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市場調查報告書

全球風力產業:2018年

The Global Wind Industry - 2018

出版商 NRG Expert 商品編碼 214309
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 53 Pages
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全球風力產業:2018年 The Global Wind Industry - 2018
出版日期: 2018年10月31日 內容資訊: 英文 53 Pages
簡介

本報告提供全球風力產業調查分析,產業結構,定義,技術,應用,廠商,主要市場預測等系統性資訊。

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 風力發電市場

  • 風力的影響因素的評估
    • 專門用語
    • 需求的變化
    • 基本負載
    • 高峰負荷
    • 中間負擔
    • 間歇性和變動性
    • 設備使用率
    • 電力數量不足概率 (LOLP)
    • 容量信用
    • 操作後備電力
  • 風力發電的問題點
    • 電網的平衡
    • 電網的擴張
    • 貯存
    • 容量信用
    • 供需的不一致
    • 負擔模仿
    • 分散
    • 天氣預報的不足
    • 操作後備電力/支援
    • 尾流(wake)的影響
  • 今後預測
    • EU的風力發電產業的未來的競爭力的投資
    • 對海上開發,更策略性採用協調方法
    • 海上風力最大化環境保護上的優點
    • 未來的電網整合大規模海上風力

第3章 針對再生能源國策

  • 再生能源目標
    • 再生能源支援機制
  • 美國的RPS政策的演進
  • 固定價格買進制度 (FIT) 和RPS比較
    • 投資者的信賴,價格,政策成本
    • 有效性
    • 所有權結構
    • 結論
  • 美國的FIT

第4章 各國風力發電市場與支援計劃:主要市場

  • 中國
  • 美國
  • 德國

第5章 風力產業供應鏈

  • 各產業領域的整合
  • 電力技術產業上供應鏈的背景
    • 原料
    • 前置作業時間
    • 風力發電機的生產能力
  • 地區的供應鏈

第6章 稀土金屬

第7章 運用管理 (O&M)

第8章 能源儲存

  • 機械性貯存
  • 電化學貯存
  • 電磁的貯存
  • 跟新能源的聯軸器

第9章 風力發電的優點和缺點 (與其他能源來源比較)

第10章 海上風力發電

  • 優點
  • 課題
  • 歐洲的海上電網

第11章 再供給

  • 老化渦輪機市場
  • 回收渦輪機

第12章 預測新技術

圖表

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目錄
Product Code: NRGWE3

Wind electricity generation is on the rise in the power generation sector, and NRG Expert's new Wind Industry intelligence product will give you the data and insights that are necessary to understand this growing market. We have researched the wind electricity market to produce an in-depth database and accompanying market research report that focuses on the generation through the use of wind technology. The report and database combine NRG Expert's research abilities with a keen understanding of the power generation landscape to give you a comprehensive look at the sector.

Table of Contents

The Wind Report

1. Executive Summary

  • Wind Power
  • Development
    • Renewables Subsidies
  • Turbine
  • Technology

2. The Market for Wind power

  • An Assessment of Factors Affecting Wind Power Terminology
    • Variations of Demand
    • Base Load
    • Peak Load
    • Intermediate Load
    • Intermittency and Variability
    • Capacity Factor
    • Loss of Load Probability (LOLP)
    • Capacity Credit
    • Spinning Reserve
  • Issues for Wind Power
    • Grid Balancing
    • Grid Extension
    • Storage
    • Capacity Credit
    • Mismatch of Supply and Demand
    • Load Following
    • Dispersion
    • Inadequacy of Weather Forecasting
    • Spinning Reserve/Back-up
    • Wake Effects
  • The Way Forward
    • Investing in the Future Competitiveness of the EU Wind Energy Industry
    • Adopting a More Strategic, Coordinated Approach to Offshore Developments
    • Maximising the Environmental Benefits of Offshore Wind
    • Integrating Large-Scale Offshore Wind in the Grid of the Future

3. National Policies for Renewable Energy

  • Renewable Energy Targets
    • Support Mechanisms for Renewables
  • The Evolution of RPS Policy in the United States
  • Comparison of Feed-in Tariffs and RPS
    • Investor Confidence, Price, and Policy Cost
    • Effectiveness
    • Ownership Structure
    • Conclusion
  • Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

