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市場調查報告書

未活用的頻譜:無線通訊 - 技術,應用,市場

Underutilized Spectrum: Wireless Transmission - Technologies, Applications and Markets

出版商 Practel, Inc. 商品編碼 440705
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 252 Pages
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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未活用的頻譜:無線通訊 - 技術,應用,市場 Underutilized Spectrum: Wireless Transmission - Technologies, Applications and Markets
出版日期: 2018年01月31日 內容資訊: 英文 252 Pages
簡介

本報告提供光無線通訊 (OWC) 、TV閒置頻譜通訊 (TVWSC) 的調查分析,技術的詳細內容,市場特徵,產業預測等系統性資訊。

第1章 簡介

光無線通訊 (OWC)

第2章 LED規格

  • 概要
  • 頻譜
  • 種類
  • LED調製
  • LED的演進

第3章 可見光通訊 (VLC)

  • 概要
  • VLS規格的開發
  • 詳細內容
  • 企業、組織
  • 市場
  • 5G

第4章 自由空間光纖 (FSF)

  • 概要
  • 主要的特徵
  • 保護
  • 應用
  • FSF通訊的優點與限制:摘要
  • 設計問題
  • 客戶
  • FSF市場
  • 供應商
  • 規格

TV閒置頻譜通訊 (TVWSC)

第5章 TV閒置頻段 (TVWS)

  • 閒置頻譜通訊:原理
  • 標準化和產業
  • 產業
  • M2M、TVWS

第6章 結論

附錄

圖表

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目錄

BRIEF

One of the main issues in the developing of 5G communications is the limited amount of an available spectrum. The industry is trying to find solutions to ease this problem.

Among multiple methods to cope with scarcity of available spectrum, two directions seem very promising. They are:

  • Intensification of utilization already occupied spectrum windows
  • Identification and utilization of vacant (or almost vacant) spectrum windows.

This report addresses only the second approach; and particular it concentrates on the following technologies:

  • Optical Wireless Communications (OWC)
    • a) VLC - Visible Light Communication
    • b) FSF - Free Space Fiber
  • CR/SDR - Cognitive/Software Defined Radio
  • TV White Space Communications (TVWSC)
  • E-band Radio.

OWC includes VLC and FSF. Both these technologies utilize - free (or more precisely, very lightly occupied) frequency spectrum.

OWC is widely recognized as superior to radio frequency transmission for several use cases. Visible and invisible optical wireless links solve first/last mile connectivity problems, serve for signal distribution inside of premises, and provide secure, jam-free communication. OWC is license-free and can potentially deliver high-speed data rates in the order of tens Gb/s. Its advantages have fostered significant research efforts aimed at utilizing optical wireless communication, e.g. VLC, for high-speed, secure, indoor/outdoor communication under the IEEE 802.15.7 and other standards; as well as FSF for indoor and outdoor communications.

Both technologies are using free space as a communications medium; though they utilize such a medium in different ways and have both similar and specific communications channel properties.

Cognitive/Software Defined Radio allows the analysis of spectrum occupancy in a particular area and particular time. Based on such an analysis, cognitive engine can adjust frequency bands on SDR (together with other parameters) in such a way that transmission will fill up unoccupied windows (if they exist).

TVWSC is an example of one of the first commercial applications of CR/SDR.

E-band radios attract attention of the 5G community due to their features, such as “light” licensing, lightly occupied spectrum and the range of several kilometers together with multi-gigabit per second speed of transmission.

The report surveys the industries, addresses technical and marketing specifics of all mentioned technologies and concentrates on their standardization.

Attachments present the survey of resent patents related to TVWS, IEEE802.22 and IEEE 802.11af, and IEEE802.15.7.

The report was developed for a wide audience of engineers and managers that are working with advanced communications technologies.

