NEWS: 公告在東京證券交易所JASDAQ標準市場新上市

表紙
市場調查報告書

硫酸鎳:未來展望(至 2030 年,第 4 版)

Nickel Sulphate Outlook to 2030, 4th Edition

出版商 Roskill Information Services 商品編碼 1004455
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
價格
如有價格方面的疑問請按下「詢問」鍵來信查詢
硫酸鎳:未來展望(至 2030 年,第 4 版) Nickel Sulphate Outlook to 2030, 4th Edition
出版日期: 2021年04月21日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

由於催化劑和陶瓷等廣泛工業領域的需求增加,全球對硫酸鎳的需求持續增長,但自2014年以來,用於電動汽車(EV)的鋰離子繼續增長。對電池的需求不斷增加,以超過20%的增長率快速增長。儘管受到新型冠狀病毒感染 (COVID-19) 傳播的不利影響,但預計 2020 年仍將實現兩位數的增長。為了應對需求的突然增加和供應的突然中斷,我們正在開發新的資源採購來源,審查生產技術並利用廢料。

本報告分析了全球硫酸鎳市場的最新情況和未來展望,分析了市場基本結構、供需體系、主要市場促進/制約因素、市場機會、市場規模(生產/消費) 我們將為您提供數量/貿易價值趨勢展望(未來10年)、國際價格變化和波動因素、主要公司概況等信息。

目錄

第 1 章執行摘要

  • 市場概覽
  • 對硫酸鎳的需求
  • 供應硫酸鎳
  • 硫酸鎳交易趨勢
  • 硫酸鎳同種原料價格走勢
  • 未來展望

第2章硫酸鎳流程圖

第三章全球生產趨勢

  • 硫酸鎳原料生產趨勢
    • 鎳中間體生產
    • 精煉鎳的生產
  • 硫酸鎳生產趨勢
    • 產量:按原料
    • 產量:按國家/製造方法
    • 生產能力:按國家/製造方法
    • 產量:按等級
    • 產量:按製造商
    • 供應鏈整合運動

第四章生產成本

  • 硫酸鎳製造成本
  • 製造成本趨勢
    • 成分
    • 電力成本、公用事業成本、燃料成本
    • 人工成本
    • 試劑成本
    • 匯率
  • 硫酸鎳項目分析
    • 鎳礦項目
    • 硫酸鎳運行狀況

第五章全球消費趨勢

  • 鎳消耗量
  • 硫酸鎳消耗量
    • 硫酸鎳消耗量:按應用
    • 硫酸鎳消費:按地區

第六章國際貿易趨勢

  • 硫酸鎳原料貿易流程
    • 鎳中間體貿易流程
    • I類鎳貿易流程
  • 硫酸鎳貿易流程
  • 影響硫酸鎳市場的因素:關稅/其他

第 7 章價格趨勢

  • LME/SHFE 鎳交易狀況
  • 鎳價趨勢
  • 硫酸鎳原料價格走勢
  • 硫酸鎳價格走勢

第8章未來展望

  • 硫酸鎳的需求展望
    • 原生鎳的需求前景
    • 硫酸鎳的需求展望
    • 替代需求場景
  • 硫酸鎳供應:主要趨勢和展望
    • 印度尼西亞的趨勢
    • 鎳中間體產量展望
    • 非結構化硫酸鎳製造商供應的可能性
  • 硫酸鎳供應展望
    • 對有組織的製造商的展望
    • 對無組織製造商的展望
    • 整體生產趨勢展望
  • 硫酸鎳市場平衡展望
    • 硫酸鎳市場基本平衡
    • 另類市場平衡
  • 鎳價和硫酸溢價展望
    • 鎳基價展望
    • 硫酸鎳的溢價前景
    • 替代保費預測
    • 基線保費預測的風險因素

第九章公司簡介

  • 現有製造商
    • 住友金屬礦業 (SMM)
    • 金川集團有限公司 (JNMC)
    • 廣西銀義
    • 創業板
    • 吉林吉恩鎳業
    • 正鎳
    • 優美科
    • 其他日本廠商
    • 台灣製造商
    • 中國主要新進入者
  • 潛在的新進入者
    • 集成項目
    • 非集成項目

第 10 章消耗:按首次使用

  • 電池
    • 鋰離子電池
    • 鎳氫/鎳鎘電池
    • 二次電池的鎳消耗趨勢
    • 二次電池用鎳的未來前景
  • 電鍍
    • 鎳用量:按類型
    • 電鍍類型
    • 工業鍍鎳和塗層應用
    • 電鍍鎳市場的未來展望
  • 其他化學應用
    • 其他鎳化合物的生產趨勢
    • 硫酸鎳用於催化劑的趨勢
    • 硫酸鎳作為印染媒染劑的使用趨勢
    • 硫酸鎳在陶瓷工業中的應用
    • 其他化學應用的前景

第 11 章汽車應用和電動汽車需求

  • 電動汽車的種類
    • 混合動力電動汽車 (HEV)
    • 插電式混合動力汽車 (PHEV)
    • 純電動汽車 (BEV)
    • 燃料電池汽車 (FCEV)
  • 近期趨勢
    • 汽車市場的近期趨勢
    • 電動汽車市場的近期趨勢
    • 正極材料市場近期走勢
    • 鎳需求的過去趨勢
  • 電動汽車展望
    • 基礎研究方法
    • 電池需求增長預測
  • 電動汽車金屬需求預測
    • 預測電池化學和性能變化
    • 鎳需求預測

第 12 章可持續性

  • 環境、社會和治理 (ESG)
  • 重要原材料
  • 負責任的採購工作
    • 經濟合作與發展組織 (OECD)
    • LME 紅旗評級計劃
    • GRI(全球報告倡議組織)
    • 負責任的指數
    • RSBN(負責任採購區塊鍊網絡)
    • 努力保障負責任的挖礦

第十三章宏觀經濟展望

目錄

Nickel sulphate is a specialty chemical product, mostly used in battery and plating industries. It is also widely consumed in other applications, such as catalysts and ceramics. Driven by the steady growth from plating and the use of NiMH batteries in hybrid vehicles, consumption of nickel sulphate grew moderately before 2013, at a CAGR of 4%.

Since 2014, the rate of growth has remarkedly increased to over 20%py, with much of the growth of demand coming from Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs), which has now become the primary use of nickel sulphate. Nickel is a crucial element to Li-ion batteries which powers the electric revolution. It helps deliver higher energy density in batteries and in turn, a longer driving range for EVs at a relatively low unit cost.

