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市場調查報告書

矽和矽鐵:2030 年展望(第 18 版)

Silicon & Ferrosilicon - Outlook to 2030, 18th Edition

出版商 Roskill Information Services 商品編碼 1006611
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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矽和矽鐵:2030 年展望(第 18 版) Silicon & Ferrosilicon - Outlook to 2030, 18th Edition
出版日期: 2021年04月30日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

金屬矽和矽鐵在世界各地的製造工藝和生產區域方面非常相似,但它們的應用卻大不相同。矽金屬用於製造鋁合金、矽和半導體,並且越來越多地用於光伏應用。相比之下,超過 85% 的矽鐵用於鋼鐵生產。

在太陽能行業進一步增長的支持下,多晶矽中的金屬矽消費可能會繼續繁榮。汽車行業為鋁生產消耗金屬矽,預計也將繼續成為矽需求的主要驅動力。也有跡象表明,汽車廢鋁鑄件的供應量開始迅速上升,因為大多數汽車直到 10 至 15 年前才具有高鋁含量,廢鋁的供應受到限制。

矽鐵整體消費前景並不樂觀,但不袗板塊有望合理增長。隨著汽車行業向電動汽車的轉變遍及鑄鐵發動機缸體市場,鑄鐵行業的需求增長預計將慢於鋼鐵行業。另一方面,幾乎來自中國的鎂需求增長速度可能快於鋼鐵消費。

本報告調查了矽和矽鐵,並提供了有關全球生產和消費、供需和前景、可持續性、國家和企業概況等方面的信息。

目錄

第 1 章執行摘要

  • 金屬矽
    • 市場概況和價格展望
    • 金屬矽的需求和前景
    • 金屬矽生產及前景
  • 矽鐵
    • 市場概況和價格展望
    • 矽鐵的需求和前景
    • 矽鐵供應和展望

第 2 章矽流程圖

第 3 章世界生產

  • 金屬矽製造
    • 金屬矽生產商及產能
  • 矽鐵生產
    • 矽鐵生產商和產能

第 4 章生產成本

  • 金屬矽成本曲線
  • 矽鐵成本曲線
  • 電費單
  • 降低代理成本
  • 石英成本
  • 電極成本
  • 鐵成本
  • 人工成本

第 5 章世界消費

  • 世界金屬矽消費量
  • 全球矽鐵消費量

第 6 章國際貿易

  • 反傾銷稅、進出口稅
  • 金屬矽的國際貿易
  • 高純矽的國際貿易
  • 含 55% 或更多 Si 的矽鐵的國際貿易
  • Si含量低於55%的矽鐵國際貿易

第 7 章價格

  • 金屬矽價格
    • 金屬矽過往價格走勢
  • 矽鐵價格
    • 矽鐵過往價格走勢

第 8 章展望

  • 消費展望
    • 金屬矽消費展望
    • 矽鐵消費展望
  • 生產展望
    • 新計劃產能
    • 金屬矽生產展望
    • 矽鐵生產展望
  • 價格展望

第 9 章背景

  • 金屬矽和矽鐵的歷史
  • 矽生產和資源
  • 矽的特性
  • 金屬矽和矽鐵製造工藝及等級
    • 金屬矽製造工藝
    • 金屬矽級
    • 矽鐵製造工藝
    • 矽鐵等級

第 10 章可持續性

  • 環境、社會、治理 (ESG)
    • 環境
    • 社交
    • 治理
  • 重要原材料
  • 負責任的採購工作
    • 經濟合作與發展組織 (OECD)
    • 世界報導倡議
    • 負責任的採礦保證計劃
    • 負責任的鋼鐵管理倡議

第 11 章國家概況

  • 阿根廷
  • 澳大利亞
  • 不丹
  • 波斯尼亞和黑塞哥維那
  • 巴西
  • 保加利亞
  • 加拿大
  • 智利
  • 中國
    • 中國金屬矽生產商
    • 中國的矽鐵生產商
    • 政府對產能過剩、污染、貿易政策和走私採取的行動
  • 埃及
  • 法國
  • 德國
  • 冰島
  • 印度
  • 伊朗
  • 意大利
  • 日本
  • 哈薩克斯坦
  • 老撾
  • 馬其頓
  • 馬來西亞
  • 荷蘭
  • 新西蘭
  • 挪威
  • 拉圭
  • 菲律賓
  • 波蘭
  • 羅馬尼亞
  • 俄羅斯
  • 沙特阿拉伯
  • 斯洛伐克
  • 斯洛文尼亞
  • 南非
  • 韓國
  • 西班牙
  • 瑞典
  • 台灣
  • 泰國
  • 土耳其
  • 烏克蘭
  • 英國
  • 美國
  • 烏拉圭
  • 烏茲別克斯坦
  • 委內瑞拉

