. Alkane Resources
  • 11.2. Arafura Resources
  • 11.3. CBMM
    • 11.3.1. Araxá
  • 11.4. China Northern Rare Earth Group
    • 11.4.1. Mining
    • 11.4.2. Processing
  • 11.5. China Southern Rare Earth Group
  • 11.6. Chinalco
    • 11.6.1. China Rare Earth and Rare Metals (Chinalco Rare Earth)
    • 11.6.2. Chinalco Rare Earths (Jiangsu)
    • 11.6.3. Chinalco Rare Earths (Guangxi)
    • 11.6.4. Chinalco Rare Earths (Sichuan)
    • 11.6.5. Chenguang New Resources (Quannan Advanced New Resources Rare Earth (Jiangxi))
    • 11.6.6. Chinalco Rare Earths (Shandong)
    • 11.6.7. Chinalco Shangdong Inove Strong Magnet Material
  • 11.7. Commerce Resources
  • 11.8. Greenland Minerals
  • 11.9. Guangdong Rare Earth Group
  • 11.10. Hastings Technology Metals
    • 11.10.1. Yangibana
    • 11.10.2. Brockman
  • 11.11. Hochschild Mining
  • 11.12. Iluka Resources
  • 11.13. India Rare Earths
    • 11.13.1. MoPP (Monazite Processing) plant
    • 11.13.2. Aluva plant
  • 11.14. Lynas Corporation
    • 11.14.1. Mt Weld
    • 11.14.2. Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP)
  • 11.15. Minmetals Rare Earth Group
  • 11.16. Mkango Resources
  • 11.17. MP Materials
  • 11.18. Neo Performance Materials
    • 11.18.1. Silmet plant
    • 11.18.2. Zibo and Jiangyin plants
    • 11.18.3. Tianjin and Korat plants
  • 11.19. Northern Minerals
    • 11.19.1. Browns Range
    • 11.19.2. John Galt
    • 11.19.3. Boulder Ridge
  • 11.20. Peak Resources
  • 11.21. Pensana Metals
  • 11.22. Rainbow Rare Earths
    • 11.22.1. Gakara
    • 11.22.2. Kiyenzi project
  • 11.23. Rare Earths Salts
  • 11.24. REEtec
  • 11.25. Serra Verde
  • 11.26. Solikamsk Magnesium Works
  • 11.27. Solvay
  • 11.28. Steenkampskraal Rare Earths
  • 11.29. Summit Atom Rare Earth Company
  • 11.30. Tanbreez
  • 11.31. Thaiduong Group
  • 11.32. Three Arc Mining
  • 11.33. Torngat Metals
  • 11.34. Toyota Tsusho
    • 11.34.1. Toyota Tsusho Material Inc.
  • 11.35. Treibacher Industrie
  • 11.36. UCore
    • 11.36.1. Bokan-Dotson Ridge
  • 11.37. Vietnam Rare Earths JSC
  • 11.38. Vietnam Rare Earth Company
  • 11.39. WIM Resources
  • 11.40. Xiamen Tungsten
  • 11.41. Yara International

12. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Rare earth demand and five-year CAGR by application, 2014-2029
  • Table 2: World mine production of rare earths by region, 2013-2019
  • Table 3: World mine production of rare earths by element, 2013-2019
  • Table 4: World refined production of rare earths by region, 2013-2019
  • Table 5: World refined production of rare earths by element, 2013-2019
  • Table 6: World: Estimated rare earths demand by region, 2013-2019
  • Table 7: World: Estimated rare earths demand by application, 2013-2019
  • Table 8: World: Estimated rare earths markets by region, 2019
  • Table 9: Estimated total value of the rare earths market, 2013-2019
  • Table 10: Chinese export quota, 2004-2015
  • Table 11: China: Imports of RE ores and concentrates, 2013-2019
  • Table 12: Exports of rare earth concentrates, 2013-2019
  • Table 13: France: Solvay rare earth processing plant, 2010-2019
  • Table 14: Estonia: Silmet rare earth processing plant, 2010-2019
  • Table 15: Kazakhstan: SARECO exports of rare earths, 2010-2019
  • Table 16: World: Exports of rare earth compounds other than cerium, 2010-2019
  • Table 17: World: Imports of rare earth compounds other than cerium, 2010-2019
  • Table 18: World: Exports of cerium compounds, 2010-2019
  • Table 19: World: Imports of cerium compounds by country, 2010-2019
  • Table 20: World: Exports of rare earth metals (including scandium), 2010-2019
  • Table 21: Vietnam: Rare earth metal feed and exports, 2010-2019
  • Table 22: World: Imports of rare earth metals (including scandium), 2010-2019
  • Table 23: Significant historical events that have affected rare earth prices
  • Table 24: Annual average China FOB price of rare earth oxides, 2013-2019
  • Table 25: World: Historical supply-demand balance by element, 2013-2019
  • Table 26: World: Forecast rare earth mine supply by producer, 2019-2029
  • Table 27: World: Rare earth mine supply by element, 2019-2029
  • Table 28: World: Forecast supply of refined rare earths by producer, 2019-2029
  • Table 29: World: Forecast supply of refined rare earths by element, 2019-2029
  • Table 30: World: Forecast demand for rare earths by application, 2019-2029
  • Table 31: World: Forecast demand for rare earths by region and application, 2029
  • Table 32: World: Forecast demand for rare earths by element, 2019-2029
  • Table 33: World: Forecast supply-demand balance, 2019-2029
  • Table 34: China: Forecast annual average FOB price of rare earth oxides, 2019-2029
  • Table 35: Formulae of major minerals containing rare earths
  • Table 36: Rare earth content of major source minerals
