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市場調查報告書

全球合金鋼市場:未來展望(至 2030 年:第 1 版)

Steel Alloys Outlook to 2030, 1st Edition

出版商 Roskill Information Services 商品編碼 1004456
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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全球合金鋼市場:未來展望(至 2030 年:第 1 版) Steel Alloys Outlook to 2030, 1st Edition
出版日期: 2021年04月29日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

鋼鐵生產中的合金金屬消耗量在 2011 年至 2019 年間以年均 37% 的速度增長。特別是在分析期的後半段(2015-2019),它以年均64%的速度增長。

錳是迄今為止煉鋼中消耗量最大的合金,約佔其消耗量的 50%。鉻 (23%) 和矽 (19%) 緊隨其後,佔鋼合金金屬需求總量的 93% 以上。鎳約佔鋼金屬消耗量的51%,而各種貴合金(鉬、鈮、釩)佔總消耗量的1%以上。

2020年,新型冠狀病毒感染(COVID-19)對全球鋼鐵行業產生重大影響。但是,影響程度因國家和一年中的時間而異。最初,中國市場因封鎖而大幅下跌,但到西方市場受到影響時,情況已趨於平穩。佔全球粗鋼和不袗需求一半的中國市場的複蘇正在惠及整個世界市場。從 2021 年開始,預計全球鋼鐵產量將大幅回升,大宗合金和貴金屬都將受益。

本報告分析了全球合金鋼市場的最新情況和未來展望,分析了市場基本結構、供需體系、主要市場推動/制約因素、市場機會、市場規模(產量/消費)。我們匯總了貿易量和貿易趨勢展望(未來10年)、國際價格變化和波動因素、主要公司概況以及相關市場(粗鋼和不袗)的趨勢和影響等信息。市場)。我會的。

目錄

第 1 章執行摘要

  • 鋼及其合金:概述
    • 新型冠狀病毒感染 (COVID-19)
  • 市場展望
    • 鋼材市場趨勢
    • 合金需求
    • 合金供應
  • 合金籃子價格及其預測
  • 行業市場規模和前景(價值基礎)

第二章合金鋼流程圖

第3章粗鋼/不袗

  • 市場概況(2020)/新型冠狀病毒感染症(COVID-19)
  • 粗鋼市場趨勢
  • 不袗市場趨勢
  • 從廢料中回收的合金鋼

第四章全球合金鋼生產趨勢

  • 塊狀合金(MnSi)
  • 不袗合金(Cr/Ni)
  • 貴金屬(Mo、Nb、V)
  • 鐵鉻 (FeCr)
    • HC FeCr(高碳鐵鉻)
    • LMC FeCr(低碳/中碳FeCr)
  • FeMn(錳鐵)
    • 矽錳
    • HC FeMn
    • MLC 錳鐵
    • 錳合金產能
  • 矽鐵
  • FeNi□NPI(鎳生鐵)
  • FeMo
  • 鈮鐵
  • FeV

第五章全球合金鋼消費趨勢

  • 合金鋼的實際需求
  • 合金鋼表觀消耗量
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • 矽錳
    • 鐵鎳
    • FeMo
    • 鈮鐵
    • FeV
  • 另類傾向
    • SiMn vs FeMn □ FeSi
    • 不袗廢料 vs FeCr/FeNi
    • FeNb 與 FeV

第六章國際貿易

  • 合金鋼貿易關稅、稅收、禁運
    • 矽鐵
    • 用於煉鋼的其他合金
  • 鉻鐵
    • HC FeCr
    • LMC FeCr
  • 錳鐵
    • HC FeMn
    • MLC 錳鐵
  • 矽錳
  • 矽鐵
  • FeNi □ NPI
  • FeMo
  • 鈮鐵
  • FeV

第 7 章價格趨勢

  • 合金籃子價格

第8章未來展望

  • 粗鋼市場的未來展望
  • 不袗市場的未來展望
  • 合金需求展望
    • 對粗鋼合金的需求
    • 對不袗合金的需求
  • 生產展望
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽錳
    • FeMo
    • 鐵鎳
    • 鈮鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • FeV
  • 價格預測
    • 合金籃子價格預測
  • 合金鋼市場價值及預測
    • 鋼材(包括廢不袗)市場價格

第9章背景情況

  • 合金鋼
    • 碳鋼
    • 不袗
    • 合金工程鋼
    • 工具鋼/高速鋼
    • 高性能合金
  • 鐵鉻
    • 鐵鉻級
    • 高碳鐵鉻/爐料鉻的加工方法
    • 低碳鐵鉻的加工方法
  • 錳鐵和錳金屬
    • 錳合金
    • 錳金屬
  • 矽鐵
    • 矽鐵製造工藝
    • 矽鐵等級
  • 鎳鐵
    • 鎳生鐵 (NPI)
  • 鉬鐵
    • 鉬鐵製造工藝
  • 鈮鐵
    • 處理方法
  • 釩鐵
    • 強化過程
    • 處理方法

