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全球鋰產業

Lithium: Outlook to 2028, 16th Edition

出版商 Roskill Information Services 商品編碼 79366
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
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全球鋰產業 Lithium: Outlook to 2028, 16th Edition
出版日期: 2019年07月08日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

本服務是為期12個月的訂閱服務,提供全球鋰的生產,消費及價格趨勢,國際貿易,今後的市場預測,主要國家和主要公司概況,宏觀經濟前景等訊息。

訂閱服務的內容

  • 未來10年的分析報告和預測
  • 可線上點閱報告(最多5個用戶)
  • 鋰市場上主要影響因素的季度更新
  • 可諮詢分析師了解報告的內容
  • 根據要求提供報告的紙本列印版

報告的內容

  • 第1章 摘要整理
  • 第2章 鋰產業的流程圖
  • 第3章 全球鋰生產
  • 第4章 生產成本
  • 第5章 全球鋰消費
  • 第6章 鋰的國際貿易
  • 第7章 鋰價格
  • 第8章 鋰市場展望
  • 第9章 鋰產業的背景
  • 第10章 國家概況
  • 第11章 鋰的最終用途
  • 第12章 企業簡介

本網頁內容可能與最新版本有所差異。詳細情況請與我們聯繫。

目錄

This report provides:

  • Analysis of the Lithium market with forecast to 2028
  • Access to the report through Roskill Interactive
  • Quarterly market updates
  • Access to the analysts

Lithium carbonate prices peaked in November 2017 at US$25,800/t, though since then they have been under pressure. Having fallen through much of 2018 and the start of 2019, as of February 2019 carbonate prices stood at just US$11,500/t.

In 2017, prices had been propelled through successive multi year highs by strong demand from the lithium-ion battery industry set against a backdrop of uncertainty over future supply. This attracted significant attention on the lithium sector and incentivised investment into both mining and processing capacity. Prices for all lithium products subsequently fell as production at operations in China, Australia, Canada and Chile ramped-up, and as a swath of greenfield projects mitigated fears of future supply shortages.

Golobal production of mined and refined lithium, 2010-2018

During this period, China was a crucial factor in helping to move the market back towards equilibrium. The country is crucial to determining the outcome of the global market, and through our Shanghai office, Roskill maintains a permanent research presence in China to follow industry developments. Of particular note last year, Chinese battery grade lithium carbonate prices fell from US$21,700/t in Q2 to US$11,450/t in Q4, as increased production from domestic brine operations, albeit of poor-quality materials, alleviated tight supply in the Chinese market.

Longer term, the addition of capacity at existing and new operations will be critical to meet forecast demand growth over the coming decade, whether from lithium brine or lithium hard rock/mineral conversion operations. Demand for lithium is expected to increase five-fold over the coming decade, driven principally by demand for lithium-ion batteries and their use in electric vehicles, energy storage systems and portable electronics. Lithium demand is forecast to increase by over 20%py, with demand from battery applications increasing by over 25%py through to 2028. Meanwhile demand for lithium from industrial applications such as ceramics, greases and glass are also expected, albeit at a more modest rate of 2-3%py. With this backdrop the lithium industry will require significant investment in additional supply from new mines, process plants and from the nascent recycling industry.

Although new capacity has been brought online at several operations, there have also been a number of set-backs. Recently there have been capital expenditure blowouts, delays in mine ramp ups and the bear market in the lithium equities has undoubtedly curtailed investment in greenfield projects. These developmental challenges, along with the changing cost profile of the industry, highlight the technical and financial hurdles involved with bringing such sizable volumes of new capacity online. We maintain the view that concerns about future refined lithium over-supply are poorly founded and expect the lithium market to enter a period of sustained supply deficit in the early 2020s.

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Consumption and uses
  • 1.2. Production and producers
  • 1.3. Costs
  • 1.4. Market balance and prices
  • 1.5. Outlook

2. Lithium flowchart

3. World production of lithium

  • 3.1. Mine capacity
  • 3.2. Mine capacity by type
  • 3.3. Mine capacity by company
  • 3.4. Mineral conversion capacity
  • 3.5. Refined lithium capacity
    • 3.5.1. Upgrading & reprocessing capacity
  • 3.6. Lithium mine production
  • 3.7. Mine production by type
  • 3.8. Mine production by company
    • 3.8.1. Direct shipped ore (DSO)
  • 3.9. Mineral concentrate production
    • 3.9.1. Chemical grade
    • 3.9.2. Technical grade
  • 3.10. Mineral conversion production
  • 3.11. Refined lithium production
    • 3.11.1. Upgrading & re-processing production
    • 3.11.2. Lithium carbonate
    • 3.11.3. Lithium hydroxide
  • 3.12. Recycling

4. Production costs

  • 4.1. Lithium carbonate costs
  • 4.2. Lithium hydroxide costs
  • 4.3. Trends in production costs
    • 4.3.1. Reagent costs
    • 4.3.2. Labour costs
    • 4.3.3. Energy costs
    • 4.3.4. Transport costs
  • 4.4. Outlook for production costs

5. World consumption of lithium

  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Consumption by end-use
  • 5.3. Consumption by product type
  • 5.4. Consumption by country/region

6. International trade in lithium

  • 6.1. Trade in lithium carbonate
  • 6.2. Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide
  • 6.3. Trade in lithium chloride
  • 6.4. Trade in lithium mineral concentrates
    • 6.4.1. Lithium mineral concentrates
    • 6.4.2. Trade in direct shipping ores (DSO)

7. Lithium prices

  • 7.1. Historical price trends
    • 7.1.1. Battery-grade lithium carbonate
    • 7.1.2. Technical-grade lithium carbonate
    • 7.1.3. Technical-grade lithium hydroxide
    • 7.1.4. Battery-grade lithium hydroxide
    • 7.1.5. Lithium chloride and lithium metal
    • 7.1.6. Chemical-grade spodumene concentrate
    • 7.1.7. Technical-grade spodumene concentrate prices
    • 7.1.8. Direct shipped ore (DSO)

8. Market outlook to 2028

  • 8.1. Outlook for consumption and demand
    • 8.1.1. Outlook for first use consumption
    • 8.1.2. Outlook for consumption by product type
    • 8.1.3. Outlook for consumption by country/region
  • 8.2. Outlook for mine capacity
    • 8.2.1. New projects
  • 8.3. Outlook for refined capacity
  • 8.4. Outlook for supply and market balance
    • 8.4.1. Chemical-grade concentrate supply
    • 8.4.2. Refined lithium supply
  • 8.5. Outlook for prices
    • 8.5.1. Battery-grade lithium carbonate
    • 8.5.2. Technical-grade lithium carbonate
    • 8.5.3. Technical-grade lithium hydroxide
    • 8.5.4. Battery-grade lithium hydroxide
    • 8.5.5. Lithium chloride and lithium metal
    • 8.5.6. Chemical-grade spodumene concentrate
    • 8.5.7. Technical-grade spodumene concentrate
    • 8.5.8. Direct shipped ore (DSO)
    • 8.5.9. Price risk factors