第 12 章公司簡介

  • Dow
  • Elkem
  • Ferroglobe
  • RIMA

第 13 章搶先消費

  • 金屬矽在鋁合金中的應用
    • 含矽鋁合金市場
    • 含矽鋁合金在運輸中的應用
    • 含矽鋁合金在機械上的應用
    • 含矽鋁合金在耐用消費品中的使用
    • 含矽鋁合金用於電力
    • 含矽鋁合金在建築施工中的應用
    • 含矽鋁合金在容器和包裝中的應用
    • 含矽鋁合金在其他應用中的使用
  • 金屬矽在矽膠中的應用
    • 矽烷
    • 矽膠
    • 矽膠市場
    • 矽膠生產商
  • 金屬矽在多晶矽製造中的應用
    • 多晶矽在太陽能電池(太陽能電池)中的應用
    • 多晶矽在半導體中的應用
  • 金屬矽的其他用途
    • 錳合金
    • 矽鐵鍛造木炭
    • 鎳基合金
    • 電池正極
    • 氮化矽
    • 賽隆
    • 矽納米粒子
    • 多孔矽
  • 微矽
  • 矽鐵用於鋼鐵
    • 矽在鋼中的應用
    • 影響矽鐵或矽錳選擇的因素
    • 鋼種及對矽鐵消耗量的影響
  • 矽鐵在鑄鐵中的應用
    • 鑄鐵製造
    • 鑄鐵冶金及應用
  • 矽鐵在鎂□□中的應用
    • 鎂的製造
    • 鎂的使用
  • 矽鐵的其他用途

第 14 章宏觀經濟展望

目錄

Silicon metal and ferrosilicon are very similar with regard to production process and the geography of world output but are very different in terms of their applications. Silicon metal is used in the manufacture of aluminium alloys, silicones, semiconductors and, increasingly, in photovoltaic solar applications. In contrast, over 85% of ferrosilicon is consumed in the production of iron and steel.

Consumption of silicon metal in polysilicon will likely continue to boom, fuelled by further growth in the solar industry. The automotive sector, which consumes silicon metal in aluminium production, will also continue to be a key driver for silicon demand. There are indications that the availability of scrap aluminium castings from expired vehicles is now starting to rise rapidly. Up until now, the availability of such scrap has been limited, as most automobiles did not have a high aluminium content prior to 10-15 years ago.

While the overall consumption outlook for ferrosilicon is fairly lacklustre, the stainless steel segment is expected to see reasonable growth. Demand in the cast iron segment is expected to grow more slowly than that from the steel industry, as the shift to electric vehicles in the automotive industry eats into the market for cast iron engine blocks. Demand from the magnesium segment, which is almost entirely located in China, will likely grow faster than consumption in steel.

As the COVID-19 pandemic curtailed economic activity worldwide from March 2020 onwards, demand for both silicon metal and ferrosilicon was negatively impacted. This brought over-supply into both markets which, together with declining production costs, caused prices to move down. Output of both silicon metal and ferrosilicon was then trimmed back in 2020, and cutbacks intensified through the year, as prices continued to fall into Q3.

Prices for both silicon metal and ferrosilicon picked up a sharp momentum over the final months of 2020, as tightening market conditions and rising production costs took hold. Demand recovery has been a significant factor with faster than expected acceleration through Q4 2020 that has continued into Q1 2021. Rising coal prices, freight costs (especially for containers), and the general weakening trend of the US dollar since late-2020 have contributed to the rising costs.

Alongside demand recovery, rising costs and significant destocking of both silicon metal and ferrosilicon, output remains subdued. Production of both silicon metal and ferrosilicon has still not returned to normal levels, which underpins the need for higher prices to incentivise output to recover in order to balance the market in 2021, as consumption rebounds.

In 2021, Roskill forecasts that world silicon metal consumption will grow by 8.0%, while for ferrosilicon growth is forecast at only 3.5%. This implies that for silicon metal that demand will exceed 2019 levels in 2021, which will likely only be the case in 2022 or later for ferrosilicon. Growth in all sectors of silicon demand and regions is anticipated, but it will continue to be particularly high in the Chinese solar and silicone sectors.

World production of silicon metal and ferrosilicon is dominated by China; in 2020, China accounted for 73% of world silicon metal production, and 66% of global ferrosilicon output. However, Chinese share is expected to decline in 2021, as much of the recovery in output is expected elsewhere, as China has already effectively regained its pre-COVID-19 levels (or higher) at the end of 2020. Nevertheless, the silicon metal and ferrosilicon industries are following a different fundamental trajectory.

