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市場調查報告書

錸的全球市場:到2029年的展望 (第11版)

Rhenium: Outlook to 2029, 11th Edition

出版商 Roskill Information Services 商品編碼 122029
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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錸的全球市場:到2029年的展望 (第11版) Rhenium: Outlook to 2029, 11th Edition
出版日期: 2019年12月23日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

全球錸市場,在各種高科技領域 (超合金,催化劑,熱電偶等) 的需求擴大,從過去的低迷期開始恢復。2018年的年度消費量達到75噸,以及國際交易價格上升到12,500美元/kg。還有錸的回收市場也活性化,變成重要的供給來源。

本報告提供全球錸市場最新形勢與未來展望相關分析,市場基本結構和供給、需求體制,主要的推動及阻礙市場要素 - 尤其是中國國內的超合金、航太市場發展的市場機會,市場規模 (生產量、消費量、貿易額) 及國際價格趨勢預測 (今後10年份),主要企業的簡介等資訊彙整,為您概述為以下內容。

第1章 摘要整理

  • 供給
  • 需求
  • 貿易
  • 價格
  • 預測

第2章 錸的流程圖

第3章 全球錸生產量

  • 一次錸的生產量
    • 一次錸的各企業生產量
  • 二次錸的生產量
    • 錸的再利用
    • 金屬廢料的利用

第4章 全球錸消費量

  • 錸的市場平衡

第5章 錸的國際貿易

  • 錸金屬的交易
  • APR的交易

第6章 錸的價格

  • 錸的公佈價格
  • 錸的平均交易價格

第7章 錸市場未來展望

  • 需求預測
  • 各地區的需求預測
  • 供給預測
  • 供需平衡預測
  • 價格預測

第8章 市場背景情況

  • 錸的特性
  • 錸的蘊藏量
  • 錸的加工
    • 一次錸的加工
    • 二次錸的加工

第9章 各國市場的簡介

  • 阿根廷
  • 亞美尼亞
  • 澳洲
  • 奧地利
  • 比利時
  • 保加利亞
  • 加拿大
  • 智利
  • 中國
  • 哥倫比亞
  • 捷克
  • DRC
  • 愛沙尼亞
  • 芬蘭
  • 法國
  • 德國
  • 希臘
  • 伊朗
  • 日本
  • 哈薩克
  • 韓國
  • 吉爾吉斯
  • 立陶宛
  • 墨西哥
  • 蒙古
  • 荷蘭
  • 巴拿馬
  • 巴布亞紐幾內亞
  • 秘魯
  • 波蘭
  • 葡萄牙
  • 俄羅斯
  • 塞爾維亞
  • 瑞典
  • 瑞士
  • 塔吉克
  • 土耳其
  • 英國
  • 美國
  • 烏茲別克
  • 越南

第10章 終端用戶

  • 超合金中錸的使用
  • 催化劑中錸的使用
  • 工業氣體渦輪機中錸的使用
  • 醫療及醫藥品市場上錸的使用
  • 金屬、合金、化合物中錸的使用

第11章 企業簡介

  • Almalyk Mining & Metallurgical
  • Anglo American
  • Antofagasta
  • Armenian Molybdenum Production
  • Asarco
  • Aurubis Metal Refining and Processing
  • Buss & Buss Spezialmetalle
  • China Daye Non-ferrous Metals Mining
  • China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group
  • China Molybdenum
  • China Rhenium
  • Climax Molybdenum
  • Erdenet Mining
  • GE Aviation
  • Hengyang Zhiyuan New Materials
  • Heraeus
  • Hoganas
  • Jiangxi Copper Corporation (JCC)
  • Jinduicheng Molybdenum
  • Jinzhou Singhorn
  • JSC Giredmet
  • KGHM Polska Miedz S.A.
  • Kohsei
  • Ligeance Aviation Technology
  • LS-Nikko Copper
  • Minera Valle Central
  • Molibdenos y Metales (Molymet)
  • National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICO)
  • Navoi Mining & Metallurgical
  • Northern Dynasty Minerals
  • Pan Pacific Copper
  • Rheniumet
  • Rio Tinto Kennecott
  • Shaanxi Hengcheng Molybdenum
  • Shaanxi Qinling Molybdenum
  • Sociedad de Procesamiento de Molibdeno (Molyb)
  • Southern Copper Corporation
  • Southern Star Chemicals
  • Thompson Creek Metals
  • Tongling Nonferrous Metals
  • Toshiba Materials
  • Western Xinxing Rare Metal
  • Yerevan Pure Iron Plant
  • Zhezkazgantsvetmet