第 10 章可持續性

  • 環境、社會和治理 (ESG)
    • 環境與 "綠色鋼鐵"
    • 社交
    • 治理
  • 重要原材料
  • "負責任採購" 舉措

第 11 章每個國家/地區的市場和公司概況

  • 阿爾巴尼亞
    • 鉻鐵
  • 阿根廷
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
  • 亞美尼亞
    • FeMo
  • 澳大利亞
    • 錳鐵
    • FeV
  • 奧地利
    • FeMo
    • FeV
  • 巴林
  • 比利時
    • FeMo
  • 不丹
    • 矽鐵
  • 波斯尼亞和黑塞哥維那
    • 矽鐵
  • 巴西
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • 鐵鎳
    • 鈮鐵
  • 加拿大
    • 矽鐵
    • FeMo
    • 鈮鐵
    • FeV
  • 智利
    • FeMo
  • 中國
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • FeNi/NPI
    • FeMo
    • 鈮鐵
    • FeV
  • 哥倫比亞
    • 鐵鎳
  • 捷克共和國
    • FeV
  • 多米尼加共和國
    • 鐵鎳
  • 埃及
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
  • 歐盟(包括英國)
  • 芬蘭
    • 鉻鐵
  • 法國
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
  • 加蓬
    • 錳鐵
  • 格魯吉亞
    • 錳鐵
  • 德國
    • 鉻鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • FeV
  • 希臘
    • 鐵鎳
  • 危地馬拉
    • 鐵鎳
  • 冰島
    • 矽鐵
  • 印度
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • FeV
    • FeMo
  • 印度尼西亞
    • 鉻鐵
    • FeNi/NPI
  • 伊朗
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • FeMo
  • 意大利
    • 錳鐵
  • 日本
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 鐵鎳
    • FeMo
    • FeV
  • 哈薩克斯坦
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
  • 科索沃
    • 鐵鎳
  • 馬其頓
    • 鐵鎳
    • 矽鐵
  • 馬來西亞
    • FeMn/FeSi
  • 墨西哥
    • 錳鐵
  • 緬甸
    • 鐵鎳
  • 新喀裡多尼亞
    • 鐵鎳
  • 挪威
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
  • 阿曼
    • 鉻鐵
  • 巴拉圭
    • 矽鐵
  • 波蘭
    • 矽鐵
  • 羅馬尼亞
    • FeCr/FeMn
  • 俄羅斯
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • 鐵鎳
    • FeMo
    • FeV
  • 沙特阿拉伯
    • 錳鐵
  • 斯洛伐克
    • FeMn/FeSi
  • 南非
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • FeV
  • 韓國
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • 鐵鎳
    • FeMo
    • FeV
  • 西班牙
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
  • 瑞典
    • FeCr 和 FeSi
  • 土耳其
    • 鉻鐵
  • 阿拉伯聯合酋長國 (UAE)
    • 鉻鐵
  • 英國
    • FeMo
  • 烏克蘭
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • 鐵鎳
    • FeMo
  • 美國
    • 鉻鐵
    • 錳鐵
    • 矽鐵
    • FeMo
    • FeV
  • 委內瑞拉
    • FeMn/FeSi
    • 鐵鎳
  • 越南
    • 鉻鐵
  • 津巴布韋
    • 鉻鐵

第 12 章宏觀經濟展望

目錄

Consumption of alloying metals in steel production, grew by an average 3.7%py between 2011 and 2019, to reach a record demand of over 32Mt of contained alloy metal (Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Nb, Si, V). Much of the growth in demand over the last decade occurred in the second half, with alloy consumption growing on average 6.4%py between 2015 and 2019.

Manganese is by far the largest alloy consumed in steel making, accounting for around 50% of consumption, followed by chromium (23%) and silicon (19%), together accounting for over 93% of alloying metal demand in steel. Nickel accounted for around 5.1% of metal consumption in steel, while noble alloys molybdenum, niobium and vanadium together make up the balance of just over 1% of total alloy consumption in steel.

Unsurprisingly, COVID-19 has been the main impactor on the steel industry in 2020, varying regionally depending on the spread of the pandemic and governments' responses to curb the outbreak. The lockdown imposed in China in the first months of 2020 and subsequently in Europe and North America caused a massive drop in demand across all sectors. As such, steel production fell accordingly. Although the COVID-19-induced crisis is very different from the 2009 global financial crisis (GFC), a major similarity is the de-synchronisation between China and the rest of world, with proactive measures taken by the Chinese government to stimulate the economy and engineer an acceleration in recovery through infrastructure spending and credit easing.

Given the high exposure to steel markets, both bulk and noble alloys have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on steel consumption and production. However, the alloys have benefitted from their exposure to China, which accounts for over half of global crude and stainless steel production and has helped mitigate the drop in annual demand.

Despite lockdowns and interruptions to supply chains, over the course of 2020, prices of steel alloys fluctuated largely within 10% of the monthly December 2019 price, except for nickel which dropped both above and below that range over the course of the year. Price rises for all alloys picked up pace in December and into January 2021 with ferrosilicon leading the pack, while ferroniobium was the only alloy to remain below its December 2019 price at the close of the year. Regionally, the alloy prices in China remained relatively flat compared to the western markets, which experienced significantly elevated prices over Q2 2020, as the COVID-19 outbreak caused lockdowns and suspensions in these regions.

Looking forward, a synchronised accelerated recovery in 2021, translating into a sharp rebound in steel production globally, would benefit both bulk and noble alloys. However, an expected slow-down in the pace of recovery in China over the Chinese Spring Festival, amidst renewed COVID-19 lockdowns, will dampen the recovery trend seen for demand, although some upside could materialise in Europe and USA as steel furnace capacity is switched back on and vaccine programs are rolled out.

Roskill's new Steel Alloys 1st Edition report provides you with the latest market analysis and forecasts for the key bulk, base and noble alloys consumed by the steel industry in one place. This first of its kind report combines and provides cross-cutting analysis for chromium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, silicon, and vanadium alloys used in the steel industry.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • What are the trends in the crude and stainless steel industries?
  • What is the combined overview in demand of key alloys in steel?
  • Who is producing what alloys in which country?
  • What are the cross-cutting themes across the alloys?
  • What are the price correlations of the different alloys?
  • What is the forecast alloy demand based on Roskill crude and stainless steel forecasts?