Chinese ferrosilicon production has been subject to increasingly stringent government controls on overcapacity and emissions, with a January 2021 policy implementation in China starting to phase out ferroalloy furnaces rated below 25MVA. In contrast, the country's silicon metal capacity and output has been permitted to increase substantiallyand Chinese suppliers have filled a gap in the market over 2020, as output elsewhere was significantly impacted form COVID-19.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • Will future growth in silicon metal consumption be met primarily by continued growth in Chinese output, or will significant new production outside China be required?
  • Will silicon metal consumption growth return to pre-2019 levels in the long term?
  • What is the outlook for steel production and ferrosilicon consumption over the coming decade?
  • Why is the use of ferrosilicon per tonne of crude steel output declining?
  • How will the expected shift of the automotive market towards electric vehicles impact the silicon metal and ferrosilicon markets?
  • Will battery anodes become a significant new consuming market for silicon metal?
  • To what extent will control and regulation of Chinese output drive the silicon metal and ferrosilicon market?
  • How do anti-dumping duties and export taxes impact the silicon metal and ferrosilicon markets currently, and how are these likely to develop in the coming years?
  • What is the outlook for prices and production costs?

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Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 Silicon metal
    • 1.1.1 Market overview and price outlook
    • 1.1.2 Silicon metal demand and outlook
    • 1.1.3 Silicon metal production and outlook
  • 1.2 Ferrosilicon
    • 1.2.1 Market overview and price outlook
    • 1.2.2 Ferrosilicon demand and outlook
    • 1.2.3 Ferrosilicon supply and outlook

2. Silicon flowchart

3. World production

  • 3.1 Silicon metal production
    • 3.1.1 Silicon metal producing companies and capacities
  • 3.2 Ferrosilicon production
    • 3.2.1 Ferrosilicon producing companies and capacities

4. Production costs

  • 4.1 Cost curves for silicon metal
  • 4.2 Cost curves for ferrosilicon
  • 4.3 Electricity costs
  • 4.4 Reductant costs
  • 4.5 Quartz costs
  • 4.6 Electrode costs
  • 4.7 Iron costs
  • 4.8 Labour costs

5. World consumption

  • 5.1 World consumption of silicon metal
  • 5.2 World consumption of ferrosilicon

6. International trade

  • 6.1 Anti-dumping duties, import and export taxes
  • 6.2 International trade in silicon metal
  • 6.3 International trade in high-purity silicon
  • 6.4 International trade in ferrosilicon containing more than 55% Si
  • 6.5 International trade in ferrosilicon containing less than 55% Si

7. Prices

  • 7.1 Silicon metal prices
    • 7.1.1 Historical price trends for silicon metal
  • 7.2 Ferrosilicon prices
    • 7.2.1 Historical price trends for ferrosilicon

8. Outlook

  • 8.1 Outlook for consumption
    • 8.1.1 Outlook for consumption of silicon metal
      • 8.1.1.1 Outlook for consumption of silicon metal in aluminium alloys
      • 8.1.1.2 Outlook for consumption of silicon metal in silicones
      • 8.1.1.3 Outlook for consumption of silicon metal in polycrystalline silicon
      • 8.1.1.4 Outlook for consumption of silicon metal in battery anodes
    • 8.1.2 Outlook for consumption of ferrosilicon
      • 8.1.2.1 Outlook for consumption of ferrosilicon in steelmaking
      • 8.1.2.2 Outlook for crude steel production
      • 8.1.2.3 Low-case scenario
      • 8.1.2.4 High-case scenario
      • 8.1.2.5 Outlook for stainless steel production
      • 8.1.2.6 Outlook for consumption of ferrosilicon in cast iron
      • 8.1.2.7 Outlook for consumption of ferrosilicon in magnesium
  • 8.2 Outlook for production
    • 8.2.1 Planned new capacity
    • 8.2.2 Outlook for production of silicon metal
    • 8.2.3 Outlook for production of ferrosilicon
  • 8.3 Outlook for prices

9. Background

  • 9.1 History of silicon metal and ferrosilicon
  • 9.2 Occurrence and resources of silicon
  • 9.3 Properties of silicon
  • 9.4 Production processes and grades of silicon metal and ferrosilicon
    • 9.4.1 Silicon metal production processes
    • 9.4.2 Silicon metal grades
    • 9.4.3 Ferrosilicon production processes
    • 9.4.4 Ferrosilicon grades

10. Sustainability

  • 10.1 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 10.1.1 Environmental
      • 10.1.1.1 Resource consumption and emissions
      • 10.1.1.2 Water consumption
      • 10.1.1.3 'Green Steel'
      • 10.1.1.4 Health impacts
      • 10.1.1.5 IMO shipping regulations
      • 10.1.1.6 Biodiversity and land use
    • 10.1.2 Social
      • 10.1.2.1 Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 10.1.2.2 Human rights
    • 10.1.3 Governance
      • 10.1.3.1 Corruption
      • 10.1.3.2 Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 10.2 Critical raw materials
  • 10.3 Responsible sourcing initiatives
    • 10.3.1 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 10.3.2 Global Reporting Initiative
    • 10.3.3 Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance
    • 10.3.4 Responsible Steel Stewardship Initiative

