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United States Smart Infrastructure: LED and Smart Street Lighting

出版商 Northeast Group, LLC 商品編碼 269953
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 121 Pages
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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美國的智慧基本設備:LED及智慧型路燈 United States Smart Infrastructure: LED and Smart Street Lighting
出版日期: 2012年10月01日 內容資訊: 英文 121 Pages




第1章 智慧基本設備的簡介

第2章 LED及智慧型路燈的優點:概要

  • LED路燈照明的背景·與其他技術的比較
  • LED的成本節約可能性
  • 先進「智慧」路燈照明功能

第3章 調查分析:美國的LED及智慧型路燈的現狀

  • LED路燈照明的能源·維修成本的節約
  • LED路燈照明資金
  • LED路燈照明安裝的規模
  • LED路燈照明的民眾反應
  • 關注「智慧」路燈照明功能

第4章 LED及智慧型路燈系統的現在課題

  • 城市vs.公共企業的路燈照明所有權
  • 包含照明調光的法律問題

第5章 相關案例研究

  • 查塔努加
  • 洛杉磯
  • 聖約瑟
  • 西雅圖

第6章 LED及智慧型路燈市場預測

  • LED及智慧型路燈的引進步調
  • LED及智慧型路燈的引進成本
  • LED路燈照明市場預測
  • 智慧型路燈市場預測

第7章 供應商

  • Cooper
  • Cree
  • Echelon
  • GE
  • Global Green Lighting
  • Holophane
  • Leotek
  • LSI
  • Philips
  • Schreder
  • Sensus
  • Additional vendors

第8章 結論

第9章 附錄




Lighting Light---Emitting Diode (LED) streetlights are quickly transforming the landscape of cities and municipalities across the United States, but still only make up about 1% of the country's more than 50 million streetlights. The next step of advanced smart lighting systems will improve upon the existing benefits of LED streetlights and contribute to cities' growing "smart infrastructure." This study identified nearly 400 US cities and towns that range from those having considered LED streetlights to those having completed changeovers and experimented with advanced smart lighting systems. After receiving responses from nearly 100 cities and municipalities, Northeast Group's survey results show that LED streetlights are well liked by nearly all stakeholders, that they provide significant cost savings, and that there is growing interest in smart lighting systems.


The Northeast Group survey confirms what many LED vendors and consultants have already claimed: the cost savings of LEDs are real and so are the benefits. LED streetlights can improve overall lighting quality while paying for themselves over time. But this report also produced more nuanced findings. For example, energy cost savings on average were reported to be slightly lower than some manufacturers claim and the payback time for installations is highly dependent on context - in many cases the maintenance cost savings are actually the decisive factor rather than energy cost savings.

Additionally, while LED streetlights in almost all cases would pay for themselves before the end of the lifetime of the streetlight, the high upfront costs have meant that many cities were only able to begin installations with the help of federal and state grant money. With the future of these grants uncertain, this casts some doubt on the near---term future of the market. The near---term market for advanced smart lighting systems is even less clear as many cities expressed liability concerns over streetlight dimming and cost---savings analyses are currently less favorable for smart streetlights.


The LED and smart streetlight market is currently at an inflection point. Hundreds of deployments over the past three years have brought this market to the forefront and organizations such as the Department of Energy's Municipal Solid--- State Street Lighting Consortium are ensuring that key learnings from these projects are spread. Meanwhile, the long--- term drivers of reducing energy consumption, improving lighting quality, and incorporating lighting into larger smart grid and smart infrastructure systems ensure that this will be a growing market throughout much of this decade. This report provides a snapshot of the current status of both LED and smart streetlights and finds a degree of divergence between the positive response to existing installations and some hesitancy about the future. The results of Northeast Group's survey show that there are no longer significant concerns about public skepticism towards the new lights or about the durability or performance of LED streetlights. In almost all cases cities found few technical issues with LED streetlights and the public reaction was overwhelmingly positive. Yet, the survey also shows that cities remain concerned about financing for future deployments, utility commitment to implementing LED streetlight rates, and standards for smart streetlight systems.