Despite headwinds from COVID-19, the global EV industry has surprisingly showed a double-digit y-o-y growth in 2020, largely underpinned by strong rebound in China and Europe. In the years ahead, supportive policy environment will further drive the EV growth globally as transportation is a key area for countries worldwide to fulfil emission targets. Not only driven by the EV uptake, but also by the trend towards nickel-rich battery formulations, Roskill expects nickel sulphate to become the key growth area for nickel in the coming years as the rapidly growing battery sector would develop into the second-largest application for nickel after stainless steel by 2030.

Such exponential demand growth will undoubtedly be a great challenge for the battery raw material supply chain, with nickel being no exception. A key question facing the nickel market moving forward is to supply the right form of nickel suitable to the battery industry. New feedstock sources will need to be utilised and new processing capacities need to be added in a timely manner to avoid any sudden shortages in the future. The nickel sulphate industry is already responding rapidly, with new capacity coming online in Asia and Europe from expansions of integrated producers (likes of MCC and BHPB), new development in primary feedstocks (including HPAL projects in Indonesia), conversion from refined products (by battery precursor producers) as well as recycling from scrap materials (likes of GEM and Umicore).

In such a fast-moving market, volatility in prices is inevitable. Driven by rising raw material costs and strong recovery in demand, nickel sulphate prices continued to increase across various regions since Q2 2020, after experiencing a slump between Q3 2019 and H1 2020 owing to lacklustre EV demand. Premia of nickel sulphate over the underlying metal price also began to recover from late 2020 after battery-grade products were even sold at a discount back in 2019 in major producing countries.

In addition to market fundamentals, a growing emphasis on cost, safety and sustainability from consumers of battery-grade nickel could result in more consolidation and localisation across the nickel value chain as well as create innovative processing methods for nickel products. These factors all have the potential to play out and have a profound impact on market dynamics for nickel sulphate over the coming decade.

Roskill's New “ Nickel Sulphate: Outlook to 2030 4th edition report ” provides a comprehensive insight into nickel use in batteries and the likely future for the nickel sulphate industry.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • What is the availability of feedstocks to produce battery-grade nickel?
  • Which feedstocks will be utilised for production of nickel sulphate?
  • How will demand for electric vehicles affect the nickel industry?
  • Which battery cathode technologies are expected to increase market share?
  • What are the key sustainability issues in the nickel supply chain?
  • How will nickel price and nickel sulphate premia evolve?

Subscribe now and receive:

  • A comprehensive report with ten-year forecasts
  • Access for up to five users via Roskill Interactive
  • Quarterly updates to supply, demand and price forecasts
  • Downloadable data, charts and tables
  • A summary slide deck of key report findings
  • Access to Roskill specialists for key market queries
  • Access to exclusive white papers & slide decks prepared by the Roskill team

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 Market overview
  • 1.2 Nickel sulphate demand
  • 1.3 Nickel sulphate supply
  • 1.4 Nickel sulphate trade
  • 1.5 Nickel sulphate and feedstock prices
  • 1.6 Outlook

2. Nickel sulphate flowchart

3. World production

  • 3.1 Production of nickel sulphate feedstocks
    • 3.1.1 Production of nickel intermediates
    • 3.1.2 Production of refined nickel
  • 3.2 Production of nickel sulphate
    • 3.2.1 Production by feedstock
      • 3.2.1.1 Class I nickel (Powder, briquette and pellet)
      • 3.2.1.2 Mixed Hydroxide Product (MHP)
      • 3.2.1.3 Recycled material
      • 3.2.1.4 Mixed Sulphide Precipitate (MSP)
      • 3.2.1.5 Nickel matte
      • 3.2.1.6 Crude nickel sulphate
      • 3.2.1.7 Class I nickel (Electrolytic nickel)
      • 3.2.1.8 Nickel oxide
      • 3.2.1.9 Concentrates
      • 3.2.1.10 Nickel pig iron and ferronickel
    • 3.2.2 Production by country and by processing type
    • 3.2.3 Capacity by country and by processing type
    • 3.2.4 Production by grade
    • 3.2.5 Production by producer
    • 3.2.6 Supply chain integration trends

4. Production Costs

  • 4.1 Cost of production of nickel sulphate
  • 4.2 Trends in production costs
    • 4.2.1 Feedstock
    • 4.2.2 Power, utilities and fuel costs
    • 4.2.3 Labour costs
    • 4.2.4 Reagent costs
    • 4.2.5 Exchange rates
  • 4.3 Nickel sulphate project analysis
    • 4.3.1 Nickel mining projects
    • 4.3.2 Nickel sulphate operations

5. World consumption

  • 5.1 Consumption of nickel
  • 5.2 Consumption of nickel sulphate
    • 5.2.1 Consumption of nickel sulphate by application
    • 5.2.2 Consumption of nickel sulphate by region

6. International trade

  • 6.1 Trade flows of nickel sulphate feedstocks
    • 6.1.1 Trade flows of nickel intermediates
      • 6.1.1.1 Trade flows of MSP and MHP
      • 6.1.1.2 Trade flows of nickel matte
    • 6.1.2 Trade flows of Class I Nickel
      • 6.1.2.1 Trade flows of unwrought nickel metal, not alloyed
      • 6.1.2.2 Trade flows of nickel powders and flakes
  • 6.2 Trade flows of nickel sulphate
  • 6.3 Tariffs and other factors impacting nickel sulphate market

7. Prices

  • 7.1 Nickel on LME and SHFE
  • 7.2 Prices of nickel
  • 7.3 Prices of nickel sulphate feedstocks
  • 7.4 Prices of nickel sulphate