Table of Contents

1.0. Introduction

  • 1.1. 5G Concern
  • 1.2. OWC
    • 1.2.1. Structure
    • 1.2.2. LED as Communications Transmitter
    • 1.2.3. Free Space Fiber
  • 1.3. TVWSC
  • 1.4. CR/SDR
  • 1.5. E-band Radio
  • 1.6. Scope
  • 1.7. Research Methodology
  • 1.8. Target Audience
    • OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS-Free Spectrum

2.0. LED Specifics

  • 2.1. General
  • 2.2. Spectrum
  • 2.3. Types
  • 2.4. LED Modulation
    • 2.4.1. Limitations
  • 2.5. LED Evolution
    • 2.5.1. General
    • 2.5.2. Benefits
    • 2.5.3. Market Characteristics
    • 2.5.4. Factors

3.0. Visible Light Communications

  • 3.1. General
    • 3.1.1. Drivers
    • 3.1.2. Industry Activity
      • 3.1.2.1. UC-Light Center
      • 3.1.2.2. Li-Fi Consortium
  • 3.2. VLC Standards Development
    • 3.2.1. IEEE 802.15.7 Standard
      • 3.2.1.1. Considerations
      • 3.2.1.2. Project
        • 3.2.1.2.1. Coexistence
        • 3.2.1.2.2. Essence
        • 3.2.1.2.3. Base
        • 3.2.1.2.4. Use Cases
        • 3.2.1.2.5. Physical Layer
          • 3.2.1.2.5.1. General
          • 3.2.1.2.5.2. Responsibilities
          • 3.2.1.2.5.3. Types
          • 3.2.1.2.5.4. Error Protection
          • 3.2.1.2.5.5. Rates
          • 3.2.1.2.5.6. Frequency Plan
          • 3.2.1.2.5.7. PHY Services
          • 3.2.1.2.5.8. Regulations
        • 3.2.1.2.6. MAC Layer
          • 3.2.1.2.6.1. Topologies
          • 3.2.1.2.6.2. Responsibilities
          • 3.2.1.2.6.3. Functionalities
        • 3.2.1.2.7. Security
    • 3.2.2. IEEE 802.15.7r Standard
    • 3.2.3. IEEE 802.15.13 Standard
    • 3.2.4. VLCA
      • 3.2.4.1. General
      • 3.2.4.2. Jeita
  • 3.3. Details
    • 3.3.1. Communications Channel
    • 3.3.2. Transmitter
    • 3.3.3. Receiver
      • 3.3.3.1. Image Sensors
    • 3.3.4. Major Characteristics
      • 3.3.4.1. General
      • 3.3.4.2. Modulation
      • 3.3.4.3. VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary
      • 3.3.4.4. Limiting Factors
    • 3.3.5. Applications: Summary
      • 3.3.5.1. ITS
      • 3.3.5.2. Optical Wireless LAN
      • 3.3.5.3. Medical
      • 3.3.5.4. Localization
      • 3.3.5.5. City Wide Wireless Network
      • 3.3.5.6. Summary
  • 3.4. Companies and Organizations
    • Axrtek
    • Casio
    • Firefly
    • Fraunhofer IPMS
    • LVX
    • LightBee
    • Nakagawa Laboratories
    • Oledcomm
    • Outstanding Technology
    • PureVLC-PureLi-Fi
    • Qualcomm
    • Renesas
    • SmartSignals
    • Supreme Architecture
    • TCL/Sunpartner
  • 3.5. Market
  • 3.6. 5G View
    • 3.6.1. Attocell
    • 3.6.2. Cell Structures

4.0. Free Space Fiber

  • 4.1. General
  • 4.2. Major Characteristics
  • 4.3. Protection
  • 4.4. Applications
    • 4.4.1. Major Use Cases
    • 4.4.2. Requirements
    • 4.4.3. Inter-satellite Links
    • 4.4.4. Intra-building Communications
    • 4.4.5. Inter-building Communications
  • 4.5. FSF Communications Benefits and Limitations: Summary
    • 4.5.1. Weather Factor
    • 4.5.2. Building Swaying
  • 4.6. Design Issues
  • 4.7. Customers
  • 4.8. FSF Market
    • 4.8.1. General
    • 4.8.2. Market Drivers
      • 4.8.2.1. Market Segments
    • 4.8.3. Competition
      • 4.8.3.1. Fiber Optics Systems
      • 4.8.3.2. Microwave
      • 4.8.3.3. PONs
    • 4.8.4. Forecast
      • 4.8.4.1. General
      • 4.8.4.2. Model Assumptions
      • 4.8.4.3. Structure
      • 4.8.4.4. Market Estimate
  • 4.9. Vendors
    • CableFree
    • Canon USA
    • CBL
    • Dailianxu Engineering Company
    • fSONA
    • Guilin
    • LightPointe
    • PAV
    • Plaintree
    • RedLine
    • Space Photonics
  • 4.10. Standards
    • 4.10.1. ITU G.640
    • 4.10.2. ITU-R P.1814-2007
    • 4.10.3. ARIB STD-T50 (OPTICAL WIRELESS LAN SYSTEM) v4-2009
  • 4.11. VLC and FSF

