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市場調查報告書

全球風力產業:發電統計推移與預測

The Global Wind Industry - Historical, Present and Future Generation Statistics to 2030

出版商 NRG Expert 商品編碼 214309
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 166 Pages
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全球風力產業:發電統計推移與預測 The Global Wind Industry - Historical, Present and Future Generation Statistics to 2030
出版日期: 2016年10月26日 內容資訊: 英文 166 Pages
簡介

從可再生能源總容量比例來看,設備容量中風能已超越水力發電,成為最受廣泛使用的可再生能源。風能部門的成長主要由中國市場所推動。

本報告調查分析全球風力產業,提供產業結構、定義、技術、應用、製造商、主要市場展望等系統性情報。

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 風力發電市場

  • 影響風力的因素評估
  • 專門用語
  • 需求變化
  • 基本負載
  • 尖峰負載
  • 中間負載
  • 間歇性與變動性
  • 設備利用率
  • 失載機率 (LOLP)
  • 容量信用
  • 備轉容量
  • 風力發電問題
  • 電網平衡
  • 電網擴張
  • 儲存
  • 容量信用
  • 供需不一致
  • 負載追隨
  • 分散
  • 天氣預報的不足
  • 備轉容量/支援
  • 尾流效應
  • 未來展望
  • EU風能產業的未來競爭力投資
  • 外海開發的更具策略性、協調性方法
  • 最大化外海風電的環保優勢
  • 未來電網的大規模外海風電整合
  • 目標

第3章 可再生能源的國家政策

  • 可再生能源目標
  • 可再生能源支持機制
  • 美國RPS政策的演變
  • 固定價格收購制度 (FIT:Feed-in Tariff) 與RPS比較
  • 投資者信心、價格、政策成本
  • 有效性
  • 所有權結構
  • 結論
  • 美國FIT

第4章 各國風力發電市場與支持計劃:主要市場

  • 中國
  • 美國
  • 德國

第5章 風力產業供應鏈

  • 垂直整合
  • 電子技術產業的供應鏈背景
  • 原材料
  • 前置時間
  • 風力渦輪機產能
  • 地區供應鏈

第6章 稀土金屬

第7章 操作維護 (O&M)

第8章 儲能

第9章 風能優缺點 (與其他能源型態比較)

第10章 外海風力發電

第11章 再供給

第12章 新技術預測

第13章 數據

圖表

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目錄
Product Code: NRGWE2

As a proportion of total renewable capacity, in terms of installed capacity wind energy has overtaken hydro becoming the most widely used renewable. Growth in the wind energy sector is primarily driven by one market, China.

China notwithstanding, a more rapid globalisation of wind energy is becoming evident. Countries previously without wind generation capacity, or with very limited capacity, are now looking at far more ambitious plans than the early adopters considered when wind energy was in its relative infancy, and putting in place targets and fiscal incentives to reach them.

Wind power has been a remarkable success story in terms of establishing itself as a mainstream energy resource. Its growth seems certain to continue and that it will be an increasingly valuable source of electricity generation in the future. Wind electricity generation is on the rise in the power generation sector, and NRG Expert's new Wind Industry intelligence product will give you the data and insights that are necessary to understand this growing market. We have researched the wind electricity market to produce an in-depth database and accompanying market research report that focuses on the generation through the use of wind technology. The report and database combine NRG Expert's research abilities with a keen understanding of the power generation landscape to give you a comprehensive look at the sector.

The Report outlines the structure of the wind industry; presenting definitions, the techniques, applications, manufacturers as well as a look at the incentives and drawbacks of wind energy. A look is taken at some of the world's major markets for wind presenting analysis and commentary on plans.

The Database contains information on over 90 countries providing, where known, the installed (nameplate) generation capacity for wind installations. The data is presented in an annex to the report, and provided to you in a separate Microsoft® Excel® (.xlsx) workbook; for easy analysis and data manipulation.

Table of Contents

The Wind Report

1. Executive Summary

  • Wind Power Development
  • Renewables Subsidies
  • Turbine Technology

2. The Market for Wind power

  • An Assessment of Factors Affecting Wind Power
  • Terminology
  • Variations of Demand
  • Base Load
  • Peak Load
  • Intermediate Load
  • Intermittency and Variability
  • Capacity Factor
  • Loss of Load Probability (LOLP)
  • Capacity Credit
  • Spinning Reserve
  • Issues for Wind Power
  • Grid Balancing
  • Grid Extension
  • Storage
  • Capacity Credit
  • Mismatch of Supply and Demand
  • Load Following
  • Dispersion
  • Inadequacy of Weather Forecasting
  • Spinning Reserve/Back-up
  • Wake Effects
  • The Way Forward
  • Investing in the Future Competitiveness of the EU Wind Energy Industry
  • Adopting a More Strategic, Coordinated Approach to Offshore Developments
  • Maximising the Environmental Benefits of Offshore Wind
  • Integrating Large-Scale Offshore Wind in the Grid of the Future
  • Targets