8. Outlook

  • 8.1 Outlook for nickel sulphate demand
    • 8.1.1 Outlook for primary nickel demand
      • 8.1.1.1 Outlook for nickel in batteries
      • 8.1.1.2 Outlook for nickel in stainless steel
      • 8.1.1.3 Outlook for nickel in other applications
    • 8.1.2 Outlook for nickel sulphate demand
    • 8.1.3 Alternative demand scenarios
  • 8.2 Key trends in nickel sulphate supply outlook
    • 8.2.1 Developments in Indonesia
      • 8.2.1.1 Historical trends
      • 8.2.1.2 Production of battery-grade nickel
      • 8.2.1.3 Supply outlook
    • 8.2.2 Outlook for production of nickel intermediates
    • 8.2.3 Outlook for feedstock availability for non-integrated nickel sulphate producers
      • 8.2.3.1 Availability of nickel intermediate feedstock
      • 8.2.3.2 Availability of nickel metal (Class I) feedstock
      • 8.2.3.3 Outlook for recycling (battery)
      • 8.2.3.4 Outlook for recycling (non-battery)
      • 8.2.3.5 Combined outlook for feedstock availability
  • 8.3 Outlook for nickel sulphate supply
    • 8.3.1 Outlook for integrated producers
    • 8.3.2 Outlook for non-integrated producers
    • 8.3.3 Combined outlook for production
      • 8.3.3.1 By processing type
      • 8.3.3.2 By feedstock type
      • 8.3.3.3 By country and region
  • 8.4 Outlook for nickel sulphate market balance
    • 8.4.1 Baseline market balance for nickel sulphate
    • 8.4.2 Alternative market balances
  • 8.5 Outlook for nickel price and sulphate premium
    • 8.5.1 Baseline outlook for nickel prices
    • 8.5.2 Baseline outlook for nickel sulphate premia
    • 8.5.3 Alternative premium forecasts
    • 8.5.4 Risk factors to baseline premium forecasts

9. Company profiles

  • 9.1 Existing producers
    • 9.1.1 Sumitomo Metal Mining (SMM)
      • 9.1.1.1 Niihama refinery
      • 9.1.1.2 Harima refinery
      • 9.1.1.3 Isoura plant
      • 9.1.1.4 Pomalaa project
    • 9.1.2 Jinchuan Group Limited (JNMC)
      • 9.1.2.1 Jinchuan Nickel Salt
      • 9.1.2.2 Jinke Nonferrous Metal Co (JINCO)
      • 9.1.2.3 Obi project
    • 9.1.3 Guangxi Yinyi
    • 9.1.4 GEM
    • 9.1.5 Jilin Jien Nickel Industry
      • 9.1.5.1 Jien Jilin
      • 9.1.5.2 Jien Xinxiang
      • 9.1.5.3 Jien Chongqing
    • 9.1.6 Nornickel
    • 9.1.7 Umicore
      • 9.1.7.1 Umicore Olen
      • 9.1.7.2 Jiangmen Chancsun Umicore Industry
      • 9.1.7.3 Ganzhou Yihao Umicore
      • 9.1.7.4 Palm International
      • 9.1.7.5 Umicore Specialty Chemicals
    • 9.1.8 Other Japanese producers
    • 9.1.9 Taiwanese producers
      • 9.1.9.1 CoreMax
      • 9.1.9.2 Zenith Chemicals
      • 9.1.9.3 Mechema Toda Corporation (METC)
    • 9.1.10 New major Chinese producers
      • 9.1.10.1 Tianjin Maolian
      • 9.1.10.2 MCC Ramu New Energy Technology
      • 9.1.10.3 Jiangmen Fangyuan New Energy
      • 9.1.10.4 Hunan Brunp
      • 9.1.10.5 Huayou Cobalt
      • 9.1.10.6 Fu An Qingmei
      • 9.1.10.7 Fujian Evergreen
  • 9.2 Potential new producers
    • 9.2.1 Integrated projects
      • 9.2.1.1 BHP Billiton (Nickel West)
      • 9.2.1.2 Terrafame (Sotkamo)
      • 9.2.1.3 PT Halmahera Persada Lygend (Obi)
      • 9.2.1.4 Tsingshan Joint Ventures
      • 9.2.1.5 BASF/Eramet joint venture
      • 9.2.1.6 Clean TeQ (Sunrise)
      • 9.2.1.7 Australian Mines (Sconi)
      • 9.2.1.8 Metals X (Wingellina project)
      • 9.2.1.9 GME Resources (NiWest)
      • 9.2.1.10 Ardea Resources (Goongarrie)
      • 9.2.1.11 Horizonte Minerals (Vermelho)
      • 9.2.1.12 Blackstone Minerals (Ta Khoa)
    • 9.2.2 Non-integrated projects
      • 9.2.2.1 Alpha Fine Chemicals (Rayong)
      • 9.2.2.2 Hubei Centre Power Tech
      • 9.2.2.3 Hellenic Minerals
      • 9.2.2.4 Hunan CNGR
      • 9.2.2.5 Jiana Energy
      • 9.2.2.6 Jiangxi Longxi
      • 9.2.2.7 Ganzhou Jirui
      • 9.2.2.8 Jinchi Energy
      • 9.2.2.9 Meishan Shunying
      • 9.2.2.10 Northvolt
      • 9.2.2.11 Pure Battery Technologies (PBT)
      • 9.2.2.12 Pure Minerals (TECH project)
      • 9.2.2.13 Thakadu Battery Materials
      • 9.2.2.14 Zhejiang New Times Zhongneng Recycling

10. Consumption by first use

  • 10.1 Batteries
    • 10.1.1 Li-ion batteries
      • 10.1.1.1 Li-ion value chain
      • 10.1.1.2 Overview of main chemistries
      • 10.1.1.3 Comparison of physical properties
      • 10.1.1.4 Nickel content in cathodes
      • 10.1.1.5 Producers of NCM and NCA cathode materials
    • 10.1.2 NiMH and NiCd batteries
      • 10.1.2.1 Nickel use in NiMH batteries
      • 10.1.2.2 Nickel use in NiCd batteries
      • 10.1.2.3 Producers of NiMH batteries
      • 10.1.2.4 Producers of NiCd batteries
      • 10.1.2.5 Producers of nickel hydroxide
    • 10.1.3 Consumption of nickel in rechargeable batteries
      • 10.1.3.1 Trends in automotive market
      • 10.1.3.2 Trends in portable electronics
      • 10.1.3.3 Trends in power devices
      • 10.1.3.4 Trends in motive devices
      • 10.1.3.5 Trends in energy storage systems (ESS)
      • 10.1.3.6 Trends in Li-ion battery chemistries
      • 10.1.3.7 Trends in nickel use in rechargeable batteries
    • 10.1.4 Outlook for nickel in rechargeable batteries
      • 10.1.4.1 Outlook for the automotive market
      • 10.1.4.2 Outlook for portable, power, motive and ESS markets
      • 10.1.4.3 Outlook for energy capacity requirements
      • 10.1.4.4 Outlook for Li-ion battery chemistries
      • 10.1.4.5 Outlook for nickel use in rechargeable batteries
  • 10.2 Plating
    • 10.2.1 Types of nickel used
    • 10.2.2 Types of plating
    • 10.2.3 Applications of industrial nickel plating and coating
    • 10.2.4 Outlook for nickel in plating
  • 10.3 Other chemical applications
    • 10.3.1 Production of other nickel compounds
    • 10.3.2 Nickel sulphate use in catalysts
    • 10.3.3 Nickel sulphate use as a mordant in dyeing and printing
    • 10.3.4 Nickel sulphate use in ceramics
    • 10.3.5 Outlook for other chemical applications