The LED and smart streetlight markets are at a critical juncture where cities, state and federal governments, and vendors need to assess what has been successful with existing deployments and what hurdles remain. This report focuses a wide lens at the experiences of towns and cities with populations from under 5,000 to nearly 4 million people to assess how this largely untapped market will develop over the next decade and beyond.


Key questions answered in this report:

  • What were the average energy and maintenance cost savings for cities and municipalities implementing LED and smart streetlight projects?
  • What are the typical break even periods for these projects?
  • What are the primary financing mechanisms for these deployments?
  • How large will the LED and smart streetlight markets be through 2025?
  • Who are the leading vendors in the US LED market and who is poised to lead the growing smart streetlight market?
  • Which cities are leading the way in smart streetlight installations and how can other cities emulate them?
  • How will smart streetlights fit into larger smart infrastructure plans?

Table of Contents

i. Executive summary

ii. Methodology

1. Introduction to smart infrastructure

  • 1.1 What makes infrastructure "smart?"
  • 1.2 Smart infrastructure applications
  • 1.3 How do smart infrastructure applications build on each other?

2. Overview of LED and smart streetlight benefits

  • 2.1 Background of LED streetlights and comparison to other technologies
  • 2.2 Cost savings potential of LEDs
  • 2.3 Advanced "smart" lighting features

3. Survey analysis: the current status of LED and smart streetlights in the US

  • 3.1 Energy and maintenance cost savings from LED streetlights
  • 3.2 Financing LED streetlights
  • 3.3 Scale of LED streetlight installations
  • 3.4 Public reaction to LED streetlights
  • 3.5 Interest in "smart" streetlight features

4. Contested issues in LED and smart streetlight systems

  • 4.1 City vs. utility streetlight ownership
  • 4.2 Legal issues involving dimmed streetlights

5. Case studies

  • 5.1 Chattanooga
  • 5.2 Los Angeles
  • 5.3 San Jose
  • 5.4 Seattle

6. LED and smart streetlight market forecast

  • 6.1 LED and smart streetlight deployment pace
  • 6.2 Cost of LED and smart streetlight deployments
  • 6.3 LED streetlight market forecast
  • 6.4 Smart streetlight market forecast

7. Vendors

  • 7.1 Cooper
  • 7.2 Cree
  • 7.3 Echelon
  • 7.4 GE
  • 7.5 Global Green Lighting
  • 7.6 Holophane
  • 7.7 Leotek
  • 7.8 LSI
  • 7.9 Philips
  • 7.10 Schreder
  • 7.11 Sensus
  • 7.12 Additional vendors

8. Conclusion

9. Appendix

  • 9.1 Cities responding to municipal street lighting survey
  • 9.2 Cities identified as having considered LED streetlights
  • 9.3 Companies covered in this report
  • 9.4 List of acronyms