  • Table 37: World: Reserves of rare earths (excluding yttrium) 2019
  • Table 38: Reported mineral resource and reserve estimates at operations and projects in development by country, November 2019
  • Table 39: Reported resource and reserves at non-Chinese rare earth operations and projects, November 2019
  • Table 40: Estimated world reserves of yttrium, 2019
  • Table 41: Angola: Rare earth projects under development, 2019
  • Table 42: Australia: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 43: Australia: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 44: Australia: Rare earth resources and reserves at selected projects, 2019
  • Table 45: Austria: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 46: Belgium: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 47: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 48: Brazil: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 49: Burundi: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 50: Canada: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 51: Canada: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 52: Canadian mineral resource data, 2019
  • Table 53: Chile: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 54: China: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 55: China: Reserves reported by the six rare earth SOE groups, 2018
  • Table 56: China: Rare earth distribution for major ores
  • Table 57: China: Quota, capacity and output of the six SOE groups, 2019
  • Table 58: China: Six RE Groups: Mining and separation capacity, 2019
  • Table 59: China: Rare earth mining quota, 2016-2019
  • Table 60: China: Consolidating areas by the six enterprises
  • Table 61: China: Comparison of resource tax rate systems by production area
  • Table 62: China: Evolution of resource tax rates
  • Table 63: Introduction of Chinese environmental legislation and amendments since 2015
  • Table 64: China: Rare earth commercial stockpile in 2016/17
  • Table 65: China: SRB stockpiling activity in 2016/17
  • Table 66: Estonia: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 67: Estonia: Overview of operations
  • Table 68: Estonia: Compounds produced at Molycorp Silmet facilities
  • Table 69: France: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 70: Solvay: Major rare earth bearing products, 2019
  • Table 71: Germany: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 72: Greenland: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 73: Greenland mineral resource data,2019
  • Table 74: India: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 75: India: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 76: Distribution of Indian monazite resources by state, 2016
  • Table 77: Japan: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 78: Japan: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 79: Japan: Imports of rare earth compounds from China, 2013-2019
  • Table 80: Nippon Yttrium: Co-precipitate rare earth products
  • Table 81: Kazakhstan: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 82: Kazakhstan: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 83: Malawi: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 84: Malaysia: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 85: Malaysia: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 86: Madagascar: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 87: Malaysia: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 88: Namibia: Overview of projects
  • Table 89: Netherlands: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 90: Norway: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 91: Russia: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 92: Russia: Overview of operations
  • Table 93: Spain: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 94: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 95: South Africa: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 96: Korea, South: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 97: Sweden: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 98: Sweden: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 99: Taiwan: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 100: Tanzania: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 101: Turkey: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 102: Turkey: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 103: UK: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 104: USA: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 105: USA: Imports of rare earth products from China, 2013-2019
  • Table 106: USA mineral resource data, 2019
  • Table 107: USA: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 108: Vietnam: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 109: Summary of rare earth reserves and resources in Vietnam, 2016