11. Automotive applications and EV demand

  • 11.1 Types of electric vehicles
    • 11.1.1 Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
    • 11.1.2 Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
    • 11.1.3 Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)
    • 11.1.4 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)
  • 11.2 Recent trends
    • 11.2.1 Recent trends in the automotive market
    • 11.2.2 Recent trends in the market for electric vehicles
    • 11.2.3 Recent trends in cathode materials
    • 11.2.4 Historical trends in nickel demand
  • 11.3 Outlook for electric vehicles
    • 11.3.1 Basic methodology
    • 11.3.2 Forecast growth in battery requirements
  • 11.4 Outlook for metal demand in electric vehicles
    • 11.4.1 Forecast changes in battery chemistry and performance
    • 11.4.2 Forecast nickel demand

12. Sustainability

  • 12.1 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 12.1.1 Environmental
      • 12.1.1.1 Resource consumption and emissions
      • 12.1.1.2 Water consumption
      • 12.1.1.3 Biodiversity and land use
      • 12.1.1.4 Tailings disposal
    • 12.1.2 Social
      • 12.1.2.1 Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 12.1.2.2 Human rights
    • 12.1.3 Governance
      • 12.1.3.1 Corruption
      • 12.1.3.2 Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 12.2 Critical raw materials
  • 12.3 Responsible sourcing initiatives
    • 12.3.1 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 12.3.2 LME Red Flag Assessment scheme
    • 12.3.3 Global Reporting Initiative
    • 12.3.4 Responsible Mining Index
    • 12.3.5 Responsible Sourcing Blockchain Network (RSBN)
    • 12.3.6 Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance

13. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Selected countries: Trade in nickel-containing MSP and MHP1, 2020
  • Table 2: World: Base case forecast for aggregated nickel sulphate premia: 2020-2030
  • Table 3: Specifications of nickel briquettes
  • Table 4: Specifications of nickel carbonyl
  • Table 5: Specifications for MHP from selected operations
  • Table 6: Specifications of recycled material (non-battery)
  • Table 7: Specifications of recycled material (battery)
  • Table 8: Specifications for MSP from selected operations
  • Table 9: Assumed specifications of matte
  • Table 10: Estimated output of crude nickel sulphate, 2020
  • Table 11: Nickel sulphate production by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 12: Production capacity of nickel sulphate by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 13: Major producers of battery-grade nickel sulphate, 2020
  • Table 14: Major producers of plating-grade nickel sulphate, 2020
  • Table 15: Major producers of industrial-grade nickel sulphate, 2020
  • Table 16: Overview of capacity and source of feedstock of past and existing producers of nickel sulphate, 2020
  • Table 17: Production and capacity of nickel sulphate by producer and operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 18: Primary nickel consumption by application, 2014-2020
  • Table 19: Consumption of nickel sulphate by application, 2014-2020
  • Table 20: Exports of MSP and MHP, 2014-2020
  • Table 21: Imports of MSP and MHP, 2014-2020
  • Table 22: Selected countries: Trade in nickel-containing MSP and MHP1, 2020
  • Table 23: Exports of nickel matte: 2014-2020
  • Table 24: Imports of nickel matte: 2014-2020
  • Table 25: Selected countries: Estimated trade flows and production of nickel metal, 2020
  • Table 26: Exports of unwrought nickel metal, not alloyed, 2013-2020
  • Table 27: Imports of unwrought nickel metal, not alloyed, 2014-2020
  • Table 28: Exports of nickel powders and flakes, 2014-2020
  • Table 29: Imports of nickel powders and flakes, 2014-2020
  • Table 30: Exports of nickel sulphate, 2014-2020
  • Table 31: Imports of nickel sulphate, 2014-2020
  • Table 32: China: Import tariff on nickel products, 2021
  • Table 33: LME-approved nickel brands
  • Table 34: LME-approved warehouse locations
  • Table 35: SHFE-approved nickel brands, March 2020
  • Table 36: SHFE-approved warehouse locations, 2020
  • Table 37: Wuxi-approved nickel brands, 2020
  • Table 38: LME average nickel cash price, Q1 2013-Q4 2020
  • Table 39: Primary nickel consumption by application 2014-2030f
  • Table 40: Outlook for primary nickel demand by type and application, 2020-2030f
  • Table 41: Forecast crude steel production, 2020-2030f
  • Table 42: Primary nickel consumption in alloy steels and castings, 2020-2030f
  • Table 43: Primary nickel consumption in non-ferrous alloys, 2020-2030f
  • Table 44: Outlook for nickel use in plating, 2020-2030f
  • Table 45: Outlook for demand for nickel sulphate, 2020-2030f
  • Table 46: Baseline forecasts and alternative scenarios for nickel sulphate demand, by application, 2020-2030f
  • Table 47: Indonesia: HPAL projects targeting production of intermediates and nickel sulphate
  • Table 48: Indonesia: Existing NPI/ferronickel operations and matte projects
  • Table 49: Possible and expected available intermediates for external processing, 2020-2030f
  • Table 50: Expected and possible available Class I feedstock for external processing, 2020-2030f
  • Table 51: Outlook for integrated production of nickel sulphate, 2020-2030f
  • Table 52: Outlook for non-integrated production of nickel sulphate, 2020-2030f
  • Table 53: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by feedstock, 2020-2030f
  • Table 54: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by country, 2020-2030f
  • Table 55: Base case outlook for nickel sulphate supply, demand and market balance, 2020-2030f
  • Table 56: Base case outlook for nickel sulphate feedstock supply, nickel sulphate demand and feedstock market balance, 2020-2030f
  • Table 57: Base case outlook for primary supply, demand and market balance, 2020-2030f
  • Table 58: Base case price forecast for LME cash prices: 2020-2030f
  • Table 59: World: Base case forecast for aggregated nickel sulphate premia: 2020-2030f
  • Table 60: World: Low-case forecast for aggregated nickel sulphate premia: 2020-2030f
  • Table 61: World: High-case forecast for aggregated nickel sulphate premia: 2020-2030f
  • Table 62: Summary overview of the Niihama refinery
  • Table 63: Summary overview of the Harima refinery
  • Table 64: Summary overview of the Isoura plant
  • Table 65: Overview of Pomalaa project
  • Table 66: Summary overview of operations of Jinchuan Nickel Salt (crystal)
  • Table 67: Summary overview of operations of Jinchuan Nickel Salt (solution)
  • Table 68: Summary overview of operations of JINCO
  • Table 69: Overview of Obi project
  • Table 70: Overview of Guangxi Yinyi
  • Table 71: Overview of GEM
  • Table 72: Overview of operations of Jien Jilin (crystal)
  • Table 73: Overview of operations of Jien Jilin (solution)
  • Table 74: Overview of operations of Jien Xinxiang
  • Table 75: Overview of operations of Jien Chongqing
  • Table 76: Overview of Harjavalta operation
  • Table 77: Summary overview of operations of Umicore Olen
  • Table 78: Summary overview of operations of Jiangmen Chancsun Umicore
  • Table 79: Summary overview of operations of Jiangmen Chancsun Umicore
  • Table 80: Summary overview of operations of Palm International
  • Table 81: Summary overview of operations of Tanaka Chemical
  • Table 82: Summary overview of operations of Seido Chemical
  • Table 83: Summary overview of operations of Nihon Kagaku Sangyo
  • Table 84: Summary overview of operations of JX Nippon
  • Table 85: Summary overview of operations of Kansai Catalyst
  • Table 86: Overview of CoreMax
  • Table 87: Overview of Zenith Chemicals
  • Table 88: Overview of Mechema
  • Table 89: Overview of Tianjin Maolian
  • Table 90: Overview of MCC Ramu New Energy Technology
  • Table 91: Overview of Jiangmen Fangyuan New Energy
  • Table 92: Overview of Hunan Brunp
  • Table 93: Overview of Huayou Quzhou project
  • Table 94: Overview of Fu An Qingmei project
  • Table 95: Overview of Fujian Evergreen Project
  • Table 96: Overview of Nickel West sulphate project
  • Table 97: Overview of Terrafame nickel sulphate project
  • Table 98: Overview of PT Halmahera Persada Lygend project
  • Table 99: Overview of PT QMB project
  • Table 100: Overview of BASF/Eramet project
  • Table 101: Overview of Sunrise project
  • Table 102: Reported resources and reserves for Sunrise project
  • Table 103: Overview of the Sconi project
  • Table 104: Reported resources for Sconi project
  • Table 105: Overview of Wingellina project
  • Table 106: Reported resources and reserves for Wingellina project
  • Table 107: Overview of GME's NiWest project
  • Table 108: Reported resources and reserves for GME's NiWest project
  • Table 109: Overview of Goongarrie project
  • Table 110: Reported resources and reserves for Goongarrie project
  • Table 111: Overview of Vermelho project
  • Table 112: Reported resources and reserves for Vermelho project
  • Table 113: Overview of Ta Khoa project
  • Table 114: Overview of the Rayong project
  • Table 115: Overview of Hubei Centre Power Tech Project
  • Table 116: Overview of Hellenic Minerals Project
  • Table 117: Overview of Hunan CNGR project (Guizhou)
  • Table 118: Overview of Huanan CNGR project (Hunan)
  • Table 119: Overview of Jiana Energy project (Guangdong)
  • Table 120: Overview of Jiangxi Jiana project
  • Table 121: Overview of Jiangxi Longxi Project
  • Table 122: Overview of Ganzhou Jirui Project
  • Table 123: Overview of Jinchi Energy Project (expansion)
  • Table 124: Overview of Meishan Shunying Project (expansion)
  • Table 125: Overview of Skellefte? project (recycling plant)
  • Table 126: Overview of PBT Townsville project
  • Table 127: Overview of TECH project
  • Table 128: Overview of Thakadu Battery Materials project
  • Table 129: Overview of Zhejiang New Times Zhongneng Recycling Project
  • Table 130: Use of nickel in batteries by form, 2014-2020
  • Table 131: Use of nickel sulphate in Li-ion batteries by market, 2014-2020
  • Table 132: NCM production and capacity by first-tier producers, 2020
  • Table 133: NCA production and capacity by first-tier producers, 2020
  • Table 134: Nickel use in NiMH batteries by form
  • Table 135: Use of nickel in NiMH batteries by market, 2014-2020
  • Table 136: Nickel use in NiCd batteries by form
  • Table 137: Use of nickel in NiCd batteries by market, 2014-2020
  • Table 138: Producers of NiMH batteries, 2020
  • Table 139: Producers of NiCd batteries, 2020
  • Table 140: Producers of nickel hydroxide, 2020
  • Table 141: ESS outlook by electro-chemical technology 2020-2030f
  • Table 142: World: Outlook for rechargeable battery consumption by type and sector, end use basis, 2020-2030f
  • Table 143: World: Forecast nickel consumption in batteries, first use basis, 2020-2030f
  • Table 144: World: Base, upside and downside scenarios for nickel in batteries, by nickel form, 2020-2030f
  • Table 145: World: Base, upside and downside scenarios for nickel in batteries, by application and battery type, 2020-2030f
  • Table 146: Primary nickel use in plating, 2014-2020
  • Table 147: Estimated breakdown of nickel use in plating by end-applications
  • Table 148: Outlook for nickel use in plating, 2020-2030f
  • Table 149: Outlook for nickel sulphate use in other chemical applications, 2020-2030f
  • Table 150: Automotive market sales summary (unit sales)
  • Table 151: Top selling plug-in electric vehicles groups by region, 2020 (units)
  • Table 152: Scenarios for demand for nickel in automotive batteries, first-use basis, 2021-2030f
  • Table 153: Scenarios: Forecast cathode chemistry adoption rate in batteries for commercial and passenger EVs, end use basis, 2021-2030f
  • Table 154: Nickel mine production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Table 155: Nickel mine production vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Table 156: Nickel mine production vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index
  • Table 157: Critical raw materials identified by key Government bodies
  • Table 158: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2021
  • Table 159: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 160: Base Case Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 161: Base Case Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 162: Base Case Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 163: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 164: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 165: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2020-2031