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Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 Overview of steel and its alloys
    • 1.1.1 COVID-19
  • 1.2 Market outlook
    • 1.2.1 Steel trends
    • 1.2.2 Alloy demand
    • 1.2.3 Alloy supply
  • 1.3 Alloy basket prices and forecasts
  • 1.4 Industry value and outlook

2. Steel alloy flowcharts

3. Crude and stainless steel

  • 3.1 2020 market overview (COVID-19)
    • 3.1.1 China: Reaching a new record production
    • 3.1.2 Uncertain rebound following a Q4 supply squeeze elsewhere
    • 3.1.3 Stainless steel
  • 3.2 Crude steel trends
    • 3.2.1 China: ongoing restructuring
    • 3.2.2 Asia: Korea plateauing, India and Vietnam rising
    • 3.2.3 Developed economies: lower, 'greener' production
  • 3.3 Stainless steel trends
    • 3.3.1 Production by grade: substitution to 200-series complete
    • 3.3.2 Indonesia is a limited growth pole for stainless
    • 3.3.3 Stainless steel scrap
      • 3.3.3.1 Internal stainless steel scrap consumption
      • 3.3.3.2 External stainless steel scrap consumption
      • 3.3.3.3 External austenitic scrap ratio
  • 3.4 Steel alloys recycled from scrap

4. World steel alloy production

  • 4.1 Bulk alloys (Mn & Si)
  • 4.2 Stainless alloys (Cr & Ni)
  • 4.3 Noble alloys (Mo, Nb & V)
  • 4.4 FeCr
    • 4.4.1 HC FeCr
    • 4.4.2 LMC FeCr
  • 4.5 FeMn
    • 4.5.1 SiMn
    • 4.5.2 HC FeMn
    • 4.5.3 MLC FeMn
    • 4.5.4 Mn alloy Capacity
  • 4.6 FeSi
  • 4.7 FeNi & NPI
  • 4.8 FeMo
  • 4.9 FeNb
  • 4.10 FeV

5. World steel alloy consumption

  • 5.1 Real demand of steel alloys
  • 5.2 Apparent consumption of steel alloys
    • 5.2.1 FeCr
      • 5.2.1.1 Low- and medium-carbon FeCr
    • 5.2.2 FeMn
      • 5.2.2.1 Low- and medium-carbon FeMn
    • 5.2.3 FeSi
    • 5.2.4 SiMn
    • 5.2.5 FeNi
    • 5.2.6 FeMo
    • 5.2.7 FeNb
    • 5.2.8 FeV
  • 5.3 Substitution
    • 5.3.1 SiMn versus FeMn & FeSi
    • 5.3.2 Stainless steel scrap versus FeCr and FeNi
    • 5.3.3 FeNb versus FeV

6. International trade

  • 6.1 Steel alloy trade duties, taxes and bans
    • 6.1.1 Ferrosilicon
    • 6.1.2 Manganese
    • 6.1.3 Other alloys used in steelmaking
  • 6.2 FeCr
    • 6.2.1 HC FeCr
    • 6.2.2 LMC FeCr
  • 6.3 FeMn
    • 6.3.1 HC FeMn
    • 6.3.2 MLC FeMn
  • 6.4 SiMn
  • 6.5 FeSi
  • 6.6 FeNi & NPI
  • 6.7 FeMo
  • 6.8 FeNb
  • 6.9 FeV

7. Prices

  • 7.1 Alloy basket prices

8. Outlook

  • 8.1 Crude steel outlook
    • 8.1.1 China: Is the country finally approaching its peak?
    • 8.1.2 Future growth areas for crude steel
    • 8.1.3 Scenario analysis
  • 8.2 Stainless steel outlook
    • 8.2.1 Scenario analysis
    • 8.2.2 Stainless steel scrap forecast
    • 8.2.3 Internal scrap consumption outlook
    • 8.2.4 External scrap consumption outlook
    • 8.2.5 Steel alloy scrap outlook
  • 8.3 Alloy demand outlook
    • 8.3.1 Crude steel alloy demand
    • 8.3.2 Stainless steel alloy demand
  • 8.4 Production outlook
    • 8.4.1 FeCr
    • 8.4.2 FeMn
    • 8.4.3 SiMn
    • 8.4.4 FeMo
    • 8.4.5 FeNi
    • 8.4.6 FeNb
    • 8.4.7 FeSi
    • 8.4.8 FeV
  • 8.5 Price forecasts
    • 8.5.1 Alloy basket price forecasts
  • 8.6 Steel alloy market value and forecast
    • 8.6.1 Steel market value including stainless scrap

9. Background

  • 9.1 Alloy steels
    • 9.1.1 Carbon steels
      • 9.1.1.1 Types of carbon steels
    • 9.1.2 Stainless steel
    • 9.1.3 Alloy engineering steels
      • 9.1.3.1 Full alloy steels
      • 9.1.3.2 HSLA steels
    • 9.1.4 Tool and high-speed steels
      • 9.1.4.1 Plastic mould steels
      • 9.1.4.2 Cold work tool steels
      • 9.1.4.3 Hot work tool steels
      • 9.1.4.4 High-speed tool steels
    • 9.1.5 High-performance alloys
      • 9.1.5.1 Production of HPA/superalloys
      • 9.1.5.2 Definition and composition
      • 9.1.5.3 Heat-, wear- and corrosion-resistant alloys
      • 9.1.5.4 Superalloys
      • 9.1.5.5 Markets for HPA
      • 9.1.5.6 Recycling
  • 9.2 Ferrochrome
    • 9.2.1 Grades of ferrochrome
    • 9.2.2 Processing of high-carbon ferrochrome and charge chrome
    • 9.2.3 Processing of low-carbon ferrochrome
  • 9.3 Ferromanganese and Mn metal
    • 9.3.1 Manganese alloys
    • 9.3.2 Manganese metal
  • 9.4 Ferrosilicon
    • 9.4.1 Ferrosilicon production processes
    • 9.4.2 Ferrosilicon grades
  • 9.5 Ferronickel
    • 9.5.1 Nickel Pig Iron
  • 9.6 Ferromolybdenum
    • 9.6.1 Ferromolybdenum production process
  • 9.7 Ferroniobium
    • 9.7.1 Processing
  • 9.8 Ferrovanadium
    • 9.8.1 Strengthening processes
      • 9.8.1.1 Grain refining
      • 9.8.1.2 Precipitation hardening
    • 9.8.2 Processing