9. Background

  • 9.1. History, properties, geology and reserves of lithium
  • 9.2. Occurrence of lithium
    • 9.2.1. Lithium minerals
    • 9.2.2. Lithium clays
    • 9.2.3. Lithium brines
  • 9.3. Reserves and resources

10. Country profiles

  • 10.1. Argentina
    • 10.1.1. Resources and reserves
    • 10.1.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.2. Australia
    • 10.2.1. Resources and reserves
    • 10.2.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.3. Austria
  • 10.4. Belgium
  • 10.5. Bolivia
    • 10.5.1. Reserves and resources
    • 10.5.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.6. Brazil
    • 10.6.1. Resources and reserves
    • 10.6.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.7. Canada
    • 10.7.1. Resources and reserves
    • 10.7.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.8. Chile
    • 10.8.1. Resources and Reserves
    • 10.8.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.9. China
    • 10.9.1. Resources and reserves
    • 10.9.2. Lithium operations and projects
    • 10.9.3. Mineral conversion plants
    • 10.9.4. Chemical Conversion facilities
  • 10.10. Cóte D'Ivoire
  • 10.11. Czech Republic
    • 10.11.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.12. Democratic Republic of Congo
    • 10.12.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.13. Finland
    • 10.13.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.14. France
  • 10.15. Germany
    • 10.15.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.16. India
  • 10.17. Ireland
    • 10.17.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.18. Italy
  • 10.19. Japan
  • 10.20. South Korea
  • 10.21. Mali
  • 10.22. Mexico
    • 10.22.1. Resources and reserves
    • 10.22.2. Lithium projects
  • 10.23. Namibia
  • 10.24. Netherlands
  • 10.25. Peru
  • 10.26. Portugal
    • 10.26.1. Reserves and resources
    • 10.26.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.27. Russia
    • 10.27.1. Reserves and resources
    • 10.27.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.28. Serbia
  • 10.29. South Africa
  • 10.30. Spain
    • 10.30.1. Resources and Reserves
    • 10.30.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.31. Sweden
    • 10.31.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.32. Taiwan
  • 10.33. Turkey
  • 10.34. United Kingdom
    • 10.34.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.35. USA
    • 10.35.1. Resources and reserves
    • 10.35.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 10.36. Zimbabwe
    • 10.36.1. Resources and reserves
    • 10.36.2. Lithium operations and projects

11. End uses

  • 11.1. Rechargeable batteries
    • 11.1.1. Types of rechargeable batteries
      • 11.1.1.1. Li-ion batteries
      • 11.1.1.2. Solid-state Li-ion batteries
      • 11.1.1.3. Lithium metal polymer batteries
      • 11.1.1.4. Lithium-sulphur batteries
      • 11.1.1.5. Lithium-air batteries
      • 11.1.1.6. NiMH and NiCd batteries
    • 11.1.2. Producers of rechargeable batteries
    • 11.1.3. Consumption of rechargeable batteries
      • 11.1.3.1. Portable market
      • 11.1.3.2. Power devices
      • 11.1.3.3. Motive devices
      • 11.1.3.4. Energy storage systems (ESS)
      • 11.1.3.5. Automotive
    • 11.1.4. Production of rechargeable lithium battery materials
      • 11.1.4.1. Cathode materials
      • 11.1.4.2. Electrolyte
      • 11.1.4.3. Anode materials
    • 11.1.5. Consumption of NiMH and NiCd batteries
    • 11.1.6. Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries
      • 11.1.6.1. Lithium consumption in the battery supply chain in 2018
      • 11.1.6.2. Lithium consumption by battery application in 2018
      • 11.1.6.3. Lithium consumption in batteries by country in 2018
    • 11.1.7. Outlook for demand for rechargeable batteries
      • 11.1.7.1. Portable, power & motive and ESS markets
      • 11.1.7.2. Automotive market
    • 11.1.8. Outlook for consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries
      • 11.1.8.1. Lithium consumption in the battery supply chain in 2028
      • 11.1.8.2. Lithium consumption by battery application in 2028
      • 11.1.8.3. Lithium consumption in batteries by country/region in 2028
  • 11.2. Ceramics
    • 11.2.1. Use of lithium in ceramics
    • 11.2.2. Production and consumption of ceramics
      • 11.2.2.1. Ceramic tiles
      • 11.2.2.2. Sanitaryware
      • 11.2.2.3. Tableware
      • 11.2.2.4. Cookware and bakeware
    • 11.2.3. Production and consumption of white goods
      • 11.2.3.1. Production and consumption of glazes and enamels
    • 11.2.4. Consumption of lithium in ceramics
    • 11.2.5. Outlook for ceramics production and consumption
    • 11.2.6. Outlook for consumption of lithium in ceramics
  • 11.3. Glass-ceramics
    • 11.3.1. Use of lithium in glass-ceramics
    • 11.3.2. Production and consumption of glass-ceramics
      • 11.3.2.1. Producers of glass-ceramics
    • 11.3.3. Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics
    • 11.3.4. Outlook for consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics
  • 11.4. Greases
    • 11.4.1. Types of lubricating grease
    • 11.4.2. Production of grease
    • 11.4.3. Producers of lithium grease
    • 11.4.4. Consumption of lithium greases
    • 11.4.5. Consumption of lithium in greases
    • 11.4.6. Outlook for demand for lithium in greases
  • 11.5. Metallurgical powders
    • 11.5.1. Use of lithium in continuous casting
    • 11.5.2. Producers of continuous casting mould powders
    • 11.5.3. Use of lithium in traditional metal casting
    • 11.5.4. Continually cast steel production
    • 11.5.5. Consumption of continuous casting mould powders
    • 11.5.6. Consumption of lithium in metallurgical powders
    • 11.5.7. Outlook for lithium demand in metallurgical powders
  • 11.6. Glass
    • 11.6.1. Use of lithium in glass
    • 11.6.2. Production and consumption of glass
    • 11.6.3. Container glass
    • 11.6.4. Fibre glass
    • 11.6.5. Speciality glass
    • 11.6.6. Consumption of lithium in glass
    • 11.6.7. Outlook for demand for lithium in glass
  • 11.7. Polymers
    • 11.7.1. Use of lithium in polymers
    • 11.7.2. Production of polymers
    • 11.7.3. Producers of polymers
    • 11.7.4. Consumption of polymers
    • 11.7.5. Consumption of lithium in polymers
    • 11.7.6. Producers of butyllithium
    • 11.7.7. Outlook for lithium demand in polymers
  • 11.8. Primary batteries
    • 11.8.1. Types of primary batteries
    • 11.8.2. Production of lithium primary batteries
    • 11.8.3. Producers of lithium primary batteries
    • 11.8.4. Trade in primary lithium batteries
    • 11.8.5. Production of primary lithium battery materials
    • 11.8.6. Producers of battery-grade lithium metal
    • 11.8.7. Consumption of lithium primary batteries
    • 11.8.8. Outlook for primary lithium battery consumption
    • 11.8.9. Consumption of lithium in primary batteries
    • 11.8.10. Outlook for demand for lithium in primary batteries
  • 11.9. Air treatment
    • 11.9.1. Absorption chillers
      • 11.9.1.1. Production of absorption chillers
      • 11.9.1.2. Producers of adsorption chillers
      • 11.9.1.3. Producers of lithium bromide for absorption chillers
      • 11.9.1.4. Consumption of lithium in absorption chillers
    • 11.9.2. Dehumidification
      • 11.9.2.1. Production of desiccant dehumidification systems
      • 11.9.2.2. Producers of desiccant dehumidification systems
      • 11.9.2.3. Consumption of lithium in desiccant dehumidifiers
    • 11.9.3. Air purification
    • 11.9.4. Outlook for lithium demand in air treatment
  • 11.10. Minor end-uses
    • 11.10.1. Alloys
      • 11.10.1.1. Aluminium-lithium alloy
      • 11.10.1.2. Producers of aluminium-lithium alloys
      • 11.10.1.3. Applications for aluminium-lithium alloys
      • 11.10.1.4. -Consumption of lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys
      • 11.10.1.5. Outlook for demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys
      • 11.10.1.6. Magnesium-lithium alloy
    • 11.10.2. Sanitization
    • 11.10.3. Organic synthesis
    • 11.10.4. Construction
    • 11.10.5. Alkyd resins
    • 11.10.6. Aluminium smelting
      • 11.10.6.1. Process of aluminium smelting
      • 11.10.6.2. Consumers of lithium in aluminium smelting
      • 11.10.6.3. Consumption of lithium in aluminium smelting
      • 11.10.6.4. Outlook for lithium demand in aluminium smelting
    • 11.10.7. Electronics
    • 11.10.8. Analytical agents
    • 11.10.9. Dyestuffs
    • 11.10.10. Metallurgy
    • 11.10.11. Photographic industry
    • 11.10.12. Welding fluxes
    • 11.10.13. Electrochromic glass
    • 11.10.14. Pharmaceuticals
      • 11.10.14.1. Producers of lithium-based pharmaceuticals
      • 11.10.14.2. Production and consumption of lithium-based pharmaceuticals
      • 11.10.14.3. Consumption of lithium in pharmaceuticals
    • 11.10.15. Speciality lithium inorganics