11. Country profiles

  • 11.1 Argentina
  • 11.2 Australia
  • 11.3 Bhutan
  • 11.4 Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • 11.5 Brazil
  • 11.6 Bulgaria
  • 11.7 Canada
  • 11.8 Chile
  • 11.9 China
    • 11.9.1 Silicon metal producers in China
    • 11.9.2 Ferrosilicon producers in China
    • 11.9.3 Government action on overcapacity, pollution, trade policy and smuggling
  • 11.10 Egypt
  • 11.11 France
  • 11.12 Germany
  • 11.13 Iceland
  • 11.14 India
  • 11.15 Iran
  • 11.16 Italy
  • 11.17 Japan
  • 11.18 Kazakhstan
  • 11.19 Laos
  • 11.20 Macedonia
  • 11.21 Malaysia
  • 11.22 Netherlands
  • 11.23 New Zealand
  • 11.24 Norway
  • 11.25 Paraguay
  • 11.26 Phillippines
  • 11.27 Poland
  • 11.28 Romania
  • 11.29 Russia
  • 11.30 Saudi Arabia
  • 11.31 Slovakia
  • 11.32 Slovenia
  • 11.33 South Africa
  • 11.34 South Korea
  • 11.35 Spain
  • 11.36 Sweden
  • 11.37 Taiwan
  • 11.38 Thailand
  • 11.39 Turkey
  • 11.40 Ukraine
  • 11.41 UK
  • 11.42 USA
  • 11.43 Uruguay
  • 11.44 Uzbekistan
  • 11.45 Venezuela

12. Company profiles

  • 12.1 Dow
  • 12.2 Elkem
  • 12.3 Ferroglobe
  • 12.4 RIMA

13. First-use consumption

  • 13.1 Use of silicon metal in aluminium alloys
    • 13.1.1 Markets for silicon-bearing aluminium alloys
    • 13.1.1 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in transportation
      • 13.1.1.1 Motor vehicles
      • 13.1.1.2 Potential impact of electric vehicles
      • 13.1.1.3 Railways
      • 13.1.1.4 Aerospace
      • 13.1.1.5 Marine
    • 13.1.2 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in machinery and equipment
    • 13.1.3 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in consumer durables
    • 13.1.4 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in electricity
      • 13.1.4.1 Electricity transmission
      • 13.1.4.2 Telecommunications
      • 13.1.4.3 Other
    • 13.1.5 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in building and construction
    • 13.1.6 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in containers and packaging
    • 13.1.7 Uses of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in other applications
      • 13.1.7.1 Metallurgy
      • 13.1.7.2 Other applications
  • 13.2 Use of silicon metal in silicones
    • 13.2.1 Silanes
    • 13.2.2 Silicones
    • 13.2.3 The markets for silicones
    • 13.2.4 Producers of silicones
  • 13.3 Use of silicon metal in the production of polycrystalline silicon
    • 13.3.1 Use of polysilicon in photovoltaic (solar) cells
      • 13.3.1.1 Solar wafers
      • 13.3.1.2 Solar cells and modules
    • 13.3.2 Use of polysilicon in semiconductors
      • 13.3.2.1 Production of silicon semiconductor wafers
      • 13.3.2.2 Markets for silicon semiconductor wafers
      • 13.3.2.3 Silicon integrated circuits - chips
  • 13.4 Other uses of silicon metal
    • 13.4.1 Iron and steel
    • 13.4.2 Manganese alloys
    • 13.4.3 Ferrosilicon briquettes
    • 13.4.4 Nickel-base alloys
    • 13.4.5 Battery anodes
    • 13.4.6 Silicon nitride
    • 13.4.7 Sialons
    • 13.4.8 Silicon nanoparticles
    • 13.4.9 Porous silicon
  • 13.5 Microsilica
  • 13.6 Use of ferrosilicon in steel
    • 13.6.1 Applications of silicon in steel
    • 13.6.2 Factors affecting selection of ferrosilicon or silicomanganese
      • 13.6.2.1 Relative price of ferrosilicon and silicomanganese
      • 13.6.2.2 Ratio of silicon to manganese in steel specification
      • 13.6.2.3 Steel plant configuration
    • 13.6.3 Steel types and implications for ferrosilicon consumption
      • 13.6.3.1 Carbon steel
      • 13.6.3.2 Stainless steel
      • 13.6.3.3 Electrical steel
      • 13.6.3.4 Other alloy steels
  • 13.7 Use of ferrosilicon in cast iron
    • 13.7.1 Production of cast iron
    • 13.7.2 Metallurgy and applications of cast iron
      • 13.7.2.1 Ductile iron
      • 13.7.2.2 Grey iron
      • 13.7.2.3 Malleable and other cast irons
  • 13.8 Use of ferrosilicon in magnesium
    • 13.8.1 Production of magnesium
    • 13.8.2 Applications of magnesium
  • 13.9 Other uses for ferrosilicon