10. Sustainability

  • 10.1 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 10.1.1 Environmental and 'Green Steel'
      • 10.1.1.1 Chromium
      • 10.1.1.2 Manganese
      • 10.1.1.3 Molybdenum
      • 10.1.1.4 Nickel
      • 10.1.1.5 Niobium
      • 10.1.1.6 Silicon
      • 10.1.1.7 Vanadium
    • 10.1.2 Social
      • 10.1.2.1 Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 10.1.2.2 Human rights
    • 10.1.3 Governance
      • 10.1.3.1 Corruption
      • 10.1.3.2 Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 10.2 Critical raw materials
    • 10.2.1 Chromium
    • 10.2.2 Manganese
    • 10.2.3 Molybdenum
    • 10.2.4 Nickel
    • 10.2.5 Niobium
    • 10.2.6 Silicon
    • 10.2.7 Vanadium
  • 10.3 Responsible sourcing initiatives
    • 10.3.1 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 10.3.2 European Union Conflict Minerals Regulation
    • 10.3.3 Dodd-Frank Act on Conflict Minerals
    • 10.3.4 China Chamber of Commerce of Metals, Minerals & Chemicals Importers and Exporters (CCCMC)
    • 10.3.5 Global Reporting Initiative
    • 10.3.6 Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance
    • 10.3.7 Responsible Minerals Assurance Process (RMAP)
    • 10.3.8 Responsible Steel Stewardship Initiative
    • 10.3.9 Solutions for Hope

11. Country and company profiles

  • 11.1 Albania
    • 11.1.1 FeCr
  • 11.2 Argentina
    • 11.2.1 FeMn
    • 11.2.2 FeSi
  • 11.3 Armenia
    • 11.3.1 FeMo
  • 11.4 Australia
    • 11.4.1 FeMn
    • 11.4.2 FeV
  • 11.5 Austria
    • 11.5.1 FeMo
    • 11.5.2 FeV
  • 11.6 Bahrain
  • 11.7 Belgium
    • 11.7.1 FeMo
  • 11.8 Bhutan
    • 11.8.1 FeSi
  • 11.9 Bosnia & Herzegovina
    • 11.9.1 FeSi
  • 11.10 Brazil
    • 11.10.1 FeCr
    • 11.10.2 FeMn
    • 11.10.3 FeSi
    • 11.10.4 FeNi
    • 11.10.5 FeNb
  • 11.11 Canada
    • 11.11.1 FeSi
    • 11.11.2 FeMo
    • 11.11.3 FeNb
    • 11.11.4 FeV
  • 11.12 Chile
    • 11.12.1 FeMo
  • 11.13 China
    • 11.13.1 FeCr
    • 11.13.2 FeMn
    • 11.13.3 FeSi
    • 11.13.4 FeNi/NPI
    • 11.13.5 FeMo
    • 11.13.6 FeNb
    • 11.13.7 FeV
  • 11.14 Colombia
    • 11.14.1 FeNi
  • 11.15 Czech Republic
    • 11.15.1 FeV
  • 11.16 Dominican Republic
    • 11.16.1 FeNi
  • 11.17 Egypt
    • 11.17.1 FeMn
    • 11.17.2 FeSi
  • 11.18 European Union (incl. the UK)
  • 11.19 Finland
    • 11.19.1 FeCr
  • 11.20 France
    • 11.20.1 FeMn
    • 11.20.2 FeSi
  • 11.21 Gabon
    • 11.21.1 FeMn
  • 11.22 Georgia
    • 11.22.1 FeMn
  • 11.23 Germany
    • 11.23.1 FeCr
    • 11.23.2 FeSi
    • 11.23.3 FeV
  • 11.24 Greece
    • 11.24.1 FeNi
  • 11.25 Guatemala
    • 11.25.1 FeNi
  • 11.26 Iceland
    • 11.26.1 FeSi
  • 11.27 India
    • 11.27.1 FeCr
    • 11.27.2 FeMn
    • 11.27.3 FeSi
    • 11.27.4 FeV
    • 11.27.5 FeMo
  • 11.28 Indonesia
    • 11.28.1 FeCr
    • 11.28.2 FeNi/NPI
  • 11.29 Iran
    • 11.29.1 FeCr
    • 11.29.2 FeMn
    • 11.29.3 FeSi
    • 11.29.4 FeMo
  • 11.30 Italy
    • 11.30.1 FeMn
  • 11.31 Japan
    • 11.31.1 FeCr
    • 11.31.2 FeMn
    • 11.31.3 FeNi
    • 11.31.4 FeMo
    • 11.31.5 FeV
  • 11.32 Kazakhstan
    • 11.32.1 FeCr
    • 11.32.2 FeMn
    • 11.32.3 FeSi
  • 11.33 Kosovo
    • 11.33.1 FeNi
  • 11.34 Macedonia
    • 11.34.1 FeNi
    • 11.34.2 FeSi
  • 11.35 Malaysia
    • 11.35.1 FeMn and FeSi
  • 11.36 Mexico
    • 11.36.1 FeMn
  • 11.37 Myanmar
    • 11.37.1 FeNi
  • 11.38 New Caledonia
    • 11.38.1 FeNi
  • 11.39 Norway
    • 11.39.1 FeMn
    • 11.39.2 FeSi
  • 11.40 Oman
    • 11.40.1 FeCr
  • 11.41 Paraguay
    • 11.41.1 FeSi
  • 11.42 Poland
    • 11.42.1 FeSi
  • 11.43 Romania
    • 11.43.1 FeCr and FeMn
  • 11.44 Russia
    • 11.44.1 FeCr
    • 11.44.2 FeMn
    • 11.44.3 FeSi
    • 11.44.4 FeNi
    • 11.44.5 FeMo
    • 11.44.6 FeV
  • 11.45 Saudi Arabia
    • 11.45.1 FeMn
  • 11.46 Slovakia
    • 11.46.1 FeMn and FeSi
  • 11.47 South Africa
    • 11.47.1 FeCr
    • 11.47.2 FeMn
    • 11.47.3 FeSi
    • 11.47.4 FeV
  • 11.48 South Korea
    • 11.48.1 FeMn
    • 11.48.2 FeSi
    • 11.48.3 FeNi
    • 11.48.4 FeMo
    • 11.48.5 FeV
  • 11.49 Spain
    • 11.49.1 FeMn
    • 11.49.2 FeSi
  • 11.50 Sweden
    • 11.50.1 FeCr and FeSi
  • 11.51 Turkey
    • 11.51.1 FeCr
  • 11.52 UAE
    • 11.52.1 FeCr
  • 11.53 UK
    • 11.53.1 FeMo
  • 11.54 Ukraine
    • 11.54.1 FeMn
    • 11.54.2 FeSi
    • 11.54.3 FeNi
    • 11.54.4 FeMo
  • 11.55 USA
    • 11.55.1 FeCr
    • 11.55.2 FeMn
    • 11.55.3 FeSi
    • 11.55.4 FeMo
    • 11.55.5 FeV
  • 11.56 Venezuela
    • 11.56.1 FeMn and FeSi
    • 11.56.2 FeNi
  • 11.57 Vietnam
    • 11.57.1 FeCr
  • 11.58 Zimbabwe
    • 11.58.1 FeCr

12. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Roskill's alloy basket specifications
  • Table 2: Historical production of crude steel, 2010-2020
  • Table 3: Production of crude stainless steel, 2014-2020
  • Table 4: Historical stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Table 5: Historical internal stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Table 6: Historical external stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Table 7: External austenitic stainless steel scrap ratio
  • Table 8: Chromium and nickel recovered from stainless scrap
  • Table 9: World: Steel and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 10: Total steel alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 11: Total bulk alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 12: Total stainless alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 13: Total noble alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 14: World: FeCr production, 2014-2020
  • Table 15: World: HC FeCr production, 2014-2020
  • Table 16: World: HC FeCr capacity by company, 2020
  • Table 17: World: LMC FeCr production, 2014-2020
  • Table 18: World: Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome capacity, 2020
  • Table 19: World: FeMn production, 2014-2020
  • Table 20: World: SiMn production by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 21: World: HC FeMn production by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 22: World: MLC FeMn production by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 23: Largest Mn alloy capacity by company, 2020
  • Table 24: Mn alloy capacity by country, 2020
  • Table 25: China: SiMn capacity by province, 2020
  • Table 26: China: HC FeMn capacity by province, 2020
  • Table 27: China: MLC FeMn capacity by province, 2020
  • Table 28: World: FeSi production by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 29: World: Ferrosilicon production capacity by country and company, 2020
  • Table 30: World: FeNi and NPI production, 2014-2020
  • Table 31: World: FeNi and NPI production, by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 32: World: FeNi & NPI capacity by company, 2020
  • Table 33: World: FeMo production by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 34: FeMo production capacity by major producer, 2020
  • Table 35: World: FeNb production by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 36: World: FeNb capacity by company, 2020
  • Table 37: World: FeV production by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 38: World: FeV capacity by company, 2020
  • Table 39: Effects of niobium and vanadium additions on yield strength
  • Table 40: Summary of duties in place on ferroalloys and related ores and concentrates, 2021
  • Table 41: HC FeCr exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 42: Main HC FeCr imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 43: LMC FeCr exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 44: Main LMC FeCr imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 45: HC FeMn exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 46: Main HC FeMn imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 47: MLC FeMn exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 48: Main MLC FeMn imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 49: SiMn exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 50: Main SiMn imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 51: FeSi exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 52: Main FeSi imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 53: FeNi/NPI exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 54: Main FeNi imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 55: FeMo exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 56: Main FeMo imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 57: FeNb exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 58: Main FeNb imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 59: FeV exports, 2011-2020
  • Table 60: Main FeV imports, 2011-2020
  • Table 61: Price series of ferroalloys analysed in this report
  • Table 62: Roskill's alloy basket specifications
  • Table 63: Forecast production of crude steel, 2020-2030
  • Table 64: Forecast production of crude steel, base case, 2020-2030
  • Table 65: Forecast production of crude steel, low case, 2020-2030
  • Table 66: Forecast production of crude steel, high case, 2020-2030
  • Table 67: Base-case stainless steel production, 2020-2030
  • Table 68: Low-case stainless steel forecast, 2021-2030
  • Table 69: High-case stainless steel forecast, 2021-2030
  • Table 70: Base-case scrap consumption, 2020-2030
  • Table 71: Base-case internal scrap consumption, 2020-2030
  • Table 72: Base-case external scrap consumption, 2020-2030
  • Table 73: FeCr production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 74: FeMn production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 75: SiMn production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 76: FeMo production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 77: FeNi & NPI production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 78: FeNb production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 79: FeSi production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 80: FeV production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Table 81: Roskill's alloy basket specifications
  • Table 82: Alloying elements and their effects
  • Table 83: Composition of typical carbon steel
  • Table 84: Effects of alloying elements on stainless steel properties
  • Table 85: Composition of widely used stainless steels
  • Table 86: Composition of selected full alloy steels
  • Table 87: HSLA linepipe steel produced by US Steel
  • Table 88: Applications for HSLA steels in automobiles
  • Table 89: Properties of high-strength and advanced high-strength steels used in automobiles
  • Table 90: Composition of typical structural steels
  • Table 91: Effects of alloying additions in HSLA steels
  • Table 92: Alloying additions and properties of ASTM grades of HSLA steels
  • Table 93: Comparison of properties of carbon steels and tool steels
  • Table 94: World: Leading producers of tool steels
  • Table 95: Selection of plastic mould steels containing chromium
  • Table 96: Types of cold work tool steels
  • Table 97: Compositions of cold work tool and die steels containing chromium
  • Table 98: Compositions of chromium-bearing hot work tool/die steels
  • Table 99: Composition of high-speed steels containing chromium
  • Table 100: Producers of superalloys
  • Table 101: Elements and their function in HPA
  • Table 102: Composition of typical single-crystal nickel-based superalloys
  • Table 103: World: Leading manufacturers of aircraft engines
  • Table 104: Forecast metal consumption in aeroplane turbine engines, 2018-2019
  • Table 105: Nominal composition of three leading nickel-based superalloy
  • Table 106: Typical chromium and carbon content of ferrochrome and steels products
  • Table 107: Standard specifications for chromium ferroalloys
  • Table 108: Composition of charge chrome versus high-carbon ferrochrome
  • Table 109: Chromium recovery and energy consumption for different furnaces
  • Table 110: ASTM specifications for manganese alloys
  • Table 111: Typical ferromolybdenum product specifications
  • Table 112: CBMM: Commercial grades of ferroniobium and nickel-niobium
  • Table 113: Principal precipitation-hardening mechanisms for steel
  • Table 114: Chromium chemical industry and pollution comparison, 2011
  • Table 115: Chromium recovery and energy consumption for different furnaces