第12章 宏觀經濟預測

本網頁內容可能與最新版本有所差異。詳細情況請與我們聯繫。

目錄

Rhenium is a high-value, low volume metal that is un-substitutable across many applications in which it is used. Consumption is estimated to have recovered to just under 75t in 2018, in line with growth across its main first-use markets-superalloys, catalysts, thermocouples and other hi-tech uses-following the phase-out of rhenium in non-essential applications during its price spike of 2008. At that time, rhenium rose to US$12,500/kg Re compared to under US$1,500/kg in 2019.

Aerospace remains the single largest end-use application for rhenium, where it is used in the hot zones of jet engines to enable much higher operating temperatures. Rhenium can therefore be considered to be a “green” element, inasmuch that hotter burning engines have improved fuel efficiency and thus lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per journey compared to less efficient engines.

The major engine makers General Electric and Pratt & Whitney are now thought to be the largest buyers of rhenium globally. Pratt & Whitney's new geared turbofan engines are set to take the largest market share for single-aisle aircraft built over the next 20-30 years. The group's PW1,000G series requires some 12lb (5.4kg) of rhenium in the high-pressure turbine per engine. It is set to be installed on nearly half the deliveries booked for the Airbus A320neo, which has an order backlog in excess of 4,000 planes.

Historical price volatility for rhenium is a symptom of its supply dynamics, in that supply is not fully market-driven. Primary rhenium is recovered mainly as a by-product of molybdenum production, which is itself largely a by-product of copper mining (>70% in 2019). By far the major supplier is Molymet of Chile at half of the total, followed by KGHM of Poland and Freeport McMoRan of the USA. South Korea, China, Japan, Germany, Kazakhstan, Iran, Armenia and Uzbekistan also contribute to global supply. In recent years, Codelco has emerged as a significant primary supplier from the new Molyb molybdenum roaster in Mejillones, Chile. It aims to become the fourth largest rhenium producer globally.

In addition to primary supply, recycling also contributes a sizeable portion of rhenium units to the market. Rhenium recycling became particularly attractive during the high prices of 2008 but, since this time, lower prices and high inventories have made rhenium recovery less profitable. In addition, recyclers have seen price volatility for other metal credits, such as nickel and tantalum, which has contributed to a tougher operating environment.

There has been rationalisation of market supply over the last decade but high inventories still overhang the rhenium market as of 2019. As such, closures have yet to make an impact on prices.

Given the bullish outlook for air travel and corresponding requirement for superalloys in engines, Roskill is expecting these stocks to be drawn down and stimulate demand for additional supply. Several recycling facilities have closed or reduced output, and in Roskill's view, a substantial rise in rhenium prices is likely to be needed for additional material to return to the market.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • What is the global market size for rhenium in 2019?
  • What is driving rhenium growth across its end use applications?
  • How are prices likely to perform out to 2029?
  • What is the potential for China's domestic superalloys and aerospace markets?
  • What is the supply picture globally?