14. Macro-economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Production of silicon metal by country, 2015-2020
  • Table 2: World: Production of silicon metal by principal country, 2015-2020
  • Table 3: World: Silicon metal effective capacity by country and company, 2021
  • Table 4: World: Silicon metal redundant capacity, 2021
  • Table 5: World: Production of ferrosilicon by country, 2015-2020
  • Table 6: World: Production of ferrosilicon by principal country, 2015-2020
  • Table 7: World: Ferrosilicon effective capacity by country and company, 2021
  • Table 8: World: Ferrosilicon redundant capacity, 2021
  • Table 9: Exchange rates for silicon metal and ferrosilicon producing countries, 2015-2021
  • Table 10: Annual inflation rates for silicon metal and ferrosilicon producing countries, 2015-2021
  • Table 11: World: Apparent and real consumption of silicon metal, 2015-2020
  • Table 12: World: Apparent and real consumption of ferrosilicon, 2015-2020
  • Table 13: International trade in silicon and ferrosilicon, 2011-2020
  • Table 14: Reporting countries: Exports of silicon metal (Si content less than 99.99%) 2015-2020
  • Table 15: Reporting countries: Imports of silicon metal (Si content less than 99.99%) 2015-2020
  • Table 16: Exports of silicon metal (Si content less than 99.99%), 2020
  • Table 17: Reporting countries: Exports of high-purity silicon (Si content more than 99.99%), 2015-2020
  • Table 18: Reporting countries: Imports of high-purity silicon (Si content more than 99.99%), 2015-2020
  • Table 19: Exports of high-purity silicon (Si content more than 99.99%), by country of destination, 2020
  • Table 20: Reporting countries: Exports of ferrosilicon containing more than 55% Si 2015-2020
  • Table 21: Reporting countries: Imports of ferrosilicon containing more than 55% Si 2015-2020
  • Table 22: Exports of ferrosilicon containing more than 55% Si, by country of destination 2020
  • Table 23: Reporting countries: Exports of ferrosilicon containing less than 55% Si 2015-2020
  • Table 24: Reporting countries: Imports of ferrosilicon containing less than 55% Si 2015-2020
  • Table 25: Exports of ferrosilicon containing less than 55% Si, by country of destination, 2020
  • Table 26: Annual silicon metal spot prices by principal market, 2000-2021
  • Table 27: Annual average standard 75% ferrosilicon spot prices by principal market, 2000-2021
  • Table 28: Actual and forecast real consumption of silicon metal by end-use, 2000-2030
  • Table 29: Actual and forecast real consumption of ferrosilicon by end-use, 2000-2030
  • Table 30: Forecast production of crude steel, base case, 2020-2030
  • Table 31: Forecast production of crude steel, base case, 2020-2030
  • Table 32: Forecast production of crude steel, low case, 2020-2030
  • Table 33: Forecast production of crude steel, high case, 2020-2030
  • Table 34: Base-case stainless steel production, 2020-2030
  • Table 35: World: Planned new silicon metal and ferrosilicon capacity
  • Table 36: Actual and forecast silicon metal production by country, 2020 and 2030
  • Table 37: Actual and forecast ferrosilicon production by country, 2020 and 2030
  • Table 38: Actual and forecast silicon metal spot prices, 2000-2030
  • Table 39: Actual and forecast standard 75% ferrosilicon spot prices, 2000-2030
  • Table 40: Thermal and mechanical properties of silicon
  • Table 41: Specifications of quartz ores for silicon metal and ferrosilicon production
  • Table 42: Typical silicon metal grade specifications
  • Table 43: Critical raw materials identified by key Government bodies
  • Table 44: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2021
  • Table 45: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 46: Argentina: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 47: Argentina: Details of operations
  • Table 48: Australia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 49: Australia: Details of operations
  • Table 50: Bhutan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 51: Bhutan: Details of operations
  • Table 52: Bosnia-Herzegovina: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 53: Bosnia: Details of operations
  • Table 54: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 55: Brazil: Summary of operations
  • Table 56: Canada: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 57: Canada: Summary of operations
  • Table 58: China: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 59: China: Silicon metal effective capacity by producer, 2021
  • Table 60: China: Ferrosilicon effective capacity by producer, 2021
  • Table 61: Egypt: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 62: Egypt: Summary of operations
  • Table 63: France: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 64: France: Summary of operations
  • Table 65: Germany: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 66: Germany: Summary of operations
  • Table 67: Iceland: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 68: Iceland: Summary of operations