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Consumption of nickel sulphate by application, 2014-2020
  • Figure 2: Consumption of nickel sulphate by region, 2014-2020
  • Figure 3: Production of nickel containing PCAM by country, 2020
  • Figure 4: Primary nickel consumption by application, 2020
  • Figure 5: Production of nickel sulphate by feedstock, 2010-2020
  • Figure 6: Nickel sulphate production, by processing type, 2010-2020
  • Figure 7: Nickel sulphate production, by country, 2010-2020
  • Figure 8: Nickel sulphate production by grade, 2010-2020
  • Figure 9: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from mine to refining), 2010 vs 2020
  • Figure 10: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from refining to battery precursor manufacturing), 2010 and 2020
  • Figure 11: Major trade flows of MHP and MSP, 2020e
  • Figure 12: Major trade flows of nickel sulphate by origin and destination, 2020e
  • Figure 13: Indicative nickel payability for tradeable MHP and MSP, 2014-2020
  • Figure 14: Nickel briquette premium over nickel metal, CIF Shanghai Bonded Warehouses, Mar 2018-Jan 2021
  • Figure 15: China: Indicative premia for nickel sulphate originated from China over nickel metal, 2014-2020
  • Figure 16: Ex-China: Indicative premia for nickel sulphate over nickel metal, by origin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 17: World: Aggregated nickel sulphate premia, over nickel metal, 2014-2020
  • Figure 18: Nickel sulphate demand by application, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 19: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by sector, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 20: Baseline forecasts and alternative scenarios for nickel sulphate demand, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 21: Outlook for feedstock availability for non-integrated nickel sulphate producers, by feedstock type, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 22: Indonesia: Forecast production from new intermediate projects, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 23: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by type, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 24: Nickel sulphate incentive premium at different capital rates, 2020
  • Figure 25: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 26: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate feedstocks, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 27: Baseline outlook for nickel sulphate premium and nickel price, 2013-2030f
  • Figure 28: Nickel sulphate flowchart, 2020
  • Figure 29: Nickel sulphate flowchart, 2030f
  • Figure 30: Production of nickel intermediates by product, 2014-2020
  • Figure 31: Production of nickel intermediates by country, 2014-2020
  • Figure 32: Refined nickel production by region, 2014-2020
  • Figure 33: Refined nickel production by type, 2014-2020
  • Figure 34: Production of nickel sulphate by feedstock, 2010-2020
  • Figure 35: Nickel sulphate producers using Class I nickel as main feedstock, 2020
  • Figure 36: Nickel sulphate producers using MHP as main feedstock, 2020
  • Figure 37: Nickel sulphate production from recycled material, by source, 2014-2020
  • Figure 38: Nickel sulphate producers using recycled material (non-battery) as main feedstock, 2020
  • Figure 39: Nickel sulphate producers using recycled material (battery) as main feedstock 2020
  • Figure 40: Nickel sulphate production, by country, 2010-2020
  • Figure 41: Nickel sulphate production, by processing type, 2010-2020
  • Figure 42: Production of nickel sulphate by country and by processing type, 2020
  • Figure 43: Production capacity of nickel sulphate by region, 2020
  • Figure 44: Overall capacity utilisation rate for nickel sulphate operations
  • Figure 45: Production capacity of nickel sulphate by processing type, 2014-2020
  • Figure 46: Capacity utilisation rate for nickel sulphate operations, integrated vs nonintegrated, 2010-2020
  • Figure 47: Nickel sulphate production by grade, 2010-2020
  • Figure 48: Production of nickel sulphate by integrated producers, 2014-2020
  • Figure 49: Production of nickel sulphate by external processors and recyclers, 2014-2020
  • Figure 50: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from mine to refining), 2010 vs 2020
  • Figure 51: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from mine to refining), 2010 vs 2020, number of operations
  • Figure 52: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from refining to battery precursor manufacturing), 2010 and 2020
  • Figure 53: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from refining to battery precursor manufacturing), 2010 and 2020, number of operations
  • Figure 54: Cost curve for nickel sulphate producers by cost item, 2020
  • Figure 55: Cost curve for nickel sulphate by producer integration, 2020
  • Figure 56: Cost curve for nickel sulphate by feedstock type, 2020
  • Figure 57: Breakdown of nickel sulphate production costs1, 2020
  • Figure 58: Refined LME nickel price, Jan 2016-Jan 2021
  • Figure 59: Quarterly average Brent crude oil, coal and natural gas prices, Q1 2016-Q1 2021
  • Figure 60: Comparison of industrial electricity and natural gas costs within key nickel sulphate producing countries and provinces in 2020, Global average=100
  • Figure 61: Comparison of labour costs within key nickel sulphate producing countries and provinces within China in 2020, Global average=100
  • Figure 62: Key reagent prices in China, Jan-16=100
  • Figure 63: US$ exchange rates of major refined nickel sulphate producing countries, Jan-16=100
  • Figure 64: Nickel mining project capital intensity, 2020
  • Figure 65: Nickel project incentive price required to deliver a 20% IRR1, 2020
  • Figure 66: Nickel sulphate incentive premium at different capital rates, US$/t Ni, 2020
  • Figure 67: Global nickel consumption, primary vs secondary, 2014-2020
  • Figure 68: Primary nickel consumption by application, 2020
  • Figure 69: Consumption of nickel sulphate by application, 2014-2020
  • Figure 70: Consumption of nickel sulphate by region, 2014-2020
  • Figure 71: Investment in Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity by country, 2014-2020
  • Figure 72: Production of nickel containing PCAM by country, 2020
  • Figure 73: Production of nickel containing CAM by country, 2020
  • Figure 74: Major trade flows of MHP and MSP, 2020e
  • Figure 75: Major trade flows of nickel matte, 2020e
  • Figure 76: Major exports of nickel powders and flakes by origin and destination, 2020e
  • Figure 77: Major trade flows of nickel sulphate by origin and destination, 2020e
  • Figure 78: Taiwan: Exports of nickel sulphate by destination, 2014-2020e
  • Figure 79: Belgium: Exports of nickel sulphate by destination, 2014-2020e
  • Figure 80: Finland: Exports of nickel sulphate by destination, 2014-2020e
  • Figure 81: LME stocks and cancelled warrants, Jan 2014-Jan 2021
  • Figure 82: LME stocks by type, Jan 2014-Jan 2021
  • Figure 83: SHFE nickel stocks, Apr 2015-Jan 2021
  • Figure 84: LME nickel cash-3M contango/backwardation, Jan 2019-Jan 2021
  • Figure 85: LME nickel cash price, Jan 2000-Jan 2021
  • Figure 86: Indicative nickel payability for tradeable MHP and MSP, 2014-2020
  • Figure 87: Indicative nickel payability and volume for MHP and MSP imports from China, 2014-2020
  • Figure 88: Indicative nickel payability and volume for MSP imports from Japan, 2014-2020
  • Figure 89: Nickel briquette premium over nickel metal, CIF Shanghai Bonded Warehouses, Mar 2018-Jan 2021
  • Figure 90: Nickel briquette physical stocks in China, Dec 2018-Jan 2021
  • Figure 91: Nickel briquette and battery-grade sulphate prices in China, Dec 2018-Jan 2021
  • Figure 92: NPI price vs nickel metal price, Jan 2014-Jan 2021
  • Figure 93: Tradeable NPI stocks at Chinese NPI plants
  • Figure 94: China: Asian Metal battery grade nickel sulphate premia over nickel metal, Apr 2012--Jan 2021
  • Figure 95: China: Asian Metal electroplating grade nickel sulphate premia over nickel metal, Apr 2012--Jan 2021
  • Figure 96: China: Mysteel nickel sulphate premia over nickel metal, Dec 2018--Jan 2021
  • Figure 97: China: Asian Metal nickel sulphate premia and nickel metal prices, Apr 2012--Jan 2021
  • Figure 98: China: Indicative premia for nickel sulphate originated from China over nickel metal, 2014-2020
  • Figure 99: Ex-China: Indicative premia for nickel sulphate over nickel metal, by origin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 100: World: Aggregated and regional premia for nickel sulphate, over nickel metal, 2014-2020
  • Figure 101: World: Aggregated nickel sulphate premia, over nickel metal, 2014-2020