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Supply
  • 1.2. Demand
  • 1.3. Trade
  • 1.4. Prices
  • 1.5. Outlook

2. Rhenium flowchart

3. World production of rhenium

  • 3.1. World production of primary rhenium
    • 3.1.1. Production of primary rhenium by company
  • 3.2. World production of secondary rhenium
    • 3.2.1. Recycling of rhenium
    • 3.2.2. Use of scrap

4. World consumption of rhenium

  • 4.1. Market balance for rhenium

5. International trade in rhenium

  • 5.1. Trade in rhenium metal
  • 5.2. Trade in APR

6. Prices of rhenium

  • 6.1. Published rhenium prices
  • 6.2. Average values of trade in rhenium

7. Outlook for rhenium

  • 7.1. Outlook for rhenium demand
  • 7.2. Outlook for demand by region
  • 7.3. Outlook for rhenium supply
    • 7.3.1. Outlook for existing supply
    • 7.3.2. Outlook for secondary rhenium
    • 7.3.3. Outlook for new projects
  • 7.4. Outlook for supply and demand balance
  • 7.5. Outlook for prices

8. Background

  • 8.1. Properties of rhenium
  • 8.2. Resources of rhenium
  • 8.3. Processing of rhenium
    • 8.3.1. Primary rhenium processing
      • 8.3.1.1. Molybdenum concentrates
      • 8.3.1.2. Copper concentrates
      • 8.3.1.3. Uranium leaching solutions
      • 8.3.1.4. Specifications for APR
      • 8.3.1.5. Specifications for potassium perrhenate
      • 8.3.1.6. Processing of rhenium metal
    • 8.3.2. Secondary rhenium recovery
      • 8.3.2.1. Superalloy recycling
      • 8.3.2.2. Catalyst recycling
      • 8.3.2.3. Tungsten-rhenium alloy recycling

9. Country profiles

  • 9.1. Argentina
    • 9.1.1. Potential sources of rhenium in Argentina
  • 9.2. Armenia
    • 9.2.1. Potential sources of rhenium in Armenia
  • 9.3. Australia
    • 9.3.1. Potential sources of rhenium in Australia
  • 9.4. Austria
  • 9.5. Belgium
  • 9.6. Bulgaria
  • 9.7. Canada
    • 9.7.1. Potential sources of rhenium in Canada
    • 9.7.2. Production of secondary rhenium in Canada
  • 9.8. Chile
  • 9.9. China
    • 9.9.1. Producers of primary rhenium in China
    • 9.9.2. Producers of secondary rhenium in China
    • 9.9.3. Processors of rhenium in China
    • 9.9.4. Resources of rhenium in China
  • 9.10. Colombia
  • 9.11. Czech Republic
  • 9.12. DRC
  • 9.13. Estonia
  • 9.14. Finland
  • 9.15. France
  • 9.16. Germany
  • 9.17. Greece
  • 9.18. Iran
  • 9.19. Japan
  • 9.20. Kazakhstan
    • 9.20.1. Potential sources of rhenium in Kazakhstan
  • 9.21. South Korea
  • 9.22. Kyrgyzstan
  • 9.23. Lithuania
  • 9.24. Mexico
    • 9.24.1. Potential sources of rhenium in Mexico
  • 9.25. Mongolia
    • 9.25.1. Potential sources of rhenium in Mongolia
  • 9.26. Netherlands
  • 9.27. Panama
  • 9.28. Papua New Guinea
  • 9.29. Peru
  • 9.30. Poland
  • 9.31. Portugal
  • 9.32. Russia
    • 9.32.1. Producers of secondary rhenium in Russia
    • 9.32.2. Past producer of rhenium in Russia
    • 9.32.3. Potential sources of rhenium in Russia
      • 9.32.3.1. Copper deposits
      • 9.32.3.2. Rheniite
      • 9.32.3.3. Oil shale
      • 9.32.3.4. Wolframite
      • 9.32.3.5. Underground leaching solutions from uranium ore processing
      • 9.32.3.6. Secondary rhenium
  • 9.33. Serbia
  • 9.34. Sweden
  • 9.35. Switzerland
  • 9.36. Tajikistan
  • 9.37. Turkey
  • 9.38. UK
  • 9.39. USA
    • 9.39.1. Production of primary rhenium in the USA
    • 9.39.2. Production of secondary rhenium in the USA
    • 9.39.3. Processors of rhenium in the USA
    • 9.39.4. Potential sources of rhenium in the USA
    • 9.39.5. Imports of rhenium into the USA
  • 9.40. Uzbekistan
  • 9.41. Vietnam