  • Table 116: Critical raw materials identified by key Government bodies
  • Table 117: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2021
  • Table 118: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 119: Albania: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 120: Albania: Details of operations
  • Table 121: Argentina: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 122: Argentina: Details of operations
  • Table 123: Armenia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 124: Armenia: Summary of operations
  • Table 125: Australia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 126: Australia: Details of operations
  • Table 127: Austria: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 128: Austria: Details of operations
  • Table 129: Bahrain: Details of project
  • Table 130: Belgium: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 131: Belgium: Details of project
  • Table 132: Bhutan: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 133: Bhutan: Details of project
  • Table 134: Bosnia & Herzegovina: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 135: Bosnia & Herzegovina : Details of project
  • Table 136: Brazil: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 137: Brazil: Summary of operations
  • Table 138: Canada: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 139: Canada: Summary of operations
  • Table 140: Chile: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 141: Canada: Summary of operations
  • Table 142: China: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 143: China: Summary of FeCr operations
  • Table 144: China: List of major LMC FeCr producers
  • Table 145: China: Manganese alloy capacity by producer, 2020
  • Table 146: China: Summary of FeSi operations
  • Table 147: China: List of major NPI producers and capacities
  • Table 148: China: Summary of FeMo operations
  • Table 149: China: Summary of FeNb operations
  • Table 150: China: Summary of FeV operations
  • Table 151: Colombia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 152: Colombia: Summary of operations
  • Table 153: Czech Republic: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 154: Czech Republic: Summary of operations
  • Table 155: Dominican Republic: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 156: Dominican Republic: Summary of operations
  • Table 157: Egypt: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 158: Egypt: Summary of operations
  • Table 159: EU & UK: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 160: Finland: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 161: Finland: Details of operations
  • Table 162: France: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 163: France: Summary of operations
  • Table 164: Gabon: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 165: Gabon: Summary of operations
  • Table 166: Georgia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 167: Georgia: Summary of operations
  • Table 168: Germany: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 169: Germany: Summary of operations
  • Table 170: Greece: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 171: Greece: Summary of operations
  • Table 172: Guatemala: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 173: Guatemala: Summary of operations
  • Table 174: Iceland: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 175: Iceland: Summary of operations
  • Table 176: India: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 177: India: Summary of FeCr operations
  • Table 178: India: Summary of manganese alloy operations
  • Table 179: India: Summary of FeSi operations
  • Table 180: India: Summary of FeV operations
  • Table 181: India: Summary of FeMo operations
  • Table 182: Indonesia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 183: Indonesia: Summary of FeCr operations
  • Table 184: Iran: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 185: Iran: Summary of operations
  • Table 186: Italy: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 187: Iceland: Summary of operations
  • Table 188: Japan: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 189: Japan: Summary of operations
  • Table 190:Kazakhstan: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 191: Kazakhstan: Summary of operations
  • Table 192: Kosovo: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 193: Kosovo: Summary of operations
  • Table 194: Macedonia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 195: Macedonia: Summary of operations
  • Table 196: Malaysia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 197: Malaysia: Summary of operations
  • Table 198: Mexico: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 199: Mexico: Summary of operations
  • Table 200: Myanmar: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 201: Myanmar: Summary of operations
  • Table 202: New Caledonia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 203: New Caledonia: Summary of operations
  • Table 204: Norway: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 205: Norway: Summary of operations
  • Table 206: Oman: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 207: Oman: Summary of operations
  • Table 208: Paraguay: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 209: Paraguay: Summary of operations
  • Table 210: Poland: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 211: Poland: Summary of operations
  • Table 212: Romania: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 213: Romania: Summary of manganese alloy operations
  • Table 214: Russia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 215: Russia: Summary of operations
  • Table 216: Saudi Arabia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 217: Saudi Arabia: Summary of operations
  • Table 218: Slovakia: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 219: Slovakia: Summary of operations
  • Table 220: South Africa: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 221: South Africa: Details of operations
  • Table 222: South Korea: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 223: South Korea: Summary of operations
  • Table 224: Spain: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 225: Spain: Summary of operations
  • Table 226: Sweden: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 227: Sweden: Summary of operations
  • Table 228: Turkey: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 229: Turkey: Summary of operations
  • Table 230: UAE: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 231: UAE: Summary of operations
  • Table 232: UK: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 233: UK: Summary of operations
  • Table 234: Ukraine: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 235: Ukraine: Summary of operations
  • Table 236: USA: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 237: USA: Summary of operations
  • Table 238: Venezuela: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 239: Venezuela: Summary of operations
  • Table 240: Vietnam: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 241: Vietnam: Summary of operations
  • Table 242: Zimbabwe: Summary production statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 243: Zimbabwe: Summary of operations
  • Table 244: Base Case Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 245: Base Case Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 246: Base Case Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 247: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 248: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 249: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2020-2031