12. Company profiles

  • 12.1. Albemarle Corporation
    • 12.1.1. Salar de Atacama
    • 12.1.2. Silver Peak
    • 12.1.3. Antofalla
    • 12.1.4. La Negra
    • 12.1.5. Albemarle-CORFO royalties
    • 12.1.6. Jiangxi Jiangli New Materials Science and Technology
    • 12.1.7. Magnolia
    • 12.1.8. Langelsheim
    • 12.1.9. Kings Mountain
    • 12.1.10. New Johnsonville
  • 12.2. Alliance Mineral Assets
  • 12.3. Altura Mining
  • 12.4. AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group
  • 12.5. Argosy Minerals
  • 12.6. Bacanora Minerals
    • 12.6.1. Sonora
    • 12.6.2. Zinnwald
  • 12.7. Bikita Minerals
  • 12.8. CATL (North American Lithium)
  • 12.9. China Minmetals
  • 12.10. Companhia Brasileira de Litio
  • 12.11. Core Lithium
  • 12.12. Critical Elements
  • 12.13. Desert Lion Energy
  • 12.14. Eramet Group
  • 12.15. European Lithium
  • 12.16. European Metals
  • 12.17. Frontier Lithium
  • 12.18. Galaxy Resources
    • 12.18.1. Mt. Cattlin
    • 12.18.2. James Bay
    • 12.18.3. Sal De Vida
  • 12.19. General Lithium
  • 12.20. H-Zone Lithium Technology
  • 12.21. Hengxinrong Lithium
  • 12.22. Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium
    • 12.22.1. Xinyu Basic Lithium plant
    • 12.22.2. Specialty Lithium Plant
    • 12.22.3. Ningdu plant
    • 12.22.4. Fengxin
    • 12.22.5. Yichun
    • 12.22.6. Heyuan
  • 12.23. Jiangxi Special Electric
    • 12.23.1. Jiangxi Jiangte Mining Development
    • 12.23.2. Yichun Yinli
    • 12.23.3. Jiangxi Baoli
  • 12.24. Jiangxi Tungsten Industry Group
  • 12.25. Jiangxi Yun Lithium (Yunli Company)
  • 12.26. Keliber Oy
  • 12.27. Kidman Resources
  • 12.28. Lithium Americas
    • 12.28.1. Thacker Pass
    • 12.28.2. Cauchari-Olaroz
  • 12.29. Lithium Power International
    • 12.29.1. Maricunga
  • 12.30. Livent Corporation
    • 12.30.1. Salar del Hombre Muerto (Fenix)
    • 12.30.2. Bessemer City
    • 12.30.3. Guemes
    • 12.30.4. Zhangjiagang
  • 12.31. Mali Lithium (Birimian)
  • 12.32. Mineral Resources Ltd.
    • 12.32.1. Wodgina
    • 12.32.2. Mt. Marion
  • 12.33. Nemaska Lithium
    • 12.33.1. Whabouchi
    • 12.33.2. Shawinigan plant
  • 12.34. Neo Lithium
  • 12.35. Neometals
    • 12.35.1. Kalgoorlie LiOH plant
    • 12.35.2. Mt Edwards
  • 12.36. Orocobre
    • 12.36.1. Salar de Olaroz
    • 12.36.2. Lithium Hydroxide plant (Japan)
  • 12.37. Pilbara Minerals
  • 12.38. Prospect Resources
  • 12.39. Pulead Technology Industry
    • 12.39.1. Dongtai Lithium Resources
  • 12.40. Qinghai Salt Lake Fozhao Lake Lithium
  • 12.41. Qinghai Salt Lake BYD Resources Development
  • 12.42. Rincon Lithium
  • 12.43. Rio Tinto
  • 12.44. Savannah Resources
  • 12.45. Sayona Mining
  • 12.46. Shandong Ruifu Lithium Industry
  • 12.47. Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Industries
    • 12.47.1. Greenbushes
    • 12.47.2. Cuola
    • 12.47.3. Zhangjiagang
    • 12.47.4. Shehong
    • 12.47.5. Chongqing Kunyu Lithium
  • 12.48. Sigma Lithium Resources
  • 12.49. Sociedad Mineira de Pegmatites
  • 12.50. Sociedad Química y Minera (SQM)
    • 12.50.1. Salar de Atacama
    • 12.50.2. Salar de Carmen
    • 12.50.3. SQM-CORFO royalties
  • 12.51. Tibet Mineral Development
  • 12.52. Yahua Lithium
    • 12.52.1. Guanyinqiao
    • 12.52.2. Lijiagou project
    • 12.52.3. Xuankou
    • 12.52.4. Meishan
    • 12.52.5. Xuankou (II)
    • 12.52.6. Ya'an
    • 12.53. Youngy Co
  • 12.54. Zangge Holdings Limited
  • 12.55. Zhiyuan Lithium (Weihua Group)
  • 12.56. Zhonghe
    • 12.56.1. Maerkang

13. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Forecast price trend for lithium carbonate and hydroxide, 2018-2028
  • Table 2: Annual average price forecast trend for chemical grade spodumene, 2018-2028
  • Table 3: World: Mine capacity of lithium by country, 2011-2018
  • Table 4: Mine capacity of lithium by major producers, 2014-2018
  • Table 5: Mine capacity of lithium by smaller producers, 2014-2018
  • Table 6: Mineral conversion capacity by company & plant, 2014-2018
  • Table 7: Refined lithium capacity by company, 2014-2018
  • Table 8: Lithium upgrading/ re-processing capacity by company & plant, 2014-2018
  • Table 9: World mine production of lithium by country, 2011-2018
  • Table 10: Mine production of lithium by major producers, 2014-2018
  • Table 11: Mine production of lithium by smaller producers, 2014-2018
  • Table 12: Details of off-take agreements for lithium mineral products, 2018
  • Table 13: Technical-grade lithium mineral production, 2012-2018
  • Table 14: Mineral conversion production by company & plant, 2014-2018
  • Table 15: Refined lithium production by company, 2014-2018
  • Table 16: Lithium upgrading/ re-processing production by company & plant, 2014-2018
  • Table 17: Lithium carbonate by company and product, 2014-2018
  • Table 18: Lithium hydroxide by company and product, 2014-2018
  • Table 19: World: Consumption of lithium by first use, 2000-2018
  • Table 20: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion rechargeable batteries by cathode, type of lithium, and end-use, 2018
  • Table 21: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2000-2018
  • Table 22: World: Consumption of lithium by country/region, 2018
  • Table 23: Exports of lithium carbonate, 2010-2018
  • Table 24: Exports of lithium carbonate by country and destination, 2018
  • Table 25: Imports of lithium carbonate, 2010-2018
  • Table 26: Imports of lithium carbonate by major exporting countries, 2018
  • Table 27: Exports of lithium hydroxide & oxides by leading countries, 2010-2018
  • Table 28: Exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide by major importers, 2018
  • Table 29: Imports of lithium hydroxide & oxide by leading countries, 2010-2018
  • Table 30: Imports of lithium hydroxide and oxide by major exporters, 2018
  • Table 31: Exports of lithium chloride, 2010-2018
  • Table 32: Imports of lithium chloride, 2010-2018
  • Table 33: Chinese imports of spodumene, lepidolite, petalite concentrates and DSO material by country, 2010-2018
  • Table 34: Australian exports of mineral concentrates to China, 2010-2018
  • Table 35: Monthly Chinese imports of DSO from Australia, Jan 2017- Dec 2018
  • Table 36: Comparison of battery-grade and technical-grade lithium carbonate average annual contract and spot prices, 2010-2019 Q1 (US$/t)
  • Table 37: Comparison of battery-grade and technical-grade lithium hydroxide average annual contract and spot prices, 2010-2019 Q1
  • Table 38: Average values of trade in lithium chloride and metal, 2008-2019 Q1
  • Table 39: World: Forecast consumption vs. demand of lithium
  • Table 40: World: Forecast demand of lithium by first use, 2018-2028
  • Table 41: Supply deals between car makers and battery makers, 2018-2019
  • Table 42: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion rechargeable batteries by cathode, type of lithium, and end-use, 2028
  • Table 43: World: Forecast consumption of lithium by product, 2018-2028
  • Table 44: World: Forecast scenarios for lithium consumption by product, 2018-2028
  • Table 45: World: Base-case outlook for consumption of lithium by country/region, 2018-2028
  • Table 46: Forecast existing, expanded and under construction mine nameplate capacity by company, 2018-2028
  • Table 47: Potential new lithium mine capacity by project
  • Table 48: Forecast refined lithium capacity by company, 2018-2028
  • Table 49: Potential new refined lithium capacity by project
  • Table 50: Average annual contract and spot price forecast trend for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 2017-2028
  • Table 51: Average annual price forecast trend for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2017-2028
  • Table 52: Average annual price forecast trend for technical-grade lithium hydroxide, 2017-2028
  • Table 53: Annual average price forecast trend for battery-grade lithium hydroxide, 2017-2028
  • Table 54: Annual average price forecast trend for lithium chloride and metal, 2017-2028
  • Table 55: Details of off-take agreements for lithium mineral products, 2018
  • Table 56: Annual average price forecast trend for chemical grade spodumene, 2018-2028
  • Table 57: Comparison of average annual forecast nominal prices for battery-grade lithium carbonate and chemical-grade spodumene, 2018-2028
  • Table 58: Annual average price forecast trend for technical grade spodumene, 2018-2028
  • Table 59: Properties of lithium
  • Table 60: Significant lithium minerals
  • Table 61: Major lithium bearing smectite group members
  • Table 62: Brine concentrations at selected deposits
  • Table 63: Reserves and resources at lithium operations, 2019
  • Table 64: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves of advanced projects, 2019
  • Table 65: Argentina: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 66: Argentina: Lithium carbonate exports, 2010-2018
  • Table 67: Argentina: Lithium chloride exports, 2010-2018
  • Table 68: Argentina: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 69: Australia: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 70: Australia: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 71: Austria: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 72: Austria: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 73: Belgium: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 74: Bolivia: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 75: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 76: Brazil: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 77: Canada: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 78: Canada: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 79: Chile: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 80: Chile: Lithium carbonate exports, 2014-2018
  • Table 81: Chile: Lithium hydroxide and oxide exports, 2014-2018
  • Table 82: Chile: Lithium chloride exports, 2014-2018
  • Table 83: Chile: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 84: China: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 85: China: Imports of lithium carbonate by origin, 2010-2018
  • Table 86: China: imports of lithium hydroxide by origin, 2010-2018
  • Table 87: China: Imports of lithium chloride by destination, 2010-2018
  • Table 88: China: Imports of mineral substances believed to represent lithium mineral concentrates by destination, 2012-2018
  • Table 89: China: Exports of lithium hydroxide by destination, 2010-2018
  • Table 90: China: Exports of lithium carbonate by destination, 2010-2018
  • Table 91: China: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 92: China: Details of major lithium mineral conversion plants, 2019
  • Table 93: Production at lithium chemical conversion facilities, 2015-2018
  • Table 94: Cóte D'Ivoire: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 95: Czech Republic: Summary statistics 2018