10. End uses for rhenium

  • 10.1. Use of rhenium in superalloys
    • 10.1.1. Types of rhenium-bearing superalloys
    • 10.1.2. Producers of superalloys
    • 10.1.3. Markets for superalloys
      • 10.1.3.1. Rhenium-bearing superalloys in aeroengines
    • 10.1.4. Trends in demand for rhenium in aeroengines
      • 10.1.4.1. Outlook for aeroengine production
      • 10.1.4.2. Outlook for rhenium consumption
  • 10.2. Use of rhenium in catalysts
    • 10.2.1. Catalytic reforming processes
    • 10.2.2. Catalysts used in reforming
    • 10.2.3. Recycling of reforming catalysts
    • 10.2.4. Recovery of rhenium from spent catalysts
    • 10.2.5. World catalytic reforming capacity
    • 10.2.6. Trends in demand for rhenium in catalytic reforming catalysts
    • 10.2.7. Ethylene oxide catalysts
    • 10.2.8. Gas-to-liquids catalysts
    • 10.2.9. Other catalysts
  • 10.3. Use of rhenium in industrial gas turbines
    • 10.3.1. Producers of industrial gas turbines
    • 10.3.2. Trends in demand for rhenium in IGTs
  • 10.4. Use of rhenium in medical and pharmaceutical markets
    • 10.4.1. Medical stents
    • 10.4.2. Surgical implants
    • 10.4.3. Medical devices
    • 10.4.4. X-ray tubes
    • 10.4.5. Therapeutic nuclear medicine
  • 10.5. Use of rhenium metal, alloys and compounds
    • 10.5.1. Aircraft and automotive vehicle windscreens
    • 10.5.2. Coatings
    • 10.5.3. Friction stir welding
    • 10.5.4. Incandescent lamps
    • 10.5.5. Mass spectrometers
    • 10.5.6. MOCVD heaters
    • 10.5.7. Nuclear fusion
    • 10.5.8. Nuclear reactors
    • 10.5.9. Rhenium diboride
    • 10.5.10. Rhenium disulphide and rhenium diselenide
    • 10.5.11. Rocket engines
    • 10.5.12. Sputtering targets
    • 10.5.13. Superconductors
    • 10.5.14. Thermocouple sheaths
    • 10.5.15. Thermocouple wire

11. Company profiles

  • 11.1. Almalyk Mining & Metallurgical
  • 11.2. Anglo American
  • 11.3. Antofagasta
  • 11.4. Armenian Molybdenum Production
  • 11.5. Asarco
  • 11.6. Aurubis Metal Refining and Processing
  • 11.7. Buss & Buss Spezialmetalle
  • 11.8. China Daye Non-ferrous Metals Mining
  • 11.9. China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group
  • 11.10. China Molybdenum
  • 11.11. China Rhenium
  • 11.12. Climax Molybdenum
  • 11.13. Erdenet Mining
    • 11.13.1. Shim Technology
  • 11.14. GE Aviation
  • 11.15. Hengyang Zhiyuan New Materials
  • 11.16. Heraeus
  • 11.17. Höganäs
  • 11.18. Jiangxi Copper Corporation (JCC)
  • 11.19. Jinduicheng Molybdenum
  • 11.20. Jinzhou Singhorn
  • 11.21. JSC Giredmet
  • 11.22. KGHM Polska Miedz S.A.
    • 11.22.1. KGHM Metraco
    • 11.22.2. Sierra Gorda SCM
  • 11.23. Kohsei
  • 11.24. Ligeance Aviation Technology
  • 11.25. LS-Nikko Copper
  • 11.26. Minera Valle Central
  • 11.27. Molibdenos y Metalés (Molymet)
    • 11.27.1. Molymex
  • 11.28. National Iranian Copper Industries Co (NICICO)
  • 11.29. Navoi Mining & Metallurgical
  • 11.30. Northern Dynasty Minerals
  • 11.31. Pan Pacific Copper
    • 11.31.1. Minera Lumina Copper Chile
  • 11.32. Rheniumet
  • 11.33. Rio Tinto Kennecott
  • 11.34. Shaanxi Hengcheng Molybdenum
  • 11.35. Shaanxi Qinling Molybdenum
  • 11.36. Sociedad de Procesamiento de Molibdeno (Molyb)
  • 11.37. Southern Copper Corporation
    • 11.37.1. Minera Mexico
  • 11.38. Southern Star Chemicals
  • 11.39. Thompson Creek Metals
  • 11.40. Tongling Nonferrous Metals
  • 11.41. Toshiba Materials
  • 11.42. Western Xinxing Rare Metal
  • 11.43. Yerevan Pure Iron Plant
  • 11.44. Zhezkazgantsvetmet

12. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Estimated production of primary rhenium by country, 2013-2019
  • Table 2: World: Leading producers of rhenium 2019
  • Table 3: World: Estimated production of rhenium by company, 2018-2019
  • Table 4: World: Estimated capacity for secondary rhenium by company, 2019
  • Table 5: Processors of aeroengine revert, 2019
  • Table 6: World: Estimated consumption of rhenium by end-use, 2014-2019
  • Table 7: World: Estimated demand for rhenium by country, 2014-2019
  • Table 8: World: Estimated market balance for rhenium, 2014-2019
  • Table 9: Chile: Exports of rhenium metal by country of destination, 2012-2019
  • Table 10: Chile: Exports of rhenium metal by company, 2012-2019
  • Table 11: USA: Imports of rhenium metal by country of origin, 2012-2019
  • Table 12: USA: Imports of APR by country of origin, 2012-2019
  • Table 13: Chile: Exports of APR by country of destination, 2012-2019
  • Table 14: Chile: Exports of APR by company, 2012-2019
  • Table 15: USA: Average annual prices of rhenium, 1991-2018
  • Table 16: Published European spot prices for rhenium, 2007-2019
  • Table 17: Daily indicative prices for rhenium metal, 2010-2019
  • Table 18: China: Monthly average prices of 99.99% min. APR, 2017-2019
  • Table 19: China: Quoted prices for rhenium by company, August 2019
  • Table 20: Chile: Average values of exports of rhenium metal by country of destination, 2012-2019
  • Table 21: USA: Average values of imports of rhenium metal by country of origin, 2012-2019
  • Table 22: USA: Average values of imports of APR by country of origin, 2012-2019
  • Table 23: Chile: Average values of exports of APR by country of destination, 2012-2019
  • Table 24: World: Forecast consumption of rhenium by end-use, 2019-2029
  • Table 25: World: Outlook for rhenium demand by main country/region, 2019-2029
  • Table 26: World: Potential expansion in rhenium production by current producers, 2019
  • Table 27: World: Forecast rhenium production from existing operations, 2019 and 2029
  • Table 28: World: Outlook for secondary rhenium supply, 2019 and 2029
  • Table 29: World: Potential new operations producing rhenium, 2019
  • Table 30: World: Mine projects under consideration with potential for rhenium recovery, 2019
  • Table 31: World: Forecast market balance for rhenium, 2019-2029
  • Table 32: World: Base-case outlook for rhenium metal prices, 2018-2029
  • Table 33: World: Low, base and high case scenarios for rhenium metal prices, 2019-2029
  • Table 34: Properties of rhenium
  • Table 35: World: Reserves of rhenium
  • Table 36: World: Resources of rhenium by leading deposit
  • Table 37: Specifications for APR produced by KGHM
  • Table 38: Specifications for APR produced in the CIS
  • Table 39: Specifications for potassium perrhenate
  • Table 40: Specifications for rhenium pellets produced by KGHM
  • Table 41: Specifications for rhenium metal produced by Molymet
  • Table 42: Argentina: Exports of molybdenum concentrates to Chile, 2013-2019
  • Table 43: Armenia: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 44: Armenia: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 45: Australia: Potential sources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 46: Chinova Resources: Resources at Merlin deposit
  • Table 47: Hammer Metals: Resources at Kalman deposit
  • Table 48: Austria: Inferred trade in APR, 2013-2019
  • Table 49: Belgium: Inferred exports of rhenium metal, 2013-2019
  • Table 50: Bulgaria: Rhenium content of porphyry copper deposits, 2019
  • Table 51: Canada: Inferred exports of APR, 2013-2019
  • Table 52: Canada: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 53: Northisle Copper and Gold: Hushamu mineral resources
  • Table 54: Pretium Resources: Snowfield mineral resources
  • Table 55: Chile: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 56: Chile: Estimated rhenium content of domestic molybdenum concentrates, 2012-2018