  • Figure 102: Primary nickel consumption forecast, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 103: Primary nickel consumption by type and application, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 104: Primary nickel consumption by type, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 105: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by battery type, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 106: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by sector, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 107: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by source, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 108: Class I nickel consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 109: Breakdown of nickel use in stainless steel, by type, 2020
  • Figure 110: Class I use in stainless steel vs Class II supply and nickel price, 2010-2020
  • Figure 111: Scenarios for the reliance of stainless steel on Class I nickel, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 112: Outlook for primary use of nickel in stainless steel, by class of nickel, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 113: Global installed wind power capacity, 2010-2024f
  • Figure 114: Forecast demand, deliveries, and production of civilian aircraft, 2019-2030f
  • Figure 115: Forecast power generation by fuel, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 116: Nickel sulphate demand by application, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 117: Nickel sulphate demand by application, 2020
  • Figure 118: Nickel sulphate demand by application, 2030
  • Figure 119: Baseline forecasts and alternative scenarios for nickel sulphate demand, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 120: Indonesia: mine, intermediate and refined production, 2014-2020
  • Figure 121: Indonesia: Exports of nickel ores and concentrates, Q1 2010-Q4 2020
  • Figure 122: Production of NPI and nickel intermediates in Indonesia, 2010-2020
  • Figure 123: NPI discount/premium versus battery-grade nickel sulphate premium/discount over nickel metal price, Jan 2014-Jan 2021
  • Figure 124: Indonesia: Forecast production from new intermediate projects, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 125: Expected intermediate production by country, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 126: Expected intermediate production by product, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 127: Forecast availability of intermediates for non-integrated nickel sulphate production versus total nickel intermediate supply, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 128: Expected available intermediates for non-integrated nickel sulphate production, by type, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 129: Outlook for production of Class I nickel, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 130: Scenarios for the reliance of stainless steel on Class I nickel, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 131: Scenarios for Class I availability for nickel sulphate production under 3%,5%, 10% stainless steel loading rate, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 132: Forecast availability for Class I nickel used in nickel sulphate production, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 133: Outlook for end-of-life (EOL) nickel-containing cathode, by chemistry and application, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 134: Outlook for nickel in EOL batteries, by battery type, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 135: Outlook for nickel recovered from EOL batteries and recovery rate, by battery type, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 136: Outlook for nickel consumption in plating, non-ferrous alloys and other chemical applications, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 137: Outlook for availability of non-battery scraps and recovery rate, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 138: Outlook for feedstock availability, by feedstock type, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 139: Outlook for feedstock availability, primary versus secondary, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 140: Outlook for integrated production of nickel sulphate, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 141: Outlook for non-integrated production of nickel sulphate, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 142: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by type, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 143: Outlook for nickel sulphate production, integrated vs non-integrated producers, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 144: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by feedstock, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 145: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by feedstock, primary vs secondary sources, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 146: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by country, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 147: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by region, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 148: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 149: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate feedstocks, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 150: High-case (possible) feedstock supply and base-case nickel sulphate demand, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 151: Outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate under low-case demand scenario, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 152: Outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate feedstocks under low-case demand scenario, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 153: Base-case (expected) feedstock supply and low-case nickel sulphate demand, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 154: Outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate under high-case demand scenario, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 155: Outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate feedstocks under high-case demand scenario, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 156: High-case (possible) feedstock supply and high-case nickel sulphate demand, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 157: Nickel sulphate incentive premium at different capital rates, 2020
  • Figure 158: Cost curve for nickel sulphate by feedstock type, 2020
  • Figure 159: Historical and forecast Class II production in Indonesia, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 160: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate feedstock, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 161: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate, 2014-2030f
  • Figure 162: Baseline outlook for nickel sulphate premium and nickel price, 2013-2030f
  • Figure 163: Nickel sulphate incentive premium at different capital rates, US$/t Ni, 2020
  • Figure 164: Nickel sulphate market balance and premium under base-case and low-case scenarios, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 165: Nickel sulphate market balance and premium under base-case and high-case scenarios, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 166: SMM's value chain
  • Figure 167: SMM's flow of 'battery to battery' recycling process from secondary Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 168: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Sumitomo Metal Mining, 2014-2020
  • Figure 169: Production process of nickel sulphate at the Niihama refinery
  • Figure 170: Flowchart of SMM's recycling process for battery materials in Niihama
  • Figure 171: Production process of nickel sulphate at the Harima refinery
  • Figure 172: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by JNMC, 2014-2020
  • Figure 173: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Guangxi Yinyi, 2014-2020
  • Figure 174: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by GEM, 2014-2020
  • Figure 175: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Jien, 2014-2020
  • Figure 176: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Nornickel Harjavalta, 2014-2020
  • Figure 177: Nornickel diagram of operations
  • Figure 178: Battery materials circular economy
  • Figure 179: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Umicore, 2014-2020
  • Figure 180: Flowsheet for Umicore's integrated metals smelter and refinery
  • Figure 181: Umicore battery recycling flowsheet