  • Table 96: Czech Republic: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 97: DRC: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 98: Finland: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 99: Finland: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 100: France: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 101: Germany: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 102: Germany: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 103: India: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 104: Ireland: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 105: Ireland: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 106: Italy: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 107: Japan: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 108: Japan: Imports of lithium carbonate and hydroxide by country, 2018
  • Table 109: Korea, South: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 110: Mali: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 111: Mexico: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 112: Mexico: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 113: Namibia: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 114: Netherlands: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 115: Peru: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 116: Peru: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 117: Portugal: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 118: Portugal: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 119: Russia: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 120: Russia: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 121: Serbia: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 122: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 123: South Africa: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 124: Spain: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 125: Spain: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2018
  • Table 126: Sweden: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 127: Sweden: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 128: Taiwan: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 129: Turkey: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 130: UK: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 131: UK: Details of lithium projects, 2019
  • Table 132: USA: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 133: USA: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 134: Zimbabwe: Summary statistics, 2010-2018
  • Table 135: Zimbabwe: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2019
  • Table 136: Top-10 producers of batteries for portable electronics and power applications (2018)
  • Table 137: Top-10 producers of large-sized battery cells for automotive or ESS (2018)
  • Table 138: World: Li-ion battery consumption in portable products, 2018
  • Table 139: World: Li-ion battery consumption in power devices and motive power, 2018
  • Table 140: World: Li-ion battery consumption in power devices and motive power, 2018
  • Table 141: World: Rechargeable battery consumption in ESS applications, 2018
  • Table 142: Summary table of ESS technologies, 2018
  • Table 143: Plug-in (BEV/PHEV) sales by country region (2018-2028)
  • Table 144: Top-5 producers of cathode materials, 2018
  • Table 145: Top-5 producers of electrolyte salts, 2018
  • Table 146: Top-5 producers of electrolyte solutions, 2018
  • Table 147: Battery companies using LTO anodes (2018)
  • Table 148: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by product, 2000-2018
  • Table 149: World: Lithium consumption in Li-ion batteries by end-use, 2018
  • Table 150: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion batteries by cathode type, type of lithium, and end-use, 2018
  • Table 151: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion batteries by xEV type 2014-2018
  • Table 152: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion batteries by country, 2010-2018
  • Table 153: World: Lithium consumption in NiMH and NiCd batteries, 2018
  • Table 154: World: Forecast Li-ion battery demand by end-use, 2018-2028
  • Table 155: Penetration rates comparison by research firm or investment bank
  • Table 156: Historical Chinese BEV central government subsidies, RMB (left) and US$ (right)
  • Table 157: Historical Chinese PHEV central government subsidies, RMB (left) and US$ (right)
  • Table 158: NEV 2018 and 2019 subsidies price comparison, January-April 2019
  • Table 159: Percentage requirements of NEV production for car makers, 2016-2021
  • Table 160: Compliance pathway of NEV Credit System
  • Table 161: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by product, 2018-2028
  • Table 162: World: Lithium consumption in Li-ion batteries by end-use, 2028 (base-case)
  • Table 163: World: Forecast demand for lithium in NiMH and NiCd batteries, 2018-2028
  • Table 164: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion batteries by cathode type, type of lithium, and end-use, 2028
  • Table 165: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion batteries by xEV type 2018-2028
  • Table 166: Lithium supply deals between miners and downstream supply chain, 2010-2019
  • Table 167: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion batteries by country, 2019-2028
  • Table 168: Typical whiteware body compositions
  • Table 169: World: Production of ceramic tiles by main countries, 2010-2018
  • Table 170: World: Consumption of ceramic tiles by main countries, 2010-2018
  • Table 171: World: Leading ceramic tile manufacturing companies, 2017/2018
  • Table 172: Leading sanitaryware manufacturing companies, 2017/2018
  • Table 173: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2018
  • Table 174: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2008-2018
  • Table 175: World: Forecast demand for lithium in ceramics, 2018-2028
  • Table 176: Glass-ceramic matrices
  • Table 177: Compositions of commercial glass-ceramics
  • Table 178: World consumption of electric cooktops, stove, ranges
  • Table 179: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics by end-use and product type, 2018
  • Table 180: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics, 2008 to 2018
  • Table 181: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass-ceramics, 2018-2028
  • Table 182: Properties of commercial greases
  • Table 183: World: Producers of lubricating grease
  • Table 184: World: Forecast demand for lithium in greases, 2018-2028
  • Table 185: World: Consumption of lithium in metallurgical powders, 2008-2018
  • Table 186: Forecast demand for lithium in casting powders, 2018-2028
  • Table 187: Typical batch compositions for glass by type
  • Table 188: Main sources of lithium used in glass
  • Table 189: World: Estimated production of glass by region and type, 2018
  • Table 190: EU: Production of glass by type, 2008-2017
  • Table 191: Typical chemical composition of types of textile-grade fibreglass
  • Table 192: World: Estimated consumption of lithium in glass, 2018
  • Table 193: World: Consumption of lithium in glass, 2008-2018
  • Table 194: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass, 2018-2028
  • Table 195: Microstructure of different types of polybutadienes