5.0. Software Defined and Cognitive Radios

  • 5.1. General
  • 5.2. Purpose
  • 5.3. Definitions (WIF, FCC, ITU)
    • 5.3.1. SDR
      • 5.3.1.1. Multi-tiers: SDR
    • 5.3.2. Cognitive Radio
      • 6.3.2.1. Details
  • 5.4. Regulations
    • 5.4.1. FCC
      • 5.4.1.1. Equipment Type
      • 5.4.1.2. Process
      • 5.4.1.3. Application Guide
      • 5.4.1.4. First Approval
    • 5.4.2. ITU
    • 5.4.3. Ofcom
  • 5.5. Standardization
    • 5.5.1. ITU-R
    • 5.5.2. ETSI
      • 5.5.2.2. Major Points
    • 5.5.3. 3GPP
    • 5.5.4. IEEE
    • 5.5.5. NASA
  • 5.6. Design Issues
  • 5.7. Properties
    • 5.7.1. Layers
    • 5.7.2. Features: Details
      • 5.7.2.1. Versatility
    • 5.7.3. Issues
  • 5.8. SDR Implementations
  • 5.9. Applications
    • 5.9.1. Commercial
    • 5.9.2. CR/SDR in Military
      • 5.9.2.1. SCA
        • 5.9.2.1.1. ESSOR: European Secure SOftware Defined Radio
    • 5.9.3. Public Safety Communications (PSC)
  • 5.10. CR/SDR: Benefits
  • 5.11. Impact - CR
    • 5.11.1. Geographical Differences
  • 5.12. Market
    • 5.12.1. Landscape
      • 5.12.1.1. Factors
    • 5.12.2. Cost
    • 5.12.3. Different Perspective
    • 5.12.4. Market Drivers-Summary
    • 5.12.5. Market Forecast
      • 5.12.5.1. Model Assumptions
      • 5.12.5.2. Estimate
      • 5.12.5.3. Segments
      • 5.12.5.4. Geography
      • 5.12.5.5. Components
  • 5.13. Industry
    • Aeronix (SDR Components)
    • AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
    • AirSpan (BS)
    • Airbus DS
    • Analog Devises (Chipsets)
    • BAE Systems
    • Cambridge Consultants (PHY, Base Station)
    • Carlson Wireless (Platform)
    • Coherent Logix (SDR)
    • General Dynamics (SDR)
    • DataSoft (SDR Design, SW)
    • Datron World Communications (SDR)
    • Digital Receiver Technology (Radio Modules)
    • Elbit
    • Ettus Research (Platform)
    • Etherstack (Software)
    • Ericsson (BS)
    • Green Hills (Software)
    • Harris (SDR)
    • Huawei (Platform)
    • Intel (Platform)
    • Lockheed Martin (SDR)
    • Lyrtech-Nutaq (DSP and FPGA)
    • Motorola Solutions (BS)
    • Nokia (Base Station)
    • Northrup Grumman
    • Objective Interface Systems (Software)
    • Octasic (SDR)
    • Redline Communications (Platform)
    • Rockwell Collins (Radios)
    • Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)
    • Thales (Radio)
    • TI (Chips)
    • Vanu (Base Stations)
    • Xilinx (Chips, SDR Development Kit)
    • xG Technology (CR)
    • ZTE (Platforms)
    • Commercial CR/SDR Application: TVWSC