  • Table 57: Chile: Estimated rhenium content of imported molybdenum ores and concentrates, 2012-2019
  • Table 58: Chile: Estimated reserves of rhenium by operation, 2019
  • Table 59: China: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 60: China: Identified producers of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 61: China: Identified processors of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 62: China: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 63: Estonia: Inferred exports of APR to the USA, 2013-2019
  • Table 64: Germany: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 65: Germany: Producers of secondary rhenium, 2019
  • Table 66: Greece: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 67: Iran: Estimated production of rhenium, 2013-2019
  • Table 68: Japan: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 69: Kazakhstan: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 70: Kazakhstan: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 71: Kazakhstan: Rhenium content of uranium ores in Tienshan province
  • Table 72: South Korea: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 73: Mexico: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 74: Mexico: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 75: Mongolia: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 76: Mongolia: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 77: Netherlands: Trade in APR, 2013-2019
  • Table 78: Peru: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 79: Peru: Estimated rhenium production by company, 2013-2019
  • Table 80: Peru: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 81: KGHM: Estimated production and exports of rhenium to the USA, 2013-2019
  • Table 82: Russia: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 83: Russia: Producers of secondary rhenium, 2019
  • Table 84: Russia: Resources of rhenium in copper deposits, 2019
  • Table 85: Russia: Rhenium content of uranium ores in Prityanshanskaya region
  • Table 86: Serbia: Potential resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 87: UK: Inferred trade in rhenium, 2013-2019
  • Table 88: UK: Leading consumers of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 89: USA: Production and trade in rhenium, 2013-2019
  • Table 90: USA: Estimated rhenium content of molybdenum concentrates by operation, 2015-2019
  • Table 91: USA: Producers of secondary rhenium, 2019
  • Table 92: USA: Resources of rhenium, 2019
  • Table 93: Uzbekistan: Summary statistics, 2013-2019
  • Table 94: Alloying additions in superalloys
  • Table 95: Composition of low- and zero-rhenium superalloys
  • Table 96: Compositions of selected nickel-base superalloys
  • Table 97: World: Leading producers of superalloys
  • Table 98: World: Deliveries of commercial aeroengines by producer, 2010-2019
  • Table 99: World: Deliveries of commercial aeroengines by type, 2010-2019
  • Table 100: World: Leading engine deliveries by company and type, 2011-2019
  • Table 101: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft by producer, 2010-2019
  • Table 102: Producers of military aeroengines, 2019
  • Table 103: World: Production of fighter aircraft by type, 2010-2018
  • Table 104: World: Forecast deliveries of commercial aeroengines by producer, 2019-2029
  • Table 105: World: Forecast deliveries of fighter aircraft models, 2019-2029
  • Table 106: World: Forecast demand for rhenium in aeroengines, 2019-2029
  • Table 107: Types of catalytic reforming processes
  • Table 108: Properties of UOP's R-62 bimetallic catalyst
  • Table 109: Catalysts produced for catalytic reforming
  • Table 110: Axens: Performance of a revamped catalytic reformer
  • Table 111: World: Leading refineries operating catalytic reforming capacity, January 2019
