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Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemicals Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology: Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development

出版商 Nova-Institut GmbH 商品編碼 984463
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 140 Pages
提取、化學合成、生物科技的大麻素生產:目前技術,潛在性和缺點,未來的開發 Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemicals Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology: Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development
出版日期: 2021年01月20日內容資訊: 英文 140 Pages



第1章 摘要整理

第2章 大麻素:基本

  • 定義和級
  • 大麻素的作用機制和內生性大麻素系統 (ECS)
  • 藥理作用:概要
  • 天然合成

第3章 最尖端的工業用大麻素的提取與生產

  • 植物提取與濃縮流程
  • 化學合成

第4章 生物科技的大麻素合成

  • 真核生物
  • 細菌
  • 無細胞
  • 生物科技生產的現在優點和缺點

第5章 大麻素的生產與使用相關EU的法律規範

第6章 最尖端 vs. 未來 - 大麻素的生物科技生產的潛在性

第7章 致力於大麻素生產的企業

  • 植物提取
  • 化學合成
    • CBDepot, s.r.o
    • Chanelle McCoy CBD LTD
    • Cibdol AG
  • 生物科技生產
    • Amyris, Inc.
    • Demetrix, Inc.
    • Enzymogen Ltd.
    • Ginkgo Bioworks
    • Hyasynth Biologicals, Inc.
    • InMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
    • Invizyne Technologies, Inc.
    • Levadura Biotechnology, Inc.
    • Lygos Cbx (Librede, Inc.)
    • Maku Technologies, Inc.
    • Octarine Bio
    • Precigen, Inc. (formerly Intrexon Corp.)
    • Renew BioPharma, Inc.
    • Synbionik GmbH
    • Teewinot Life Sciences Corp.
    • Vitality Biopharma, Inc.
    • Willow Biosciences

第8章 簡稱的清單

第9章 參考文件


The new report "Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology - Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development" provides all information on production technologies, medical applications and political framework conditions. The Report will guide you through the complex synthesis of cannabinoids, state-of-the-art methods for extraction and production and will extensively show the major hidden potential and synergistic effects of biotechnological cannabinoid production. The report is aimed at experts in the pharmaceutical and biotech industry and provides deep insights into (bio)chemical reactions, processes and producers. The main authors are biotechnology experts and physicians from the nova-Institute, Dr. Pia Skoczinski and Dr. med. Franjo Grotenhermen, and the chemist Dr. rer. nat. Bernhard Beitzke, who has been advising the "European Industrial Hemp Association" (EIHA) as an expert for years. The 142-page technology report provides in-depth information on established and emerging biotechnological approaches on the production of cannabinoids, as well as an overview on the state-of-the-art production methods using plant extraction and chemical synthesis. An extensive description of pharmacological effects, therapeutic potential and medicinal applications for δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), together with a short excursus on the EU regulatory framework for cannabinoids, conclude this comprehensive study. Additionally, 59 companies active in cannabinoid production are listed, from which 20 specialised in biotechnological production and chemical synthesis are described in detail.

Cannabis sativa as one of the oldest and most versatile cultivated plants has been used by humans for over 5,000 years, ranging from fibre production over seeds for food and feed, as well as oils for food and technical applications to medicinal use of cannabinoids for the treatment of pain, depression and nausea among a variety of other symptoms. After 60 years of being listed as a Schedule IV controlled substance, also referred to as the "prohibition schedule", the UN has removed Cannabis and Cannabis resin from this list. In addition, natural CBD, first announced to might qualify as a narcotic under the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, has been declared to be not considered as such by the European Commission. These decisions will enable and drive further research to access the full medicinal potential.

Cannabinoids are one of the best-known and extensively studied classes of secondary metabolites from C. sativa. For 40 years δ9-THC is classified as a narcotic drug and authorised by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medicinal product for medical issues and uses, such as side effects of cancer chemotherapy and loss of appetite with weight loss in HIV/AIDS patients. On the other hand, the non-psychotropic CBD is assumed to currently account for 50 % of the global hemp industry revenue, expecting this CBD market to grow globally up to USD 3.5 billion in 2024. Besides these two commonly known cannabinoids, about 120 different cannabinoids have been identified in total in C. sativa.

Targeted biotechnological synthesis of the currently known 120 different cannabinoids that are only represented in small amounts in the plant can circumvent the current limits of unveiling the pharmacological profile and effects.