List of Figures, Boxes, and Tables

  • Survey highlights
  • LED and smart streetlights: key takeaways
  • Combined LED and smart streetlight market forecast
  • LED and smart streetlight market forecast data
  • Table 1.1: Smart infrastructure market segments
  • Figure 1.1: Smart infrastructure overview
  • Table 1.2: Communications technologies
  • Figure 1.2: Smart grid value chain
  • Table 2.1: LED streetlight benefits
  • Table 2.2: Different types of streetlight luminaires
  • Table 2.3: HPS to LED wattage cross---reference
  • Table 2.4: Payback on Ann Arbor's LED streetlight program
  • Figure 2.1: Payback on Ann Arbor's LED streetlight program
  • Table 2.5: Simple payback on replacement of 4---year HPS streetlights
  • Figure 2.2: Adjusted payback on replacement LED streetlights in Ann Arbor
  • Table 2.6: Simple payback 4---year lifetime HPS replacement and higher energy costs
  • Figure 2.3: Payback on replacement LED streetlights assuming higher energy costs
  • Table 2.7: Summary of payback in LED cost---benefit examples
  • Figure 2.4: Conservative estimate of payback with dimming
  • Table 2.8: Conservative estimate of payback with dimming
  • Figure 2.5: Payback with better scaled dimming
  • Table 2.9: Estimate of payback with better scaled dimming
  • Figure 2.6: Payback with better scaled dimming and higher energy prices
  • Table 2.10: Estimate of payback with better scaled dimming and higher energy prices
  • Table 2.11: Summary of payback in smart lighting cost---benefit examples
  • Figure 3.1: LED streetlight projects in the US
  • Table 3.1: Northeast Group municipal streetlight survey summary
  • Figure 3.2: Average energy savings from LEDs
  • Figure 3.3: Reported energy savings from LEDs
  • Figure 3.4: Cities with access to LED streetlight rates
  • Figure 3.5: LED streetlight financing
  • Figure 3.6: Percentage streetlights converted to LED
  • Figure 3.7: Completion of LED streetlight projects
  • Figure 3.8: Interest in "smart" streetlight features
  • Table 4.1: Streetlight ownership models
  • Figure 4.1: Major investor---owned utilities offering LED rates
  • Box 4.1: Calculating streetlight flat rates at PG&E
  • Box 4.2 Traditional and decoupled rate making
  • Figure 4.2: States with electric decoupling
  • Box 4.3: Hypothetical streetlight decoupling example
  • Figure 4.3: Legal framework for assessing liability of streetlights
  • Table 4.2: Dimming criteria for the standard IESNA RP---8---05
  • Table 5.1: Summary of case studies
  • Table 5.2: Payback on LED and smart systems in Chattanooga
  • Figure 5.1: Payback on Chattanooga's smart streetlight project
  • Table 5.3: Payback on Los Angeles' LED streetlight program
  • Figure 5.2: Payback on Los Angeles' LED streetlight program
  • Table 5.4: Cost breakdown of San Jose's smart lighting system
  • Table 5.5: Payback on San Jose's smart streetlight program
  • Figure 5.3: Payback on San Jose's first 2,100 smart streetlights
  • Table 5.6: Seattle vendor selection cost analysis
  • Figure 5.4: Cost of different streetlight manufacturers in Seattle
  • Figure 5.5: Price per streetlight of Seattle's LED streetlight project
  • Figure 5.6: Payback on Seattle's LED streetlight project
  • Table 5.7: Payback on Seattle's LED streetlight project
  • Figure 6.1: Annual investment in LED and smart streetlights
  • Figure 6.2: Common types of streetlight fixtures
  • Figure 6.3: Price range for different watt LED streetlights in municipal survey
  • Figure 6.4: Average cost of sub---100 W cobra head LED streetlights
  • Figure 6.5: Average cost per streetlight of smart streetlight projects
  • Figure 6.6: Detailed LED streetlight market forecast
  • Table 6.1: LED streetlight forecast data
  • Figure 6.7: LED streetlight penetration rate
  • Table 6.2: LED and smart streetlight market drives and barriers
  • Table 6.3: Smart streetlight forecast data
  • Figure 6.8: Smart streetlight market forecast
  • Figure 7.1: Market share of leading LED streetlight vendors in municipal lighting survey
  • Figure 7.2: LED vendors by number of cities served
  • Table 7.1: Leading LED and smart streetlight vendors
  • Table 7.2: Vendors in largest US LED streetlight projects
  • Table 7.3: Additional vendors in the US LED streetlight market

Companies covered in this report

  • American Electric Lighting
  • Amerlux
  • Arizona Public Service Co
  • Cooper Lighting
  • Cree
  • Detroit Edison
  • Dialight
  • Duke Energy
  • Duralight
  • Echelon
  • Ecofit
  • ESL Spectrum
  • GE
  • Georgia Power
  • Global Green Lighting
  • Greenstar
  • Holophane
  • Kansas City Light & Power
  • Kim
  • King
  • LED Roadway
  • Leotek
  • Lighting Science
  • LSI
  • Omega Pacific
  • Pacific Gas & Electric
  • Portland General Electric
  • Progress Energy
  • Ringdale
  • San Diego Gas & Electric
  • Schreder
  • Sensus
  • Southern California Edison
  • Sternberg
  • Sylvania
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