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: China's market share in crude steel and stainless steel supply, 2001-2020
  • Figure 2: China: Steel and alloy production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 3: Market share in steel and alloys, by country, 2020
  • Figure 4: EU & UK (top), Japan (middle) and USA: Steel and alloy production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 5: India: Steel and alloy production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 6: Rest of Asia: Steel and alloy production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 7: CIS: Steel and alloy production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 8: Apparent consumption of steel alloys, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 9: World: Growth in steel alloy production, 2020
  • Figure 10: Steel alloy demand trend (2011-2020) and forecast
  • Figure 11: Forecast steel alloy demand, 2019-2030
  • Figure 12: Indexed alloy basket trends, 2011-2030
  • Figure 13: Steel alloy market value by metal, 2011-2030
  • Figure 14: Steel alloy market value by industry, 2011-2030
  • Figure 15: Steel alloy value by industry, including stainless scrap, 2011-2030
  • Figure 16: Steel alloy contained metal flow chart, 2020
  • Figure 17: Steel alloy value flow chart, 2020
  • Figure 18: Crude steel y-o-y production change, 2020
  • Figure 19: Global crude steel production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 20: Apparent consumption of stainless steel, 2001-2020
  • Figure 21: Crude stainless steel production by region, 2001-2020
  • Figure 22: Crude stainless steel production by series, 2001-2020
  • Figure 23: Indonesian stainless steel exports, Jan 2016-Nov 2020
  • Figure 24: Internal & external stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 25: Stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 26: Internal stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 27: External stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 28: External austenitic stainless steel scrap ratio, 2010-2020
  • Figure 29: Five-year external austenitic stainless steel scrap ratio
  • Figure 30: Chromium and nickel recovered from stainless scrap
  • Figure 31: World: Growth in steel & alloy production, by type
  • Figure 32: China, Indonesia and Rest of World growth rates, 2020
  • Figure 33: World: Steel alloy production, by type, 2011-2020
  • Figure 34: World: Steel alloy production, by type, 2019
  • Figure 35: World: Steel alloy production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 36: Market share in steel and alloys, by country, 2019 & 2020
  • Figure 37: World: Bulk alloy production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 38: World: Stainless alloy production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 39: World: Noble alloy production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 40: World: FeCr production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 41: World: HC FeCr production, 2011-2020
  • Figure 42: World: LMC FeCr production, 2011-2020
  • Figure 43: World: FeMn production, by type, 2011-2020
  • Figure 44: World: SiMn production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 45: World: HC FeMn production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 46: World: MLC FeMn production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 47: World: FeSi production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 48: World: FeNi and NPI production, by type, 2011-2020
  • Figure 49: World: FeNi and NPI production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 50: World: FeMo production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 51: World: FeNb production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 52: World: FeV production, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 53: Alloying metal demand in steel, 2011-2020
  • Figure 54: Alloying metal demand in steel, 2020
  • Figure 55: Alloying metal demand flowsheet for crude, stainless and other steels, 2020
  • Figure 56: Alloy demand in steel by type, 2011-2020
  • Figure 57: Noble alloy demand in steel by type, 2011-2020
  • Figure 58: Real consumption of alloys in steel, 2011-2020
  • Figure 59: Growth rates of steel alloy consumption, 2011-2020
  • Figure 60: Apparent consumption of alloys, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 61: Apparent consumption of HC FeCr, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 62: Apparent consumption of LMC FeCr, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 63: Apparent consumption of HC FeMn, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 64: Apparent consumption of LMC FeMn, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 65: Apparent consumption of FeSi, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 66: Apparent consumption of SiMn, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 67: Apparent consumption of FeNi & NPI, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 68: Apparent consumption of FeMo, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 69: Apparent consumption of FeNb, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 70: Apparent consumption of FeV, by country, 2011-2020
  • Figure 71: USA and China: Price discount of SiMn versus FeSi and HC FeMn
  • Figure 72: Consumption of manganese and silicon by alloy type, 2011-2020
  • Figure 73: Steel alloy (including scrap) contained metal flow chart, 2020
  • Figure 74: Global austenitic scrap ratio, 2000-2020
  • Figure 75: Price discount of FeV versus FeNb, January 2014-January 2021
  • Figure 76: Bulk and stainless alloy production versus exports, 2011-2020
  • Figure 77: Noble alloy production versus export, 2011-2020
  • Figure 78: Bulk alloy (FeMn, SiMn, FeSi) imports and exports, by country and region, 2020
  • Figure 79: Stainless alloy (FeCr, FeNi) imports and exports, by country and region, 2020
  • Figure 80: Noble alloy (FeMo, FeNb, FeV) imports and exports, by country and region, 2020
  • Figure 81: Major HC FeCr exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 82: Major HC FeCr importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 83: FeCr trade flow, 2010 (top) & 2020
  • Figure 84: Major LMC FeCr exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 85: Major LMC FeCr importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 86: Major HC FeMn importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 87: Major HC FeMn importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 88: FeMn trade flow, 2010 (top) & 2020
  • Figure 89: Major MLC FeMn exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 90: Major MLC FeMn importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 91: Major SiMn exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 92: Major SiMn importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 93: SiMn trade flow, 2010 (top) & 2020
  • Figure 94: Major FeSi exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 95: Major FeSi importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 96: Ferrosilicon trade flow, 2010 (top) & 2020
  • Figure 97: Major FeNi & NPI exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 98: Major FeNi & NPI exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 99: Ferronickel/NPI trade flow, 2010 (top) & 2020
  • Figure 100: Major FeMo exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 101: Major FeMo importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 102: Ferromolybdenum trade flow, 2010 (top) & 2020
  • Figure 103: Major FeNb exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 104: Major FeNb importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 105: FeNb trade flow, 2010 (top) & 2020
  • Figure 106: Major FeV exporters, 2011-2020
  • Figure 107: Major FeV importers, 2011-2020
  • Figure 108: FeV trade flow, 2010 (top) & 2020