3. National Policies for Renewable Energy

  • Renewable Energy Targets
  • Support Mechanisms for Renewables
  • The Evolution of RPS Policy in the United States
  • Comparison of Feed-in Tariffs and RPS
  • Investor Confidence, Price, and Policy Cost
  • Effectiveness
  • Ownership Structure
  • Conclusion
  • Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

4. National Wind Power Markets and Support Plans; Major Markets

  • China
  • Wind Resources
  • Offshore Wind Power
  • United States
  • The Start of Wind Power
  • Market Potential
  • Intermittency
  • Low-Speed Wind Technology
  • Cost of Wind Energy Generation
  • Technology Development in the USA
  • Understanding Turbulent Wind Patterns
  • R&D
  • Germany
  • Market Size and Forecast
  • Repowering Trend
  • Government Support and R&D in Germany
  • Stromeinspeisungsgesetz - Electricity Feed Law (EFL)

5. Wind Industry Supply Chain

  • Vertical Integration
  • Background to the Supply Chain in the Electro-Technical Industry
  • Raw Materials
  • Lead Times
  • Wind Turbine Production Capacity
  • Local Supply Chains

6. Rare Earth Metals

7. Operation and Maintenance (O&M)

8. Energy Storage

  • Mechanical Storage
  • Electrochemical Storage
  • Electromagnetic Storage
  • Coupling to New Energies
  • Developments

9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy Compared with Other Forms of Energy

10. Offshore Wind Power

  • The Benefits
  • Higher Wind Speeds
  • More Stable Winds
  • Huge Offshore Wind Resources
  • Low Surface Roughness: Cheaper Turbines
  • Lower Turbulence: Longer Lifetime
  • Shipping and Transport
  • Closer to Demand Centres
  • NIMBY
  • The Challenges
  • Installation Vessels
  • Operation and Maintenance
  • Port Facilities
  • Subsea Cabling
  • A European Offshore Grid

11. Repowering

  • Market for Old Turbines
  • Recycling Turbines

12. Forecasting a new technology - Experience Curves and Progress Ratios (PR)

13. The Data

Introduction to the Data

Figures

  • Figure 1 - Base, Intermediate and Peak Load by time of Day
  • Figure 2 - Capacity factors by month for wind power for Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and Netherlands
  • Figure 3 - Wind Energy Investments in the EU, 2000 to 2030
  • Figure 4 - Distribution of wind turbines in China
  • Figure 5 - Potential output of 1.5 MW wind turbines in China, % of maximum output over time
  • Figure 6 - Offshore Wind Potential along China's East Coast
  • Figure 7 - Wind Resources in the Great Lakes
  • Figure 8 - Wind Resources in the United States
  • Figure 9 - Advanced tower design
  • Figure 10 - Annual onshore and offshore build and repowering in Germany, MW, 1993 to 2030
  • Figure 11 - Cumulative installed capacity, onshore and offshore in Germany, MW, 1993 to 2030
  • Figure 12 - Turbine Parts
  • Figure 13 - How much neodymium will the offshore sector need?
  • Figure 14 - Lifecycle breakdown of wind energy investment project costs, %
  • Figure 15 - Frequency of ‘failure rate' with increasing operational age
  • Figure 16 - Downtime per component failure, days
  • Figure 17 - Weak point analysis for wind turbine subassemblies including failure causes
  • Figure 18 - Estimated investment costs, EUR per kW
  • Figure 19 - Estimated operation and maintenance costs, EUR per kW per annum
  • Figure 20 - Levelised Cost of Electricity, EUR cents per kWh
  • Figure 21 - Estimated grid parity for wholesale onshore wind, EUR per MWh
  • Figure 22 - Estimated grid parity for wholesale onshore wind, EUR per MWh
  • Figure 23 - Properties of the three main offshore installation vessels
  • Figure 24 - Offshore operating conditions
  • Figure 25 - Repowering of the Bassens Windfarm in Lower Saxony, Germany
  • Figure 26 - Estimates new annual EU wind energy capacity, GW, 2000 to 2030
  • Figure 27 - Price of used turbines compared to the price when new as a percentage

Tables

  • Table 1 - Typical capacity factors for different generating technologies
  • Table 2 - Energy storage technologies
  • Table 3 - Estimated date that grid parity will be reached for on and offshore wind
  • Table 4 - Water footprint of different primary energy carriers
  • Table 5 - Advantages and disadvantages of different types of renewable energy
  • Table 6 - Comparison of onshore and offshore wind technologies
  • Table 7 - Suitable ports in Europe for development of offshore wind installations
  • Table 8 - Advantages and Disadvantages of Repowering
  • Table 9 - Recycling of Wind Turbine Components
  • Table 10 - Progress ratios for wind turbines
  • Table 11 - Technology characteristics of wind turbines
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