  • Table 196: Producers of SSBR, BR and SBC, 2017
  • Table 197: World: Recent and planned new/expanded SBR, BR and SBC plants
  • Table 198: World: Consumption of lithium in polymers by end-use and product type, 2018
  • Table 199: World: Forecast demand for lithium in synthetic rubber and thermoplastics, 2018-2028
  • Table 200: Characteristics of primary lithium batteries
  • Table 201: Japan: Sales of primary batteries by type, 1998 to 2018
  • Table 202: Leading producers of lithium primary batteries
  • Table 203: Trade in lithium primary batteries, 2008-2018
  • Table 204: Primary lithium batteries and their material compositions
  • Table 205: Specifications for battery-grade lithium metal
  • Table 206: Producers of battery-grade lithium metal, end-2018
  • Table 207: Applications for lithium primary batteries
  • Table 208: World: Consumption of lithium in primary batteries, 2008-2018
  • Table 209: Forecast demand for lithium in primary batteries, 2018-2028
  • Table 210: World: Capacity for lithium bromide production, end-2017
  • Table 211: World: Forecast demand for lithium in air treatment, 2018-2028
  • Table 212: World: Consumption of lithium in other end-uses, 2007, 2012, 2018 and 2028
  • Table 213: Physical properties of Al-Li alloys
  • Table 214: Chemical composition of Al-Li alloys
  • Table 215: Use of Al-Li alloys in selected aircraft
  • Table 216: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys, 2018-2028
  • Table 217: Examples of uses for lithium in organic synthesis
  • Table 218: Effects of additives and temperatures on properties of molten cryolite
  • Table 219: World: Aluminium smelters using Söderberg technology, end-2016
  • Table 220: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminum smelting, 2018-2028
  • Table 221: Properties of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate
  • Table 222: Applications for SAW components
  • Table 223: Applications for speciality inorganic lithium compounds
  • Table 224: Albemarle: Operational details
  • Table 225: Albemarle: Downstream production facilities in the Lithium and Advanced Materials division
  • Table 226: Royalty paid on lithium products under January 2018 Albemarle-CORFO agreement
  • Table 227: Jiangxi Jiangli New Materials Science and Technology: Operational details
  • Table 228: Alliance Mineral Assets: Operational details
  • Table 229: Altura Mining: Operational details
  • Table 230: AMG: Operational details
  • Table 231: AMG: Resource estimation for the Mibra property, April 2017
  • Table 232: Argosy Minerals: Operational details
  • Table 233: Bacanora: Operational details
  • Table 234: Bikita Minerals: Operational details
  • Table 235: CATL: Operational details
  • Table 236: China Minmetals project information
  • Table 237: CBL: Operational details
  • Table 238: Core Lithium: Company information
  • Table 239: Critical Elements project information
  • Table 240: Desert Lion Energy: Operational details
  • Table 241: Eramet Group operational details
  • Table 242: European Lithium: Company information
  • Table 243: European Metals: Operational details
  • Table 244: Frontier Lithium: Project information
  • Table 245: Galaxy Resources: Operational details
  • Table 246: Mt Cattlin: Resources and reserves, December 2018
  • Table 247: Sal de Vida: Mineral resource estimate, 2012
  • Table 248: General Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 249: H-zone Lithium Technology: Operational details
  • Table 250: West Taijinaier Salt Lake mineral resources
  • Table 251: Qinghai Hengxinrong Lithium operational details
  • Table 252: Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium: Operational details, 2018
  • Table 253: Ganfeng Lithium: Lithium-ion battery industry subsidiaries, 2018
  • Table 254: Ganfeng Lithium: Lithium production, 2015-2018
  • Table 255: Ganfeng Lithium: Mine operational details
  • Table 256: Jiangxi Special Electric: Operational details
  • Table 257: Jiangxi Tungsten Industry Group: Operational details
  • Table 258: Jiangxi Yun Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 259: Keliber: Operational details
  • Table 260: Kidman Resources: Project information
  • Table 261: Lithium Americas: Operational details
  • Table 262: Thacker Pass project: Mineral resource and reserve estimates, April 2018
  • Table 263: Lithium Americas brine reserves: Cauchari-Olaroz project
  • Table 264: Lithium Power: Operational details
  • Table 265: Livent: Operational details
  • Table 266: Livent: Brine reserves at the Salar del Hombre Muerto
  • Table 267: Mali Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 268: Mineral Resources: Operational details
  • Table 269: Mineral Resources: Mt. Marion mineral resource, December 2017
  • Table 270: Nemaska Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 271: Nemaska Lithium: Whabouchi mineral resource and reserve estimates, Jan 2018
  • Table 272: Neo Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 273: Orocobre: Operational details
  • Table 274: Pilbara Minerals: Operational details
  • Table 275: Prospect Resources operational details
  • Table 276: Dongtai Lithium Resources: Operational details
  • Table 277: Dongtai Jinaier Salt Lake mineral resources
  • Table 278: Qinghai Salt Lake Fozhao Lake Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 279: Qinghai Salt Lake BYD Resources Development: Operational details
  • Table 280: Rincon Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 281: Rincon Group: Salar del Rincón reserve estimation, 2018
  • Table 282: Rio Tinto project information
  • Table 283: Savannah Resources: Operational details
  • Table 284: Sayona Mining: Project information
  • Table 285: Shandong Ruifu Lithium Industry: Operational details
  • Table 286: Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Industries operational details
  • Table 287: Resource estimate for the Grota do Cirilo project, May 2019
  • Table 288: Sigma Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 289: Sociedad Minera de Pegmatites operational details
  • Table 290: SQM: Operational details
  • Table 291: SQM: Associated operation details
  • Table 292: Reserves within brines at the Salar de Atacama
  • Table 293: Royalty payments on SQM production, January 2018
  • Table 294: Royalty paid on lithium products under January 2018 SQM-CORFO agreement
  • Table 295: Tibet Mineral Development operational details
  • Table 296: Tibet Mineral Development: Lithium compound production, 2012-2018
  • Table 297: Yahua Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 298: Yahua Lithium Lijiagou: Project resources and reserves
  • Table 299: Youngy Co: Operational details
  • Table 300: Zangge Holding Limited: Operational details
  • Table 301: Zhiyuan Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 302: Zhonghe: Operational details
  • Table 303: Zhonghe: Production and sales of lithium products, 2015-2017
  • Table 304: Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 305: Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 306: Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 307: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 308: Forecast urbanisation rate, 2018-2030
  • Table 309: Forecast median age, 2018-2030 (years)
  • Table 310: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2018-2030 (against USD)