  • Table 69: India: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 70: India: Identified ferrosilicon producing companies and capacities, 2021
  • Table 71: Iran: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 72: Iran: Summary of operations
  • Table 73: Italy: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 74: Japan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 75: Kazakhstan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 76: Kazakhstan: Summary of operations
  • Table 77: Laos: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 78: Laos: Summary of operations
  • Table 79: Macedonia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 80: Macedonia: Summary of operations
  • Table 81: Malaysia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 82: Malaysia: Summary of operations
  • Table 83: Netherlands: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 84: Norway: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 85: Norway: Summary of operations
  • Table 86: Paraguay: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 87: Paraguay: Summary of operations
  • Table 88: Poland: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 89: Poland: Summary of operations
  • Table 90: Russia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 91: Russia: Summary of operations
  • Table 92: Slovakia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 93: Slovakia: Summary of operations
  • Table 94: Slovenia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 95: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 96: South Africa: Details of operations
  • Table 97: South Korea: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 98: South Korea: Summary of operations
  • Table 99: Spain: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 100: Spain: Summary of operations
  • Table 101: Sweden: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 102: Taiwan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 103: Thailand: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 104: Thailand: Summary of operations
  • Table 105: Turkey: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 106: Ukraine: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 107: Ukraine: Summary of operations
  • Table 108: UK: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 109: USA: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 110: USA: Summary of operations
  • Table 111: Venezuela: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 112: Venezuela: Summary of operations
  • Table 113: Dow: Summary of operations
  • Table 114: Elkem: Summary of operations
  • Table 115: Ferroglobe: Summary of operations
  • Table 116: RIMA: Summary of operations
  • Table 117: World: Estimated silicon content of aluminium output by region, 2015-2020
  • Table 118: Reporting countries: Production of aluminium castings, 2015-2020
  • Table 119: Compositions of the major aluminium alloys used in motor vehicles
  • Table 120: Applications of aluminium alloys containing silicon in automobiles
  • Table 121: World: Production of passenger vehicles by region, 2015-2020
  • Table 122: World: Production of light commercial vehicles by region, 2015-2020
  • Table 123: EU emissions standards for diesel passenger cars
  • Table 124: EU emissions standards for gasoline passenger cars
  • Table 125: EU passenger vehicle CO2 emissions targets, 1998-2030
  • Table 126: USA & California emission standards for ICE passenger cars (g/km)1: values given for cars at 50k miles (5 years) & cars at 100k miles (10 years)
  • Table 127: USA: Projected fleet-wide CO2 & fuel economy compliance levels, 2018-2025
  • Table 128: China: Implementation dates of emission standards for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 129: Japanese emissions standards for diesel passenger cars
  • Table 130: Europe: Aluminium content of new cars per application, 2016-2025
  • Table 131: Consumption of silicon metal in silicone production, 2020
  • Table 132: Global polysilicon capacity by producer, 2016-2021e
  • Table 133: World: Production of solar cells by region, 2011-2020
  • Table 134: Global shipments of silicon semiconductor wafers, 2011-2020
  • Table 135: Average silicon content in various steel groups, 2020
  • Table 136: Historical production of crude steel, 2010-2020
  • Table 137: Production of crude stainless steel, 2014-2020
  • Table 138: World: Production of cast iron by country, 2015-2020
  • Table 139: World: Production of cast iron by type, 1992-2020
  • Table 140: Chemical specifications for cast iron
  • Table 141: Base Case Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 142: Base Case Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 143: Base Case Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 144: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 145: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 146: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2020-2031