Biotechnological production routes and resulting synergistic effects with current state-of-the-art extraction and production processes will enable the elucidation of possible further beneficial effects of these molecules, that are currently unknown. Biotechnological production of cannabinoids can be achieved in many different ways: In eukaryotes, such as plants, algae, eukaryotic cell cultures and yeast, but also in prokaryotes, such as bacteria, or in enzymatic cell-free systems. Natural cannabinoid synthesis in C. sativa is performed via a complex pathway system that combines enzymes, products and intermediates from three different pathways.

What is the current status of plant extraction and chemical synthesis? What requirements are needed for biotechnological cannabinoid production? What is the most promising production host? What are the advantages and disadvantages of plant extraction, chemical synthesis and biotechnological cannabinoid production? Does biotechnology have the potential to provide rare cannabinoids in significant amounts? Which synergies might emerge with these three production routes and how can they drive the future development of cannabinoid production?

The answers to these questions and the current state of biotechnological cannabinoid production, as well as plant extraction and chemical synthesis have been extensively reviewed and finally compared to show general technology-related claims and to elaborate the potential of biotechnological cannabinoid production, possible synergistic effects of all three production routes and to outline the future development of cannabinoid production.

Nova technology reports and market studies are built on top of latest insights from market experts, thorough research and a large number of individual interviews with industry players to ensure highest quality of the available market data.

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary

2 Cannabinoids - The Basics

  • 2.1 Definition and classes
  • 2.2 Cannabinoids mode of action and the endocannabinoid system (ECS)
    • 2.2.1 First steps in the study of the endocannabinoid system
    • 2.2.2 Cannabinoid receptors
    • 2.2.3 The functioning of endocannabinoids
    • 2.2.4 Synthesis and hydrolysis of endocannabinoids
    • 2.2.5 Less well-researched endocannabinoids
    • 2.2.6 Functions of endocannabinoids
  • 2.3 Pharmacological effects - An overview
    • 2.3.1 Effects on the human system
    • 2.3.2 Health benefits and medical uses
    • 2.3.3 Adverse effects
  • 2.4 Natural cannabinoid synthesis
    • 2.4.1 Divarinolic acid (C3)-based synthesis
    • 2.4.2 Olivetolic acid (C5)-based synthesis

3 State-of-the-Art industrial cannabinoid extraction and production

  • 3.1 Plant extraction and enrichment process
  • 3.2 Chemical synthesis

4 Biotechnological cannabinoid synthesis

  • 4.1 Eukaryotic cannabinoid synthesis
    • 4.1.1 Homologous synthesis in Cannabis sativa
    • 4.1.2 Heterologous synthesis in Nicotiana
    • 4.1.3 Alternative heterologous eukaryotic platform organisms
    • 4.1.4 Heterologous synthesis in yeast
  • 4.2 Bacterial cannabinoid synthesis
    • 4.2.1 Escherichia coli
  • 4.3 Cell-free cannabinoid synthesis
  • 4.4 Current advantages and disadvantages in biotechnological cannabinoid production

5 EU regulatory framework for cannabinoid production and use

6 State-of-the-Art vs. Future - The potential of biotechnological cannabinoid production

7 Companies active in cannabinoid production

  • 7.1 Plant extraction
  • 7.2 Chemical synthesis
    • 7.2.1 CBDepot, s.r.o
    • 7.2.2 Chanelle McCoy CBD LTD
    • 7.2.3 Cibdol AG
  • 7.3 Biotechnological production
    • 7.3.1 Amyris, Inc.
    • 7.3.2 Demetrix, Inc.
    • 7.3.3 Enzymogen Ltd.
    • 7.3.4 Ginkgo Bioworks
    • 7.3.5 Hyasynth Biologicals, Inc.
    • 7.3.6 InMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
    • 7.3.7 Invizyne Technologies, Inc.
    • 7.3.8 Levadura Biotechnology, Inc.
    • 7.3.9 Lygos Cbx™ (Librede, Inc.)
    • 7.3.10 Maku Technologies, Inc.
    • 7.3.11 Octarine Bio
    • 7.3.12 Precigen, Inc. (formerly Intrexon Corp.)
    • 7.3.13 Renew BioPharma, Inc.
    • 7.3.14 Synbionik GmbH
    • 7.3.15 Teewinot Life Sciences Corp.
    • 7.3.16 Vitality Biopharma, Inc.
    • 7.3.17 Willow Biosciences

8 List of Acronyms

9 References