6.0. TV White Spaces

  • 6.1. White Spaces Communications - Principles
    • 6.1.1. Definition
    • 6.1.2. Rational
    • 6.1.3. Ecosystem and Use Cases
  • 6.2. Standardization and Industry
    • 6.2.1. Broadband Internet Wireless Access
      • 6.2.1.1. WS Alliance
        • 6.2.1.1.1. Wi-FAR
        • 6.2.1.1.2. WSAConnect
      • 6.2.1.2. Wireless Innovation Forum (WIF)-WS
        • 6.2.1.2.1. General
        • 6.2.1.2.2. Contributions
    • 6.2.2. TVWSC IEEE-related Standards
      • 6.2.2.1. IEEE 802.11af - 2013
        • 6.2.2.1.1. General: Expectations-Wi-Fi on Steroids
        • 6.2.2.1.2. Differences
        • 6.2.2.1.3. Benefits
        • 6.2.2.1.4. Specifics
        • 6.2.2.1.5. Building Blocks
        • 6.2.2.1.6. PHY
        • 6.2.2.1.7. Summary
      • 6.2.2.2. IEEE 802.22-2011
        • 6.2.2.2.1. General
        • 6.2.2.2.2. WG 802.22 and FCC
        • 6.2.2.2.3. Mechanism
        • 6.2.2.2.4. Physical Layer-Major Characteristics
          • 6.2.2.2.4.1. Frames
        • 6.2.2.2.5. Cognitive Functions and MAC
        • 6.2.2.2.6. MAC Features
        • 6.2.2.2.7. Summary-IEEE802.22
    • 6.2.3. ECMA-392-2012
  • 6.3. Industry
    • Adaptrum
    • Aviacomm
    • Carlson Wireless
    • KTS
    • Redline Communications
    • Saankhya Labs Pvt. Ltd
  • 6.4. M2M and TVWS
    • 6.4.1. Weightless Technologies
    • 6.4.2. Weightless SIG
    • 6.4.3. Weightless-W
      • 6.4.3.1. Weightless-W Specifics
      • 6.4.3.2. Changes

7.0. E-band Radio

  • 7.1. Benefits
    • 7.1.1. Typical Characteristics
  • 7.2. Market
  • 7.3. Industry
    • Aviat
    • DragonWave
    • E-band Communications
    • Filtronic/Escape Communications
    • Fujitsu
    • Intracom
    • Infineon
    • LightPointe
    • Loea
    • NEC
    • Siklu

8.0. Conclusions

ATTACHMENT I: WS-related Patents

ATTACHMENT II: 802.22-related Patents

ATTACHMENT III: 802.11af-related Patents

ATTACHMENT IV: 802.15.7-related Patents

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: OWC Illustration
  • Figure 2: LED Structure
  • Figure 3: LED Spectrum
  • Figure 4: White LED Properties Illustration
  • Figure 5: Estimate: Lighting LED Market - U.S. ($B)
  • Figure 6: Estimate: Lighting LED Market - U.S. (Bil. Units Shipped)
  • Figure 7: LED Price Factor
  • Figure 8: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources
  • Figure 9: Characteristics
  • Figure 10: Topologies
  • Figure 11: Illustration-VLC Channel
  • Figure 12: VLC Market Categories
  • Figure 13: Estimate: VLC Market-Global ($B)
  • Figure 14: VLC Market Geography (2017)
  • Figure 15: Simplified FSF Channel Diagram
  • Figure 16: FSF Market Segments
  • Figure 17: Estimate: FSF Market Value ($M)
  • Figure 18: FSF Market Geography
  • Figure 19: Conceptual View: CR/SDR
  • Figure 20: Reconfigurable BS
  • Figure 21: ETSI SDR: Functional Architecture
  • Figure 22: SDR and OSI Reference Model
  • Figure 23: CR-Cell Network
  • Figure 24: PSC Specifics
  • Figure 25: Global Sales: SDR-based Equipment ($B)
  • Figure 26: SDR/CR Market Segments
  • Figure 27: SDR Market Geography (2016)
  • Figure 28: Components
  • Figure 29: Illustration-E-band Radio-Backhauling Mobile Network
  • Figure 30: Regulations
  • Figure 31: E-Band Radio Generations-Characteristics
  • Figure 32: Estimate: Global Market-SC Backhaul-E-band Radio ($B)

List of Tables

  • Table 1: VLC and FSF
  • Table 2: Wavelengths (nm)
  • Table 3: Properties - Laser vs. LED
  • Table 4: Light Sources Characteristics
  • Table 5: Use Cases - VLC
  • Table 6: Devices and Characteristics
  • Table 7: PHY
  • Table 8: Frequency Plan
  • Table 9: VLC/RF Properties
  • Table 10: VL, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison
  • Table 11: Locations Technologies-VLC Place
  • Table 12: SDR Tiers
  • Table 13: CR Features
  • Table 14: U.S.-PSC Users
  • Table 15: SDR Market Drivers
  • Table 16: TVWS Regulations
  • Table 17: IEEE WS-related Standards
  • Table 18: 802.22-Major Characteristics
  • Table 19: Iceni Characteristics
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