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Actual and forecast silicon metal spot prices, 2000-2030
  • Figure 2: World: Silicon metal consumption by end-use, 2000-2030
  • Figure 3: World: Silicon metal production by major country, 2000-2030
  • Figure 4: Actual and forecast standard 75% ferrosilicon spot prices, 2000-2030
  • Figure 5: World: Ferrosilicon consumption by end-use, 2000-2030
  • Figure 6: World: Ferrosilicon production by major country, 2000-2030
  • Figure 7: Silicon flowchart
  • Figure 8: World: Production of silicon metal and ferrosilicon, 2020
  • Figure 9: World: Silicon metal production, 1985-2020
  • Figure 10: World: Production of silicon metal, 2000-2020
  • Figure 11: World excluding China: Production of silicon metal, 2000-2020
  • Figure 12: World: Silicon metal production by principal country, 2020
  • Figure 13: World: Top-20 global silicon metal producers by effective capacity, 2021
  • Figure 14: World: Ferrosilicon production, 1985-2020
  • Figure 15: World: Ferrosilicon production, 2000-2020
  • Figure 16: World excluding China: Ferrosilicon production, 2000-2020
  • Figure 17: World: Ferrosilicon production by principal country, 2020
  • Figure 18: World: Top-20 global ferrosilicon producers by effective capacity, 2021
  • Figure 19: Silicon metal and ferrosilicon ex-plant cash production costs by component, global average, 2021
  • Figure 20: Global average silicon metal and ferrosilicon ex-plant cash production costs 2011-2021
  • Figure 21: Global ex-plant cash cost curve for silicon metal, 2021
  • Figure 22: Silicon metal ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2021
  • Figure 23: Global ex-plant cash cost curve for ferrosilicon, 2021
  • Figure 24: Ferrosilicon ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2021
  • Figure 25: Average electricity tariffs for ferroalloy producers, 2015-2021
  • Figure 26: Average spot prices for energy coal and charcoal, 2015-2021 (index, January 2015=100)
  • Figure 27: Spanish quartzite export prices, monthly, 2015-2021
  • Figure 28: Import prices for baked electrodes, 2015-2021
  • Figure 29: Norway: Export prices for paste electrodes, 2015-2021
  • Figure 30: Average spot prices for iron ore pellets, 2015-2021
  • Figure 31: Exchange rate movements versus inflation, silicon metal and ferrosilicon producing countries, 2015-21
  • Figure 32: World: Silicon metal real consumption by end-use, 2020
  • Figure 33: World: Silicon metal real consumption by end-use, 2000-2020
  • Figure 34: World: Apparent consumption of silicon metal by region compared with real consumption, 2000-2020
  • Figure 35: World: Ferrosilicon real consumption by end-use, 2020
  • Figure 36: World: Ferrosilicon real consumption by end-use, 2000-2020
  • Figure 37: World: Apparent consumption of ferrosilicon by region compared with real consumption, 2000-2020
  • Figure 38: World: Top-5 exporting and importing countries for silicon metal (Si content less than 99.99%), 2020
  • Figure 39: Exports of silicon metal (Si content less than 99.99%) by five largest exporting countries, 2015-2020
  • Figure 40: Imports of silicon metal (Si content less than 99.99%) by five largest importing countries, 2015-2020
  • Figure 41: Trade flow graphic for silicon metal (Si content less than 99.99%), 2020
  • Figure 42: World: Top-5 exporting and importing countries for high-purity silicon (Si content more than 99.99%), 2020
  • Figure 43: Exports of high-purity silicon (Si content more than 99.99%) by five largest exporting countries, 2015-2020
  • Figure 44: Imports of high-purity silicon (Si content more than 99.99%) by five largest importing countries, 2015-2020
  • Figure 45: Trade flow graphic for high-purity silicon (Si content more than 99.99%), 2020
  • Figure 46: World: Top-5 exporting and importing countries for ferrosilicon containing more than 55% Si, 2020
  • Figure 47: Exports of ferrosilicon containing more than 55% Si by five largest exporting countries, 2015-2020
  • Figure 48: Imports of ferrosilicon containing more than 55% Si by five largest importing countries, 2015-2020
  • Figure 49: Trade flow graphic for ferrosilicon containing more than 55% Si, 2020
  • Figure 50: World: Top-5 exporting and importing countries for ferrosilicon containing less than 55% Si, 2020
  • Figure 51: Exports of ferrosilicon containing less than 55% Si by five largest exporting countries, 2015-2020
  • Figure 52: Imports of ferrosilicon containing less than 55% Si by five largest importing countries, 2015-2020
  • Figure 53: Trade flow graphic for ferrosilicon containing less than 55% Si, 2020
  • Figure 54: Ratio of silicon metal prices to ferrosilicon prices, 1995-2021
  • Figure 55: USA: Comparison of average silicon metal and high-grade silicon prices, 2011-2021
  • Figure 56: USA: Average prices for silicon metal, nominal and real terms, 1977-2021
  • Figure 57: Monthly average spot prices for silicon metal, 2011-2021
  • Figure 58: Average silicon metal prices, 2020
  • Figure 59: Silicon metal prices and average production costs, 2007-2021
  • Figure 60: USA: Average prices for standard 75% ferrosilicon, nominal and real terms, 1977-2021
  • Figure 61: Monthly average spot prices for standard 75% ferrosilicon, 2011-2021
  • Figure 62: Ferrosilicon prices and average production costs, 2007-2021
  • Figure 63: World: Actual and forecast new photovoltaic solar installations, 2000-2024
  • Figure 64: Potential silicon demand in Li-ion battery anodes