  • Table 112: World: Production capacity for aromatics by leading country, January 2019
  • Table 113: World: Leading refineries operating aromatics capacity, January 2019
  • Table 114: Consumption of ethylene oxide by end-use product
  • Table 115: Gas-to-liquids products
  • Table 116: World: Large-scale commercial gas-to-liquids plants
  • Table 117: Comparison of third-generation Fischer-Tropsch GTL plants and INFRA Technology's INFRA.xtl units
  • Table 118: Properties of gas turbines
  • Table 119: Comparison of requirements of aeroengines and industrial gas turbines
  • Table 120: Typical materials used for gas turbine components
  • Table 121: Nominal composition of IGT cast nickel-base superalloys
  • Table 122: Examples of aeroderivative gas turbines by company
  • Table 123: World: Producers of industrial gas turbines
  • Table 124: World: Orders for power generation gas turbines, 2015-2017
  • Table 125: World: Estimated consumption of rhenium in industrial gas turbines, 2015-2019
  • Table 126: World: Forecast demand for rhenium in industrial gas turbines, 2019-2029
  • Table 127: Location of commercial Re-188 generators
  • Table 128: Facilities utilising Re-188 radio-pharmaceuticals
  • Table 129: Comparison of properties of refractory metals and alloys
  • Table 130: Examples of end-uses for rhenium and rhenium alloys
  • Table 131: Properties of rhenium materials used for thermocouple sheaths
  • Table 132: Properties of tungsten-rhenium alloys
  • Table 133: China Daye: Production of rhenium, 2013-2019
  • Table 134: China Molybdenum: Production of rhenium and molybdenum, 2016-2019
  • Table 135: Climax Molybdenum: Estimated production of rhenium, 2013-2019
  • Table 136: Climax Molybdenum: Estimated reserves of rhenium
  • Table 137: KGHM: Estimated production of rhenium and exports to the USA, 2013-2019
  • Table 138: KGHM: Specifications for rhenium, 2019
  • Table 139: LS-Nikko Copper: Estimated production of rhenium, 2013-2019
  • Table 140: Molymet: Sales by product, 2013-2019
  • Table 141: Molymet: Sales of rhenium, 2010-2019
  • Table 142: Molymet: Molybdenum concentrate roasting operations, end-2018
  • Table 143: Molymet: Raw material supply contracts
  • Table 144: Northern Dynasty Minerals: Pebble project resources, 2019
  • Table 145: Rio Tinto Kennecott: Estimated rhenium content of molybdenum production, 2013-2019
  • Table 146: Shaanxi Hengcheng Molybdenum: Production capacity by operation, 2019
  • Table 147: Codelco: Estimated reserves of rhenium
  • Table 148: Codelco: Production of molybdenum concentrates by operation, 2014-2018
  • Table 149: Codelco: Estimated rhenium content of molybdenum concentrates by operation, 2014-2019
  • Table 150: Zhezkazgantsvetmet: Production of rhenium, 2013-2019
  • Table 151: Kazakhmys: Composition of weak wash acid at Balkhash
  • Table 152: Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 153: Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 154: Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 155: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 156: Forecast urbanisation rate, 2018-2030
  • Table 157: Forecast median age, 2018-2030
  • Table 158: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2018-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: World: Supply of rhenium by source, 2014, 2018 and 2019
  • Figure 2: Published European spot prices for rhenium, 2007-2019
  • Figure 3: World: Forecast market balance for rhenium, 2018-2029
  • Figure 4: Flowchart of the rhenium supply chain, 2019
  • Figure 5: World: Estimated supply of rhenium by source, 2012, 2015, 2018 and 2019
  • Figure 6: World: Estimated production of primary rhenium by country, 2012-2019
  • Figure 7: World: Estimated consumption of rhenium by end-use, 2014-2019
  • Figure 8: World: Estimated rhenium consumption and commercial aeroengine deliveries, 2014-2019
  • Figure 9: World: Estimated market balance for rhenium, 2014-2019