  • Figure 182: Japanese imports of nickel powder, briquette and carbonyl from major producing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 183: Estimated production and capacity of nickel sulphate, by Japanese producers, 2014-2020
  • Figure 184: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by CoreMax, 2014-2020
  • Figure 185: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Zenith, 2014-2020
  • Figure 186: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by METC, 2014-2020
  • Figure 187: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Maolian, 2014-2020
  • Figure 188: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by MCC, 2014-2020
  • Figure 189: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Fangyuan, 2014-2020
  • Figure 190: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Brunp, 2014-2020
  • Figure 191: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Huayou, 2014-2020
  • Figure 192: GEM's vision to build a complete value chain for battery grade nickel
  • Figure 193: Flowsheet demonstrating PBT refining technology
  • Figure 194: Simplified value chain for Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 195: Crystal structure of ideal LiCoO2
  • Figure 196: Crystal structure of ideal LiMn2O4
  • Figure 197: Gravimetric Energy density at cathode level, 2019
  • Figure 198: Comparison of gravimetric energy density by battery chemistry
  • Figure 199: Material composition by cathode chemistry
  • Figure 200: Production of cathode materials by country, 2020
  • Figure 201: World: Market share of cathode manufacturers, all materials, 2020
  • Figure 202: Li-ion cathode consumption by batteries by type, 2010-2020
  • Figure 203: World: Market for rechargeable batteries, 2011-2020
  • Figure 204: World: Li-ion, NiMH and NiCd battery use by market, 2011-2020
  • Figure 205: Battery chemistries share in portable electronics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 206: Portable electronics sales, 2011-2020
  • Figure 207: Portable electronics sales, 2011-2020
  • Figure 208: Battery chemistries share in power devices, 2011-2020
  • Figure 209: Power devices sales, 2011-2020
  • Figure 210: Power applications sales, 2011-2020
  • Figure 211: Battery chemistries share in motive applications, 2011-2020
  • Figure 212: Sales in motive applications, 2011-2020
  • Figure 213: Motive applications sales, 2011-2020
  • Figure 214: Grid-ESS new installations by electro-chemical technology, 2011-2020
  • Figure 215: Off-grid ESS new installations by electro-chemical technology, 2011-2020
  • Figure 216: Market size of electro-chemical ESS, annual new capacity, 2011-2020
  • Figure 217: Share of cathode chemistries in Li-ion batteries, 2011-2020
  • Figure 218: Nickel use in rechargeable batteries by battery type, 2011-2020
  • Figure 219: Nickel use in rechargeable batteries by application, 2011-2020
  • Figure 220: Nickel use in rechargeable batteries by form, 2011-2020
  • Figure 221: Forecast portable electronics, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 222: Forecast power devices, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 223: Forecast motive applications, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 224: ESS electro-chemical technology outlook. Grid and Off-grid, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 225: World: Forecast market for Li-ion batteries by end use, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 226: World: Forecast market for rechargeable batteries, end use basis, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 227: Share of cathode chemistries in Li-ion batteries, end use basis, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 228: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by sector, first use basis, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 229: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by battery type, first use basis, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 230: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries, first use and end use basis, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 231: Baseline forecasts and alternative scenarios for nickel use in rechargeable batteries, first-use basis, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 232: Nickel use in plating by form, 2014-2020
  • Figure 233: Total vehicle sales, 2010-2020
  • Figure 234: Total vehicle sales, 2019-2020
  • Figure 235: Regional vehicle sales Y-o-Y change, 2020
  • Figure 236: Total vehicle sales, 2005-2020
  • Figure 237: Regional breakdown of vehicle sales, 2005-2020
  • Figure 238: Plug-in EV sales by region, 2019-2020
  • Figure 239: Plug-in EV penetration by region, 2019-2020
  • Figure 240: Europe: top five countries with highest plug-in EV penetration, 2019-2020
  • Figure 241: Plug-in EV sales in regional split, 2019-2020
  • Figure 242: Plug-in EV sales by carmaker group, 2020
  • Figure 243: Market share of cathode chemistries in passenger and commercial vehicles, 2010-2020
  • Figure 244: Use of nickel by battery chemistry deployed in EVs, 2010-2020
  • Figure 245: Forecast sales of passenger plug-in electric vehicles, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 246: Forecast sales of plug-in passenger cars by region, 2019-2030f
  • Figure 247: Outlook for global passenger vehicle electrification, 2019-2030f
  • Figure 248: Passenger vehicles: Battery capacity by e-powertrain type & car model
  • Figure 249: Commercial vehicles: Battery capacity by e-powertrain type & car model
  • Figure 250: Forecast weighted average battery capacity by powertrain type, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 251: Forecast sales of battery requirements by vehicle category, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 252: Forecast cathode materials used in passenger & commercial vehicles, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 253: Forecast market share of battery chemistries in passenger vehicles, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 254: Forecast market share of cathode chemistries in passenger and commercial vehicles, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 255: Forecast market share of cathode chemistries in passenger and commercial vehicles, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 256: Forecast cathode chemistry used in batteries for commercial and passenger EVs in China, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 257: Forecast cathode chemistry used in batteries for commercial and passenger EVs in Europe, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 258: Forecast cathode chemistry used in batteries for HEVs, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 259: Cathode technology roadmap of Auto OEMs in passenger cars
  • Figure 260: Forecast intensity of use of selected battery raw materials in automotive applications, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 261: Forecast use of selected battery raw materials in automotive applications, 2020-2030f
  • Figure 262: Baseline outlook for demand for nickel in automotive batteries on a first use and end use basis, 2017-2030f
  • Figure 263: Scenarios for demand for nickel in automotive batteries, first-use basis, 2010-2030f
  • Figure 264: High-case scenario: Forecast cathode chemistry used in batteries for commercial and passenger EVs in China, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 265: High-case scenario: Forecast cathode chemistry used in batteries for commercial and passenger EVs in Europe, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 266: High-case scenario: Forecast cathode chemistry used in batteries for HEVs, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 267: Low-case scenario: Forecast cathode chemistry used in batteries in China, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 268: Low-case scenario: Forecast cathode chemistry used in in Europe, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 269: Low-case scenario: Forecast cathode chemistry used in batteries for HEVs, 2021-2030f
  • Figure 270: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 271: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 272: Primary energy demand and global warming potential for nickel products
  • Figure 273: Total CO2 emissions from shipping transport of nickel sulphate feedstocks, 2020
  • Figure 274: Nickel mine production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Figure 275: Nickel mine production vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Figure 276: Nickel mine production vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business
  • Figure 277: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 278: European CRM list 2020