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: The rise of rechargeable batteries in lithium consumption, 2000-2018
  • Figure 2: Installed large-cell battery manufacturing capacity by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 3: Lithium consumption by country, 2018
  • Figure 4: Consumption of lithium by product type,
  • Figure 5: Mine production of lithium by source type, 2000-2018
  • Figure 6: Mine production of lithium by country, 2018
  • Figure 7: First product and final product refined lithium production by product type, 2018
  • Figure 8: Refined lithium production by ‘Top 5' major producers and others, 2010-2018
  • Figure 9: Lithium compounds cost curve in 2019 by production type
  • Figure 10: Average yearly contract and spot prices for lithium compounds and mineral concentrate, 2000-2019 Q1
  • Figure 11: Lithium demand outlook and Y-on-Y% change, 2018-2028
  • Figure 12: Forecast refined lithium output and demand, 2018-2028
  • Figure 13: Overview of the lithium industry supply chain, 2018
  • Figure 14: Mine capacity for lithium by country, 2011-2018
  • Figure 15: World mine capacity of lithium by type, 2000-2018
  • Figure 16: Refined capacity by integration, 2000-2018
  • Figure 17: Lithium upgrading/ re-processing capacity country market share
  • Figure 18: World mine production of lithium by country, 2000-2018
  • Figure 19: World: Mine production of lithium by type, 2000-2018
  • Figure 20: Mined lithium output market share, 2018
  • Figure 21: Australian DSO production by company, 2017-2018
  • Figure 22: China DSO imports by company source, 2017-2019
  • Figure 23: Chemical grade concentrate availability, 2012-2018
  • Figure 24: China chemical-grade imports adjusted to 6% benchmark, Monthly 2018
  • Figure 25: China chemical grade concentrate imports by company, 2018
  • Figure 26: China chemical-grade concentrate imports by source and integration, 2018
  • Figure 27: Technical grade mineral production, 2000-2018
  • Figure 28: Refined production by integration, 2000-2018
  • Figure 29: Refined lithium output market shares, 2018
  • Figure 30: Lithium upgrading/ re-processing production market shares, 2018
  • Figure 31: Lithium carbonate production by source, 2000-18
  • Figure 32: Lithium carbonate production by product and integration, 2000-18
  • Figure 33: Lithium hydroxide production by source, 2000-2018
  • Figure 34: Lithium hydroxide production by product and integration, 2000-2018
  • Figure 35: Lithium recycling from li-ion batteries, 2010-2018
  • Figure 36: Lithium compounds cost curve in 2019
  • Figure 37: Lithium compounds cost curve in 2019 by production type
  • Figure 38: Lithium carbonate cost curve in 2019
  • Figure 39: Lithium hydroxide cost curve in 2019
  • Figure 40: Trends in lithium production costs, 2010-2019
  • Figure 41: Key reagent costs US$ (index, Q1.2010=100)
  • Figure 42: Exchange rate movements versus US$ (index, Q1.2010=100)
  • Figure 43: Energy prices US$ (index, Q1.2010=100)
  • Figure 44: Quarterly Baltic Dry Shipping Index
  • Figure 45: Lithium production costs in 2013, 2019 & 2025
  • Figure 46: Lithium production costs in 2025
  • Figure 47: World: Consumption & demand for lithium, 2000-2018
  • Figure 48: World: Consumption of lithium by first use, 2000-2018
  • Figure 49: World: Consumption of lithium by first use, 2000 and 2018
  • Figure 50: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2000-2018
  • Figure 51: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2000 and 2018
  • Figure 52: World: Consumption of lithium by country/region, 2018
  • Figure 53: Reported exports of lithium carbonate by major producing countries, 2010-2018
  • Figure 54: Unit value of lithium carbonate exports by major producing countries, 2010-2018
  • Figure 55: Export of lithium carbonate by producing country and destination, 2018
  • Figure 56: Exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide by producing country and destination, 2018
  • Figure 57: Chinese imports of spodumene concentrate by source, 2014-Q1 2019
  • Figure 58: Chinese imports of spodumene mineral concentrates, Jan 2017-Mar 2019
  • Figure 59: Exports of lithium mineral concentrates from Namibia and Zimbabwe to China, 2010-2018
  • Figure 60: Chinese imports of direct shipping ores, Jun 2017- Dec 2018
  • Figure 61: Lithium supply and price, 1990-2018
  • Figure 62: Average annual contract prices for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 1999-2019 Q1
  • Figure 63: Average annual contract and spot prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 1999-2019 Q1
  • Figure 64: Average annual contract prices for technical-grade lithium hydroxide and comparison to lithium carbonate, 2000-2019 Q1
  • Figure 65: Average annual contract prices for battery-grade lithium hydroxide, 2007-2019 Q1
  • Figure 66: Average annual contract prices for battery-grade lithium hydroxide and battery-grade lithium carbonate, 2007-2019 Q1
  • Figure 67: Comparison of lithium chloride and metal prices to carbonate, 2008-2019 Q1
  • Figure 68: Chemical-grade spodumene concentrate prices by supplier, 2017 Q1-2019 Q1
  • Figure 69: Prices for chemical-grade spodumene concentrate and comparison to lithium carbonate, 2000-2019 Q1
  • Figure 70: Technical-grade spodumene prices for 5% Li2O and 7.0-7.5% Li2O concentrates, 2000-2019 Q1
  • Figure 71: Average value of DSO imports 2017-2019 Q1
  • Figure 72: Consumption vs. demand of lithium, 2012-2028
  • Figure 73: World: Forecast demand of lithium by first use, 2018-2028
  • Figure 74: World: Forecast consumption of lithium by product, 2018-2028
  • Figure 75: Forecast mine capacity for lithium, 2018-2028
  • Figure 76: Forecast chemical grade concentrate market balance, 2018-2028
  • Figure 77: Forecast refined lithium output and demand, 2018-2028
  • Figure 78: Forecast mine and refined capacity, output and utilisation rates, 2018-2028
  • Figure 79: Forecast base-case refined lithium chemical market balance, 2018-2028
  • Figure 80: High-case and low-case refined lithium demand scenarios, 2018-2028
  • Figure 81: Lithium product contract price forecast, 2018-2028
  • Figure 82: Lithium refined product cost curve progression, 2018-2028
  • Figure 83: Lithium price movement schematic
  • Figure 84: Average annual contract and spot price forecast for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 2000-2028
  • Figure 85: Average annual price forecast for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2000-2028
  • Figure 86: Average annual price forecast for technical-grade lithium hydroxide, 2000-2028
  • Figure 87: Annual average price forecast for battery-grade lithium hydroxide, 2007-2028
  • Figure 88: Pilbara Minerals spodumene pricing linkage, 2018-2033
  • Figure 89: Average annual price forecast for chemical-grade spodumene concentrate, 2010-2028
  • Figure 90: World lithium resources and reserves by status, 2019
  • Figure 91: World lithium resources and reserves by type, 2019
  • Figure 92: Mineral resource estimates for lithium mineral & clay deposits (excluding Talison Greenbushes), 2019
  • Figure 93: Mineral resource estimates for lithium brine deposits, 2019
  • Figure 94: Division by country of reported lithium resources, 2019
  • Figure 95: Mineral reserve estimates for lithium mines and advanced projects, mineral & clay deposits, 2019
  • Figure 96: Mineral reserve estimates for lithium mines and advanced projects, brine deposits, 2019
  • Figure 97: Lithium mineral reserves at operation and advanced projects, 2019
  • Figure 98: Argentina: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves, 2018
  • Figure 99: Australia: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves, 2019
  • Figure 100: Canada: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves, 2018
  • Figure 101: Chile: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves, 2018
  • Figure 102: Chinese lithium reserves and resources by deposit type, 2019
  • Figure 103: USA: Reported lithium mineral reserves and resources, 2019
  • Figure 104: Market size by Li-ion supply chain segment, 2018 (
  • Figure 105: Comparison of volumetric and gravimetric energy densities by technology
  • Figure 106: Li-ion battery schematic
  • Figure 107: Capacity and voltage potential of cathode materials
  • Figure 108: Capacity of different anode materials in Li-ion batteries coupled with NCM 811 cathode material
  • Figure 109: Relative thickness of solid-electrolyte battery (right) and existing commercial Li-ion batteries.
  • Figure 110: Lithium metal polymer battery schematic