  • Figure 109: Stainless steel grade 304 price, cold rolled coil, CIF East Asian port, 2010-2020
  • Figure 110: China: Monthly alloy price series Jan 2014-Dec 2020
  • Figure 111: EU and USA: Monthly alloy price series Jan 2014-Dec 2020
  • Figure 112: Bulk alloy basket, 2% Mn 1% Si, 2010-2020
  • Figure 113: Stainless steel alloy basket, 18% Cr 9% Ni, 2010-2020
  • Figure 114: Noble alloy basket, 1% Mo 1% Nb 1% V, 2010-2020
  • Figure 115: Forecast global crude steel production, 2020-2030
  • Figure 116: Forecast production of crude steel, base, low and high cases 2020-2030
  • Figure 117: Stainless steel apparent consumption forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 118: Forecast crude stainless steel production, 2020-2030
  • Figure 119: Forecast crude stainless steel production by grade, 2020-2030
  • Figure 120: Scrap consumption forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 121: Internal scrap consumption forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 122: External scrap consumption forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 123: Chromium and nickel recovered from stainless scrap, 2020-2030
  • Figure 124: Steel alloy demand trend (2011-2020) and forecast
  • Figure 125: Forecast steel alloy demand, 2019-2030
  • Figure 126: Forecast noble alloy demand, 2019-2030
  • Figure 127: Forecast crude steel alloy demand, 2019-2030
  • Figure 128: Forecast stainless steel alloy demand, 2019-2030
  • Figure 129: Steel alloy production and forecast, 2011-2030
  • Figure 130: Bulk alloy production and forecast, 2011-2030
  • Figure 131: Stainless alloy production and forecast, 2011-2030
  • Figure 132: Noble alloy production and forecast, 2011-2030
  • Figure 133: FeCr production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 134: FeMn production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 135: SiMn production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 136: FeMo production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 137: FeNi & NPI production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 138: FeNb production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 139: FeSi production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 140: FeV production forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 141: Index alloy price forecast, 2020-2030
  • Figure 142: Forecast bulk alloy basket, 2% Mn 1% Si, 2016-2030
  • Figure 143: Forecast stainless alloy basket, 18% Cr 9% Ni, 2016-2030
  • Figure 144: Forecast noble alloy basket, 1% Mo 1% Nb 1% V, 2016-2030
  • Figure 145: Steel alloy market value by metal, 2011-2030
  • Figure 146: Steel alloy market value by industry, 2011-2030
  • Figure 147: Steel alloy value in external stainless steel scrap
  • Figure 148: Steel alloy value by industry, including stainless scrap
  • Figure 149: Elemental effects of metals in HPA
  • Figure 150: Material composition of a Boeing 787
  • Figure 151: Material composition of an aircraft engine
  • Figure 152: Ferrochrome production technologies
  • Figure 153: Applications for manganese ores
  • Figure 154: Typical pyrometallurgical processing of laterite ores flowsheet
  • Figure 155: NPI production process flowsheet
  • Figure 156: Use of ferroniobium in high-strength steel
  • Figure 157: Aluminothermic production of ferroniobium
  • Figure 158: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 159: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 160: Primary energy demand and global warming potential for nickel products
  • Figure 161: Emissions during ferroniobium and niobium products production
  • Figure 162: Emissions produced during ferrovanadium production
  • Figure 163: Feedstock and ferroalloy supply vs average Human Freedom Index rank
  • Figure 164: Feedstock and ferroalloy supply vs average Corruption Perceptions Index rank
  • Figure 165: Feedstock and ferroalloy supply vs average Ease of Doing Business rank
  • Figure 166: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 167: European CRM list 2020
  • Figure 168: Albania: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 169: Argentina: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 170: Armenia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 171: Australia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 172: Austria: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 173: Belgium: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 174: Bhutan: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 175: Bosnia & Herzegovina: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 176: Brazil: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 177: Canada: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 178: Chile: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 179: China: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 180: Colombia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 181: Czech Republic: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 182: Dominican Republic: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 183: Egypt: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 184: EU & UK: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 185: Finland: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 186: France: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 187: Gabon: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 188: Georgia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 189: Germany: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 190: Greece: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 191: Guatemala: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 192: Iceland: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 193: India: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 194: Indonesia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 195: Iran: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 196: Italy: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 197: Japan: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 198: Kazakhstan: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 199: Kosovo: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 200: Macedonia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 201: Malaysia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 202: Mexico: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 203: Myanmar: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 204: New Caledonia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 205: Norway: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 206: Oman: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 207: Paraguay: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 208: Poland: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 209: Romania: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 210: Russia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 211: Saudi Arabia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 212: Slovakia: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 213: South Africa: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 214: South Korea: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 215: Spain: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 216: Sweden: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 217: Turkey: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 218: UAE: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 219: UK: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 220: Ukraine: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 221: USA: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 222: Venezuela: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 223: Vietnam: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 224: Zimbabwe: Summary production statistics, 2011-2020 37