  • Table 110: Comparison of magnet strength, operating temperature and coercivity
  • Table 111: Sintered versus bonded NdFeB permanent magnets
  • Table 112: China: Sintered NdFeB magnet manufacturers, 2019 (> 3ktpy)
  • Table 113: China: Bonded NdFeB magnet manufacturers, 2019 (> 3ktpy)
  • Table 114: China: Producers of SmCo permanent magnets, 2019
  • Table 115: Chinese integrated and magnet alloy producers, 2019
  • Table 116: Rest of World: Rare earth permanent magnet and magnet alloy producers (2019)
  • Table 117: Rare earth permanent magnet recycling operations and projects (2019)
  • Table 118: Average NdFeB intensity of use in key applications
  • Table 119: Generator systems for wind turbines
  • Table 120: Japan: Permanent magnet motors by Toshiba used in trains (2016)
  • Table 121: World: Demand for crude oil by refinery distillate groups, 2013-2018
  • Table 122: The function of rare earths in auto catalysts
  • Table 123: World (excluding China): Major oil refining catalyst producers
  • Table 124: World (excluding China): Major auto catalyst producers
  • Table 125: China: Catalyst producers
  • Table 126: Rare earth composition of polishing powders
  • Table 127: World: Rare earth polishing powder producers
  • Table 128: Typical metal hydride system compositions for use in NiMH batteries
  • Table 129: World: Major producers of NiMH alloy
  • Table 130: Historical production of crude steel, 2008-2018
  • Table 131: Forecast production of crude steel, 2019-2029
  • Table 132: Historical production of stainless steel, 2008-2018
  • Table 133: Forecast production of stainless steel, 2019-2029
  • Table 134: Main applications for castings by type
  • Table 135: World: Castings production by country and type, 2017
  • Table 136: Refractive indices of non-crystalline materials
  • Table 137: Selected applications for rare earths in the advanced ceramics industry
  • Table 138: Properties of zirconia ceramics
  • Table 139: World: Producers of zirconia by company and country
  • Table 140: Typical composition of tri-colour fluorescent phosphors
  • Table 141: Typical composition of LED phosphors
  • Table 142: Typical rare earths used in phosphors by end-use
  • Table 143: Consumption of HREE in fluorescent lamps vs LEDs
  • Table 144: Typical rare earth composition in phosphors: fluorescent lamps vs LEDs
  • Table 145: Typical compositions of rare earth phosphors in displays
  • Table 146: World: Major producers of rare earth phosphors 2019
  • Table 147: Summary of other rare earth applications
  • Table 148: Key information: Alkane Resources
  • Table 149: Dubbo Zirconia: Resources and reserves
  • Table 150: Dubbo Zirconia project REE processing output
  • Table 151: Key information: Arafura Resources
  • Table 152: Nolans: Mineral resources, November 2019
  • Table 153: Arafura scheduled production capacity by product, November 2018
  • Table 154: Key Information: CBMM
  • Table 155: CNRE: Mining quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 156: CNRE: Separation quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 157: CNRE: Separation plants and their capacity, 2018
  • Table 158: CNRE: Subsidiaries and operations producing downstream RE products and services, 2019
  • Table 159: CSREG: Mining assets in 2018
  • Table 160: CSREG: Mining quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 161: CSREG: Separating plants in 2018
  • Table 162: CSREG: Separation quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 163: Chinalco Rare Earth Group: Mining activity 2019
  • Table 164: Chinalco Rare Earth Group: Mining quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 165: Chinalco Rare Earth Group: Separation plants, 2019
  • Table 166: Chinalco: Separation quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 167: Key Information: Commerce Resources
  • Table 168: Ashram: Resources and reserves
  • Table 169: Key Information: Greenland Minerals and Energy
  • Table 170: Kvanefjeld: Resources and reserves
  • Table 171: GREG: Mining assets in 2018
  • Table 172: GREG: Mining quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 173: GREG: Separating plants, 2018
  • Table 174: GREG: Separation quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 175: Key information: Hastings Technology Metals
  • Table 176: Yanibana: Resources and reserves
  • Table 177: Key Information: Hochschild Mining
  • Table 178: Key Information: Iluka Resources
  • Table 179: Key Information: Indian Rare Earths Ltd
  • Table 180: Key information: Lynas Corporation
  • Table 181: Lynas: Annual production from LAMP 2014-2019
  • Table 182: China Minmetals Rare Earth Group: Mining assets in 2018