  • Figure 10: Chile: Exports of rhenium metal by country of destination, 2012-2019
  • Figure 11: USA: Imports of rhenium metal by country of origin, 2012-2019
  • Figure 12: World: Recorded US imports of APR by country of origin, 2012-2019
  • Figure 13: Chile: Exports of APR by country of destination, 2012-2019
  • Figure 14: USA: Average annual prices of rhenium, 1991-2018
  • Figure 15: Average annual values of Chilean exports and US imports of rhenium metal compared to US average annual prices, 2008-2019
  • Figure 16: Average values of Chilean shipments of rhenium metal, 2018
  • Figure 17: World: Forecast demand for rhenium by end-use, 2019-2029
  • Figure 18: World: Forecast market balance and prices for rhenium, 2018-2029
  • Figure 19: Outlook for base-case rhenium prices and market balance, 2019-2029
  • Figure 20: World: Probabilistic price outlook for rhenium metal, 2019-2029
  • Figure 21: Resources of rhenium by leading country
  • Figure 22: Rhenium recovery from molybdenum concentrates roasting by liquid and solid ion exchange
  • Figure 23: Rhenium recovery from copper concentrate acid wash
  • Figure 24: Flowsheet for rhenium metal production
  • Figure 25: Elevated temperature digestion process for superalloy recycling
  • Figure 26: Electrochemical process for recycling superalloys
  • Figure 27: Hydrometallurgical processes for recycling spent platinum-rhenium reforming catalysts
  • Figure 28: Pyrometallurgical process for recycling tungsten-rhenium scrap
  • Figure 29: Chile: Estimated sales and exports of rhenium metal, 2010-2019
  • Figure 30: Chile: Production of molybdenum concentrates by operation, 2012-2018
  • Figure 31: Chile: Imports of unroasted molybdenum ores and concentrates by country of origin, 2012-2019
  • Figure 32: China: Imports of unroasted molybdenum ores and concentrates by country of origin, 2012-2019
  • Figure 33: China: Recorded exports of rhenium to the USA, 2012-2019
  • Figure 34: South Korea: Inferred exports of APR to the USA, 2012-2019
  • Figure 35: Peru: Exports of unroasted molybdenum concentrates by country of destination, 2010-2019
  • Figure 36: KGHM: Estimated production and exports of rhenium to the USA, 2012-2019
  • Figure 37: Russia: Potential rhenium resources by source
  • Figure 38: USA: Supply of primary rhenium, 2010-2019
  • Figure 39: USA: Imports of rhenium, 2012-2019
  • Figure 40: World: Deliveries of commercial aeroengines by producer, 2010-2019
  • Figure 41: Market economies: Military aircraft installed fleet by aeroengine producer, 2018
  • Figure 42: Market economies: In-service military service fleet by region, 2017
  • Figure 43: Market economies: Leading military aircraft producers, 2017
  • Figure 44: World: Estimated consumption of rhenium in aeroengines, 2010-2019
  • Figure 45: World: Forecast growth in commercial aircraft fleet by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 46: World: Forecast demand for rhenium in aeroengines & outlook for commercial aeroengine deliveries, 2019-2029
  • Figure 47: World: Catalytic reforming capacity by region, January 2018
  • Figure 48: World: Catalytic reforming capacity by leading country, end-2018
  • Figure 49: World: Catalytic reforming capacity requirements by region, 2018-2040
  • Figure 50: World: Consumption of ethylene oxide by end-use chemical
  • Figure 51: World: Orders for power generation gas turbines by generating service, end-2017
  • Figure 52: World: Orders for power generation gas turbines by fuel, end-2017
  • Figure 53: World: Installation of additional gas turbine electrical power generation by company, 2018-2027
  • Figure 54: World: Production of Re-188 by company, 2018
  • Figure 55: World: Consumption of Re-188 by region, 2018
  • Figure 56: Jiangxi Copper: Production of APR, 2010-2019
  • Figure 57: Molymet: Revenue by sector, 2018
  • Figure 58: Molymet: Sales of rhenium, 2010-2019