  • Figure 65: Forecast production of crude steel, base, low and high cases 2019-2030
  • Figure 66: Stainless steel apparent consumption forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 67: Forecast crude stainless steel production, base case, 2019-2030
  • Figure 68: World: Silicon metal market balance, 2000-2020
  • Figure 69: World: Ferrosilicon market balance, 2000-2020
  • Figure 70: Correlation of silicon metal and ferrosilicon spot prices with energy coal prices, 2000-2021
  • Figure 71: Actual and future energy coal prices, 2015-2025
  • Figure 72: Actual and forecast silicon metal spot prices, 2000-2030
  • Figure 73: Actual and forecast standard 75% ferrosilicon spot prices, 2000-2030
  • Figure 74: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 75: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 76: Comparison of electricity consumption for silicon metal and ferrosilicon production in China and elsewhere
  • Figure 77: Global ferrosilicon production ranked by CO2 emissions, 2015
  • Figure 78: Global silicon metal production ranked by CO2 emissions, 2015
  • Figure 79: Silicon metal and FeSi production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Figure 80: Silicon metal and FeSi vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Figure 81: Silicon metal and FeSi vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business
  • Figure 82: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 83: European CRM list 2020
  • Figure 84: China: Silicon metal production, 2000-2020
  • Figure 85: China: Ferrosilicon production, 2000-2020
  • Figure 86: China: Silicon metal exports (Si<99.99%), 2000-2020
  • Figure 87: China: Silicon metal exports (Si<99.99%) by destination, 2020
  • Figure 88: China: Ferrosilicon exports, 2000-2020
  • Figure 89: China: Ferrosilicon exports1 by destination, 2020
  • Figure 90: China: Silicon metal effective1 capacity by province, 2021
  • Figure 91: China: Silicon metal redundant capacity by province, 2021
  • Figure 92: China: Estimated average electricity tariffs for ferroalloy production by province, 2020
  • Figure 93: China: Ferrosilicon effective1 capacity by province, 2021
  • Figure 94: China: Ferrosilicon redundant capacity by province, 2021
  • Figure 95: Global silicon metal consumption in aluminium, 2000-2020
  • Figure 96: World: Production of aluminium, 2004-2020
  • Figure 97: World: Production of aluminium by region, 2010-2020
  • Figure 98: World: Average Si content of aluminium production vs. percentage of world aluminium output which is cast, 2004-2020
  • Figure 99: World: Percentage of Si consumption in aluminium added as scrap, 2004-2020
  • Figure 100: World: Production of cast aluminium by region, 2008-2020
  • Figure 101: World: Estimated division of aluminium consumption by region and end-use, 2020
  • Figure 102: World: Aluminium shipments by product type and end-use, 2020
  • Figure 103: Estimated silicon metal consumption in aluminium alloys by end-use, 2020
  • Figure 104: North America: Aluminium consumption in motor vehicles
  • Figure 105: World: Production of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles by major region, 2000-2020
  • Figure 106: Average aluminium content of cars, 1990-2028
  • Figure 107: CO2 emissions standards, 2007-2030
  • Figure 108: Europe: Average aluminium content of new cars by segment, 2016-2025
  • Figure 109: Europe: Aluminium consumption in new cars by alloy type, 2012-2025
  • Figure 110: Forecast sales of passenger electric vehicles, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 111: Forecast sales of plug-in passenger cars by region, 2019-2030f
  • Figure 112: Outlook for global passenger vehicle electrification, 2019-2030f
  • Figure 113: Global silicon metal consumption in silicones, 2000-2020
  • Figure 114: Silicone consumption vs. GDP per capita
  • Figure 115: World silicone consumption by end-use
  • Figure 116: World: Silicone market share by supplier
  • Figure 117: Global silicon metal consumption in polysilicon, 2000-2020
  • Figure 118: World: Polysilicon capacity by country vs. global production, 2005-2021e
  • Figure 119: World: Polysilicon market share by supplier
  • Figure 120: World: Production of solar cells by type, 2007-2020
  • Figure 121: World: Ferrosilicon consumption in steel, 2000-2020
  • Figure 122: World: Silicon units contained within global steel output by source, 2000-2020
  • Figure 123: Europe: Price of SiMn versus price of equivalent quantity of FeSi and HC FeMn, 2000-2021
  • Figure 124: Discount for SiMn price relative to price of an equivalent quantity of FeSi and HC FeMn, 2000-2021
  • Figure 125: Global crude steel production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 126: Apparent consumption of stainless steel, 2001-2020
  • Figure 127: Crude stainless steel production by region, 2001-2020
  • Figure 128: Crude stainless steel production by series, 2001-2020
  • Figure 129: World: Production of electrical steel by region, 2000-2020
  • Figure 130: World: Consumption of ferrosilicon in cast iron, 2000-2020
  • Figure 131: World: Cast iron production by major country, 2019
  • Figure 132: Share of global cast iron production by type, 1992-2019
  • Figure 133: World: Ferrosilicon consumption in magnesium, 2000-2020
  • Figure 134: Primary magnesium production in China and Brazil, 2000-2020
  • Figure 135: World: Magnesium consumption by application, 2020