  • Table 183: China Minmetals Rare Earth Group: Mining quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 184: China Minmetals Rare Earth Group: Separation plants in 2018
  • Table 185: China Minmetals Rare Earth Group: Separation quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 186: Key Information: Mkango Resources
  • Table 187: Songwe: Resources and reserves
  • Table 188: MP Materials: Mountain Pass
  • Table 189: Mountain Pass: Resources and reserves
  • Table 190: Production from Mountain Pass, 2014-2019
  • Table 191: Key information: Neo Performance Materials
  • Table 192: Neo Performance Materials: Sales from business segments, 2016-H1 2019
  • Table 193: Key information: NPM: Silmet
  • Table 194: Key information: Neo Zibo plant
  • Table 195: Key information: Neo Jiangyin plant
  • Table 196: Key information: Molycorp Magnequench (Tianjin)
  • Table 197: Key information: Molycorp Magnequench (Korat)
  • Table 198: Key information: Northern Minerals
  • Table 199: Browns Range: Resources and reserves
  • Table 200: Key Information: Peak Resources
  • Table 201: Ngualla: Resources and reserves
  • Table 202: Key Information: Pensana Metals
  • Table 203: Resource estimate for the Longonjo project, November 2019
  • Table 204: Key Information: Rainbow Rare Earths
  • Table 205: Rainbow RE: Gakara project operational data, Q1 2018-Q2 2019
  • Table 206: Key Information: Rare Earth Salts
  • Table 207: Planned output from Rare Earth Salts (3.5ktpy REO) facility
  • Table 208: Key Information: Yara International
  • Table 209: Key Information: Mineração Serra Verde
  • Table 210: Serra Verde: resources and reserves
  • Table 211: Key Information: Solikamsk Magnesium Works
  • Table 212: Key Information: Solvay
  • Table 213: Key Information: Steenkampskraal Ltd.
  • Table 214: Steenkampskraal: Resources and reserves
  • Table 215: Key Information: Tanbreez
  • Table 216: Key information: Thaiduong Group
  • Table 217: Key Information: Three Arc Mining
  • Table 218: Key Information: Torngat Metals
  • Table 219: Key Information: Toyota Tsusho Material
  • Table 220: Treibacher AG rare earth element product list, 2018
  • Table 221: Key Information: Treibacher AG
  • Table 222: Key information: Ucore Rare Metals
  • Table 223: Bokan-Dotson Ridge: Resources and reserves
  • Table 224: Key information: Vietnam Rare Earths JSC
  • Table 225: Vietnam Rare Earth JSC product list, 2017
  • Table 226: Key information: Vietnam Rare Earth Co.
  • Table 227: Key Information: WIM Resources
  • Table 228: Xiamen Tungsten: Mining Assets in 2018
  • Table 229: Xiamen Tungsten: Mining quota and annual production, 2015-2019
  • Table 230: Separation quota and production 2015-2019
  • Table 231: Key Information: Yara International
  • Table 232: Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 233: Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 234: Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 235: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 236: Forecast urbanisation rate, 2018-2030
  • Table 237: Forecast median age, 2018-2030 (years)
  • Table 238: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2018-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: World: Map of rare earth deposits
  • Figure 2: World: Historical and forecast mine production of rare earth elements by region, 2005-2029
  • Figure 3: World: Historical and forecast refined production of rare earth elements by region, 2005-2029
  • Figure 4: World: Rare earths demand by region, 2013-2029
  • Figure 5: World: Estimated rare earths demand by end-use, 2019
  • Figure 6: World: Rare earths demand by element, 2013-2019
  • Figure 7: Proportional consumption of rare earth elements, 2013-2019
  • Figure 8: Proportional consumption of rare earth elements, 2018-2029
  • Figure 9: China: Quarterly prices for rare earth oxides, Q1 2013--Q4 2019
  • Figure 10: China: Monthly prices for rare earth oxides used in NdFeB magnets, 2017-2019
  • Figure 11: China: Forecast annual average FOB prices of praseodymium and neodymium oxide 2019-2029
  • Figure 12: World map of rare earth deposits, production and trade flow, 2019
  • Figure 13: World mine production of rare earths, 2005-2019
  • Figure 14: China: Contribution of illegal mine production of rare earths, 2005-2019
  • Figure 15: World mine production of rare earths by company/Chinese province, 2019
  • Figure 16: World refined production of rare earths, 1985-2019
  • Figure 17: World refined production of rare earths by company/Chinese province, 2019
  • Figure 18: Historical rare earth demand by region, 2000-2019
  • Figure 19: Year-on-year growth in rare earth consumption, 2013-2019
  • Figure 20: Estimated rare earths consumption by end-use, 2019
  • Figure 21: Historical rare earth consumption by application, 2013-2019
  • Figure 22: World: Year-on-year growth in rare earth consumption by application, 2013-2019