4. National Wind Power Markets and Support Plans; Major Markets

  • China
    • Wind Resources
    • Barriers to growth
    • Offshore Wind Power
  • United States
    • The Start of Wind Power
    • Market Potential
    • Intermittency
    • Low-Speed Wind Technology
    • Cost of Wind Energy Generation
    • Technology Development in the USA
    • Understanding Turbulent Wind Patterns
    • R&D
  • Germany
    • Market Size and Forecast
    • Repowering Trend
    • Government Support and R&D in Germany
    • Stromeinspeisungsgesetz - Electricity Feed Law (EFL)

5. Wind Industry Supply Chain

  • Vertical Integration
  • Background to the Supply Chain in the Electro-Technical Industry
    • Raw Materials
    • Lead Times
    • Wind Turbine Production Capacity
  • Local Supply Chains

6. Rare Earth Metals

7. Operation and Maintenance (O&M)

8. Energy Storage

  • Mechanical Storage
  • Electrochemical Storage
  • Electromagnetic Storage
  • Coupling to New Energies

9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy Compared with Other Forms of Energy

10. Offshore Wind Power

  • The Benefits
    • Higher Wind Speeds
    • More Stable Winds
    • Huge Offshore Wind Resources
    • Low Surface Roughness: Cheaper Turbines
    • Lower Turbulence: Longer Lifetime
    • Shipping and Transport
    • Closer to Demand Centres
    • NIMBY
  • The Challenges
    • Installation Vessels
    • Operation and Maintenance
    • Port Facilities
    • Subsea Cabling
  • A European Offshore Grid

11. Repowering

  • Market for Old Turbines
  • Recycling Turbines

12. Forecasting a new technology - Experience Curves and Progress Ratios (PR)

Figures

  • Figure 1 - Base, Intermediate and Peak Load by time of Day
  • Figure 2 - Capacity factors by month for wind power for Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and Netherlands
  • Figure 3 - Wind Energy Investments in the EU, 2000 to 2030
  • Figure 4 - Distribution of wind turbines in China
  • Figure 5 - Potential output of 1.5 MW wind turbines in China, % of maximum output over time
  • Figure 6 - Offshore Wind Potential along China's East Coast
  • Figure 7 - Wind Resources in the Great Lakes
  • Figure 8 -US Annual Average Wind Speed at 80m
  • Figure 9 - Advanced tower design
  • Figure 10 - Annual onshore and offshore build and repowering in Germany, MW, 1993 to 2030
  • Figure 11 - Cumulative installed capacity, onshore and offshore in Germany, MW, 1993 to 2030
  • Figure 12 - Turbine Parts
  • Figure 13 - How much neodymium will the offshore sector need?
  • Figure 14 - Lifecycle breakdown of wind energy investment project costs, %
  • Figure 15 - Frequency of ‘failure rate' with increasing operational age
  • Figure 16 - Downtime per component failure, days
  • Figure 17 - Weak point analysis for wind turbine subassemblies including failure causes
  • Figure 18 - Estimated investment costs, EUR per kW
  • Figure 19 - Estimated operation and maintenance costs, EUR per kW per annum
  • Figure 20 - Levelised Cost of Electricity, EUR cents per kWh
  • Figure 21 - Estimated grid parity for wholesale onshore wind, EUR per MWh
  • Figure 22 - Estimated grid parity for wholesale onshore wind, EUR per MWh
  • Figure 23 - Properties of the three main offshore installation vessels
  • Figure 24 - Offshore operating conditions
  • Figure 25 - Repowering of the Bassens Windfarm in Lower Saxony, Germany
  • Figure 26 - Estimates new annual EU wind energy capacity, GW, 2000 to 2030
  • Figure 27 - Price of used turbines compared to the price when new as a percentage

Tables

  • Table 1 - Typical capacity factors for different generating technologies
  • Table 2 - Energy storage technologies
  • Table 3 - Estimated date that grid parity will be reached for on and offshore wind
  • Table 4 - Water footprint of different primary energy carriers
  • Table 5 - Advantages and disadvantages of different types of renewable energy
  • Table 6 - Comparison of onshore and offshore wind technologies
  • Table 7 - Suitable ports in Europe for development of offshore wind installations
  • Table 8 - Advantages and Disadvantages of Repowering
  • Table 9 - Recycling of Wind Turbine Components
  • Table 10 - Progress ratios for wind turbines
  • Table 11 - Technology characteristics of wind turbines
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