  • Figure 111: Lithium-sulphur cell schematic
  • Figure 112: Lithium-air cell schematic
  • Figure 113: World: Historic lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 114: World: Market for rechargeable batteries, 2000-2018
  • Figure 115: World: Shipments of portable consumer devices, 2000-2018
  • Figure 116: Trends in shipment of portable electronics, 2000-2018
  • Figure 117: Trends in shipment of portable electronics, 2000-2018
  • Figure 118: Plug-in (BEV-PHEV) sales by region, 2008-2018 (based on units)
  • Figure 119: EV unit sales by electrification type (2008-2018)
  • Figure 120: Market shares of Plug-in (BEV & PHEV) sales, 2008-2018
  • Figure 121: Li-ion battery active materials value chain
  • Figure 122: World: Demand for cathode materials by type against Li-ion battery output
  • Figure 123: World: Production of cathode materials by type and intensity of use, 2000-2018
  • Figure 124: Market shares of cathode producers, 2010-2018
  • Figure 125: World: Leading producers of lithium salts for electrolytes, 2018
  • Figure 126: World: Market share of Li-ion electrolyte solutions 2018
  • Figure 127: World: Demand for Li-ion batteries, cathode materials and lithium, 2000-2018
  • Figure 128: Li-ion battery output and lithium intensity of use, 2010-2018
  • Figure 129 : World: Forecast Li-ion battery demand by end-use, 2018-2028
  • Figure 130: World: Market for Li-ion batteries by end-use, 2018-2028
  • Figure 131: Li-ion battery demand by application, 2018-2028
  • Figure 132: Li-ion demand from portable electronics
  • Figure 133: Li-ion demand for Power and Motive applications
  • Figure 134: World: Forecast Li-ion ESS annual installations, 2018-2028
  • Figure 135: Historical sales of passenger and commercial vehicles, 2005-2028
  • Figure 136: Outlook for sales of electrified and non-electrified passenger cars
  • Figure 137: Impact of new driving concepts on automotive sales, 2005-2028
  • Figure 138: Penetration rate of electric passenger vehicles, 2018-2028
  • Figure 139: Electric vehicle sales by region, 2015-2028
  • Figure 140: Outlook for passenger and commercial electrification rates, 2015-2028
  • Figure 141: EV sales in China and NEV subsidy implementation impact, Jan-2015 to April 2019
  • Figure 142: Top-20 EV & ICE models price and sales comparison, January-April 2019
  • Figure 143: Subsidies share over EV price tag (top-20 EV sold) and EV sales growth
  • Figure 144: Outlook for battery capacity by vehicle category, 2015-2028
  • Figure 145: Outlook for battery capacity by EV type, 2015-2028
  • Figure 146: Battery size by vehicle type and selected models
  • Figure 147: Market shares of cathode materials in the automotive industry. Cathode consumption for passenger & commercial vehicles combined, 2015-2028
  • Figure 148: World: Demand scenarios for lithium in batteries, 2018-2028
  • Figure 149: Li-ion battery output and lithium intensity of use, 2018-2028
  • Figure 150: Sanitaryware production by region/country, 2014-2018
  • Figure 151: Sanitaryware Exports by region/country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 152: Sanitaryware Imports by region/country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 153: Production of tableware by country/region, 2018
  • Figure 154: Exports of tableware by country, 2018
  • Figure 155: Imports of tableware by country, 2018
  • Figure 156: USA: Shipments of cookware, bakeware and kitchenware, 2001-2018
  • Figure 157: World: Shipments of white goods by region, 2000-2018
  • Figure 158: Consumption of porcelain (vitreous) enamel by product and region, 2018
  • Figure 159: Exports (by value US$M) of Vitrifiable enamels & glazes, engobes (slips) & similar preparations, 2017
  • Figure 160: Imports (by value US$M) of Vitrifiable enamels & glazes, engobes (slips) & similar preparations, 2017
  • Figure 161: World: Year-on-year growth in construction spending, housing starts and GDP, 2000-2028
  • Figure 162: World: Production of lubricating grease by type, 2018
  • Figure 163: World: Production of lubricating grease by type, 2000-2018
  • Figure 164: World: Production of lithium grease by region/country and type, 2000 and 2018
  • Figure 165: World: Consumption of greases by application, 2018
  • Figure 166: World: Output of automobiles by country/region, 2000-2018
  • Figure 167: World: Sales of off-highway construction equipment, 2006-2018
  • Figure 168: World: Agricultural tractor sales, 2008-2018
  • Figure 169: World Indexed: Relative industrial, automotive, off-highway, agricultural and lithium grease output, 2000-2018 (Base: 2000 = 100)
  • Figure 170: World: Production of grease and consumption of lithium, 2000-2018
  • Figure 171: Production of continuously cast steel by region, 1998-2018
  • Figure 172: World production of glass by application, 2018
  • Figure 173 World: Packaging market by region, 2018
  • Figure 174: World: Consumption of glass packaging by product, 2015
  • Figure 175: USA: Consumption of glass packaging by end-product, 2018
  • Figure 176: World: Synthetic rubber (SR) production by country/region, 2018
  • Figure 177: World: Capacity for synthetic rubber production by type, 2018
  • Figure 178: World: Capacity for BR, ESBR and SSBR rubber by country/region, 2018
  • Figure 179: World: SBC capacity by region/country
  • Figure 180: World: Production of synthetic rubber by region, 1996-2018
  • Figure 181: World: Leading producers of synthetic rubber, 2018
  • Figure 182: Market share for SBCs
  • Figure 183: World: Consumption of SBR by region, 2018
  • Figure 184: Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries
  • Figure 185: Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries
  • Figure 186: Energy density of different primary batteries
  • Figure 187: World: Production of primary lithium batteries by country, 1998-2018
  • Figure 188: Imports of primary lithium cells , 2008-2018
  • Figure 189: Exports of primary lithium cells , 2008-2018
  • Figure 190: Primary lithium battery schematics
  • Figure 191: Demand for lithium metal in primary batteries, 2000-2018
  • Figure 192: World: Production of absorption chillers, 2001-2018
  • Figure 193: World: Consumption of lithium bromide in air treatment, 2001 to 2018
  • Figure 194: Development of Al-Li alloys
  • Figure 195: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft, 2009-2018
  • Figure 196: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft and lithium consumption, 2008-2028
  • Figure 197: World: Consumption of alkyd-based paints and coatings, 2016
  • Figure 198: World: Aluminium output by type and lithium consumption, 1998-2018
  • Figure 199: Albemarle attributable mine production, 2009-2018
  • Figure 200: Albemarle refined lithium production, 2009-2018
  • Figure 201: Albemarle: Salar de Atacama production, 2007-2018
  • Figure 202: Albemarle: Silver Peak production, 2009-2018
  • Figure 203: Albemarle: Volume and unit value of Chilean Li2CO3 exports by destination country, 2018
  • Figure 204: Albemarle: Volume and unit value of Chilean LiCl exports, 2012-2018
  • Figure 205: Alliance Mineral Assets: Bald Hill quarterly production, January 2018 - March 2019
  • Figure 206: Altura Mining: Pilgangoora quarterly production, January 2018-March 2019
  • Figure 207: Bikita Minerals: Production 2009-2018
  • Figure 208: Galaxy Resources: Mt. Cattlin production, 2009-2018
  • Figure 209: Heyuan mine production, 2010-2018
  • Figure 210: Jiangxi Jiangte Mining Development: Production, 2010-2018
  • Figure 211: Livent: Salar del Hombre Muerto production, 2009-2018
  • Figure 212: Mineral Resources: Wodgina quarterly production, January 2018 - March 2019
  • Figure 213: Mineral Resources: Mt. Marion production, 2009-2018
  • Figure 214: Orocobre: Production at Salar de Olaroz 2012-2018
  • Figure 215: Pilbara Minerals: Pilgangoora quarterly production, January 2018 - March 2019
  • Figure 216: Dongtai Lithium Resources: Production 2010-2018
  • Figure 217: Qinghai Salt Lake Fozhao Lake Lithium production, 2010-2018
  • Figure 218: Tianqi Lithium: Attributable mine production and lithium compound processing capacity, 2010-2018
  • Figure 219: Greenbushes production, 2010-2018
  • Figure 220: SQM: Refined lithium production, 2009-2018
  • Figure 221: SQM: Volume and unit value of Li2CO3 exports, 2012-2019
  • Figure 222: SQM: Volume and unit value of LiOH exports, 2012-2019
  • Figure 223: SQM: Volume and unit value of LiOH exports by destination country, 2018
  • Figure 224: Tibet Mineral Development: Production 2010-2018
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