  • Figure 23: Rare earth consumption by end-use, 2019
  • Figure 24: World: Rare earths consumption by element, 2013-2019
  • Figure 25: Estimated rare earth value by end-use, 2019
  • Figure 26: Estimated rare earths consumption value by element, 2019
  • Figure 27: Ex-China primary rare earth production entering trade, 2010-2019
  • Figure 28: Key cerium compounds trade flows, 2018
  • Figure 29: Key rare earth metal trade flows, 2018
  • Figure 30: World map of rare earth deposits, production and trade flow, 2019
  • Figure 31: Quarterly China LRE and SEG oxide prices, 2013-2019
  • Figure 32: Monthly China oxide prices for rare earths used in NdFeB magnets, 2017-2019
  • Figure 33: World: supply and demand balance of rare earth elements, 2013-2019
  • Figure 34: World: Proportional consumption of rare earth elements, 2013-2019
  • Figure 35: World: Forecast world mine supply of rare earths, 2019-2029
  • Figure 36: World: rare earth mine production and y-on-y change, 2019-2029
  • Figure 37: World: Forecast supply of refined rare earths, 2019-2029
  • Figure 38: World: Forecast supply of refined rare earths and y-on-y change, 2019-2029
  • Figure 39: World: Forecast annual rare earth demand growth by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 40: World: Forecast rare earth demand by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 41: World: Forecast demand for rare earths by application, 2019-2029
  • Figure 42: World: Forecast demand for rare earths by application, 2029
  • Figure 43: World: Forecast rare earths consumption by element, 2019-2029
  • Figure 44: World: Forecast supply, demand and market balance, 2019-2029
  • Figure 45: World: Forecast proportional consumption of rare earths, 2019-2029
  • Figure 46: China: Forecast annual FOB prices of praseodymium and neodymium 2019-2029
  • Figure 47: China: Forecast annual FOB prices of lanthanum, cerium and yttrium 2019-2029
  • Figure 48: China: Forecast annual FOB prices of europium, terbium and dysprosium 2019-2029
  • Figure 49: China: Reserves of rare earths by Group, 2019
  • Figure 50: Baiyun Obo simplified rare earth processing sheet for bastnaesite ore
  • Figure 51: Pond and pile method flowsheet for South Chinese ion adsorption clay
  • Figure 52: Generalised flowsheet for monazite recovery from heavy mineral sands
  • Figure 53: Method: Ion adsorption: Simplified diagram of the displacement chromatography
  • Figure 54: China: Exports of rare earth compounds (HS: 2846) by major trade partner, Jan 2015--Sep 2019
  • Figure 55: China: Imports of thorium ores & concentrates (HS:261220), 2015-2019
  • Figure 56: Estimated illegal mine production in China by ore type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 57: Monthly volume and unit value of Chinese imports of rare earth compounds from Myanmar, Jan 2016-Sep 2019
  • Figure 58: Imports of cerium compounds, 2012-2019
  • Figure 59: Imports of other rare earth compounds, 2013-2019
  • Figure 60: Imports of rare earth metals and alloys, 2013-2019
  • Figure 61: Capabilities of Shin-Etsu rare earth facilities in manufacturing rare earth magnets
  • Figure 62: Malaysia: Exports of rare earth compounds, 2013-2019
  • Figure 63: Rare earth consumption in NdFeB and SmCo, 2013-2019
  • Figure 64: Rare earths consumption in magnets by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 65: Rare earth consumption in magnets by element, 2013-2019
  • Figure 66: Development of permanent magnet strength
  • Figure 67: Simplified recycling flow sheet for rare earth permanent magnets
  • Figure 68: Uptake of metal AM machines, 2010-2017
  • Figure 69: Total additive manufacturing market size, 2013-2023
  • Figure 70: Chinese rare earth magnet capacity by type, 2019
  • Figure 71: Applications for NdFeB permanent magnets, 2019
  • Figure 72: World: Consumption of NdFeB by application, 2013-2019
  • Figure 73: Global shipments of HDDs, 2013-2019
  • Figure 74: Mobile phone, smartphone and tablet shipments, 2013-2019
  • Figure 75: World: Demand for air-conditioning units by country, 2013-2019
  • Figure 76: Annual on- and off-shore increase in wind power capacity, 2013-2023
  • Figure 77: New offshore wind power capacity by country, 2013-2018
  • Figure 78: Magnet applications in vehicles, ferrite (grey) vs. NdFeB (blue)
  • Figure 79: World: Production of motor vehicles, 2013-2019
  • Figure 80: Motor designs
  • Figure 81: Motor technology use in xEVs, 2019
  • Figure 82: Electric vehicle sales by type, 2013-2029
  • Figure 83: World: Forecast production of e-bikes, 2016-2025
  • Figure 84: Forecast NdFeB demand, 2019-2029
  • Figure 85: Ferrite and NdFeB machining cost versus size
  • Figure 86: Forecast consumption of rare earths in magnets by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 87: Forecast consumption of rare earths in magnets by element, 2019-2029
  • Figure 88: Rare earth consumption in catalysts 2019
  • Figure 89: Rare earth consumption in catalysts by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 90: Rare earth consumption in catalysts by type, 2013-2019
  • Figure 91: Catalytic cracking refining of crude oil, by country, 2018
  • Figure 92: Top-five oil producing countries, 2013-2019
  • Figure 93: USA: Monthly crude oil production by source, January 2010 -- July 2019
  • Figure 94: CO2 emissions standards, 2007-2030 (g/km)
  • Figure 95: World: Production of HEV and ICE motor vehicles, 2013-2029
  • Figure 96: Forecast rare earth consumption in catalyst applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 97: Forecast consumption of rare earths in catalysts by region, 2019 -- 2029
  • Figure 98: World: Consumption of cerium by end use, 2019
  • Figure 99: World: Consumption of rare earths in polishing by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 100: World: Consumption of rare earths in polishing by element, 2019
  • Figure 101: World: Forecast demand for rare earths in polishing by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 102: Rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries, 2019
  • Figure 103: Rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries by sector, 2013-2019
  • Figure 104: Rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 105: Demand for NiMH batteries by application, 2013-2019
  • Figure 106: Forecast demand of NiMH batteries, 2019-2029
  • Figure 107::Forecast rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries, 2019-2029
  • Figure 108::Forecast rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries, 2019-2029
  • Figure 109: Consumption of rare earths in metallurgy, 2019
  • Figure 110: Consumption of rare earths in metallurgy, by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 111: World: Production of castings by type, 2010-2018
  • Figure 112: Forecast castings production by type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 113: Forecast demand for rare earths in metallurgy, by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 114: Consumption of rare earths in glass by end-use, 2019
  • Figure 115: World: Consumption of rare earths in glass by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 116: Consumption of rare earths in glass by element, 2019
  • Figure 117: Shipments of new and refurbished smartphones, 2010-2019
  • Figure 118: Shipments of display panels, 2010-2019
  • Figure 119: Annual television shipments, 2010-2019
  • Figure 120: Shipments of 3C1 electronics with displays, 2010-2019
  • Figure 121: Shipments and REO consumption of 3C1 electronics with camera lenses, 2010-2019
  • Figure 122: World: Forecast demand for rare earths in glass by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 123: World: Forecast demand for rare earths in glass by element, 2029
  • Figure 124: Rare earths consumption in ceramics by element
  • Figure 125: World: Consumption of rare earths in ceramics by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 126: Forecast demand for rare earths in ceramics, by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 127: Forecast demand for rare earths in ceramics, by element, 2019-2029
  • Figure 128: Consumption of rare earths in phosphors by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 129: Consumption of rare earths in phosphors by element, 2019
  • Figure 130: World: Shipments of lamps by type, 2011-2019
  • Figure 131: TV shipments by type
  • Figure 132: Forecast demand for rare earths in phosphors by lamp type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 133: Forecast demand for rare earths in phosphors by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 134: Rare earth consumption in pigments by region, 2011-2019
  • Figure 135: World: Consumption of rare earths in pigments by element, 2019
  • Figure 136: World: Production of ceramic tiles, 2010-2019
  • Figure 137: Outlook of rare earth consumption in pigments by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 138: Consumption of rare earths in other applications, by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 139: Forecast demand for rare earths in other applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 140: CBMM: Araxa rare earth production, 2013-2019
  • Figure 141: Lynas: Annual production from LAMP Q3 2014-Q4 2019
  • Figure 142: Malaysian exports of RE compounds by major destinations, 2015-2019
  • Figure 143: Malaysian exports of RE compounds by major destination, 2015-2019
  • Figure 144: Estonian quarterly RE compound imports by origin, Q1 2015-Q3 2019
  • Figure 145: SMW: Production of rare earth products, 2009-2019