Cell Surface Markers Detection Market - Growth, Trends, COVID-19 Impact, and Forecasts (2022 - 2027)
The cell surface markers detection market was estimated to register a CAGR of 8.2% during the forecast period.
The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have a significant impact on the market. Cell surface markers refer to carbohydrates and proteins that are attached to the cell membrane, thus, allowing cell surface markers to play a crucial role in intercellular signaling. Many research projects are being carried out that involve the interaction of COVID-19 antibodies with cell surface markers. For example, in February 2021, a research article titled 'COVID-19 Impairs Immune Response to Candida Albicans' was published in Frontiers in Immunology. The research paper studied and compared the cell surface marker expression on the monocytes of COVID-19 patients with healthy controls. The study found an increased rate of fungal coinfections during COVID-19 in patients. The rate of secondary fungal infections increases in many COVID-19 patients due to their decrease in immunity. Thus, the use of cell surface markers to study fungal infection is expected to boost growth. Such initiatives help to drive a better understanding of the disease leading to innovative ways to find a cure. More such research projects are being conducted across the globe, where cell surface markers are used to study the effect of COVID-19. Thus, developments such as these are expected to boost market growth.
The major factors that are driving the market growth include the increasing demand for precision medicine, increased use of diagnostics, and technological advances related to increased throughput and automation. For example, over 200 cell-surface markers have been identified as being overexpressed in lung cancers. These include markers like Cytokeratin fragment 21-1 and EGFR gene mutation. Diagnostic procedures are used to detect the presence of tumor cells in the blood through these markers. An increase in the number of cancer cases worldwide is expected to positively impact the demand for biomarkers, thus boosting the growth of the cell surface markers detection market. For instance, according to the Globocan 2020 report, the total number of breast cancer in 2020 was 2,261,419, followed by lung cancer at 2,206,771 cases and prostate cancer at 1,414,259 cases. Since cell surface markers serve as monograms to help identify and classify cells, the proteins expressed on the surface of cancerous cells serve as markers of specific tumor types. This molecule identification helps in disease diagnoses, to find direct treatment for the disease, drug discovery, and has many other uses. This is expected to boost the market growth. There are many companies that are involved in marker preparation which is likely to boost the market growth. For instance, Becton, Dickinson, and Company manufacture the BD Lyoplate Human Cell Surface Marker Screening Panel for use in research laboratories. The BD Lyoplate Human Cell Surface Marker Screening panel can be used for screening primary cells or tissues and cell lines, and it is compatible for use with flow cytometry and bioimaging technology platforms. Such innovative products with a wide variety of applications are expected to boost the market growth.
The flow cytometry technique is used to detect the presence of cell types within a population. It is conducted by passing single cells through a highly focused laser. Antibodies that are specific to cell surface markers of interest are added to a sample and are then allowed to bind with the cells. These antibodies are coupled with fluorochromes which have a characteristic of emitting light at various wavelengths. The cell population is then passed through a laser, and the process excites the fluorochromes and captures the light that is emitted. The cells can then be subsequently sorted into subpopulations based on the markers present through a series of histograms, and dot plots called a gating strategy. Cell surface markers expressed on the cell surface can be used to define cell subtypes and function when they are labeled with fluorescent-labeled antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry. Clinical flow cytometry has the capacity to identify and quantify intracellular proteins associated with immune function. Cell surface-based flow cytometry is able to detect rare events. Thus it is used extensively for detecting stem cells or cancerous cells. For example, cell surface-based flow cytometry can be used to detect CD341 hematopoietic stem cells in peripheral blood under resting conditions. It can also be used to evaluate minimal residual disease in patients with hematologic malignancy, such as hairy cell leukemia.
The role of flow cytometry has broadened to include the study of immune system disorders, including primary immunodeficiency disorders, by using cell surface markers. For instance, cell-surface staining by using flow cytometry is often used for investigating lymphocyte clonality. T-cell clonality studies are particularly useful in the evaluation of primary immunodeficiency disorders associated with a restricted T-cell. According to a study titled, 'Flow cytometry: Surface markers and beyond' published in JACI Online in 2019, the application of flow cytometry as a clinical laboratory method has evolved from the identification of cell-surface markers to characterizing intracellular proteins and providing multiple different approaches to assess immune function and characterizing and diagnosing immunologic disorders. Flow cytometry is used extensively in diagnosing cancer. Since the countries with a high Human Development Index (HDI) invest more in healthcare, there is a greater number of cancer diagnostic tests that are conducted, and more cancer cases are detected in these countries (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2020). This is likely to boost the market growth.
The North American region is the largest market for cell surface markers. Rapidly growing applications in disease diagnostics, the presence of well-established research institutions, and the biotech industry are primary reasons behind the large market size. The United States currently dominates the market for cell surface marker detection in North America and is expected to continue its stronghold for a few more years. High healthcare expenditure, a high technological adaptation rate, and an increasing focus on precise and timely diagnostics are driving the market growth in the United States. The United States has many companies operating in this sector, due to which demand from the country is expected to be robust during the forecast period. Some of the United States-specific companies include Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Cofactor Genomics Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Beckman Coulter Inc., and many others. The increased product launches by these players are expected to boost the market growth. For example, in November 2020, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., a United States-based research and clinical diagnostic company, launched three StarBright Dyes specifically developed for flow cytometry. The dyes include StarBright Blue 700, StarBright Violet 440, and StarBright Violet 610, and they are fluorescent nanoparticles that are conjugated to Bio-Rad's flow antibodies, providing maximal brightness and improved resolution. They can be used for detecting surface proteins in market detection. Initiatives like these by major players are likely to boost growth.
The cell surface markers detection market is comprised of many global players, especially on the instrument front. These companies include Becton, Dickinson and Company, Nihon Kohden Corporation, Luminex Corporation, Sysmex Corporation, and Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., among others. Several biotech startups, however, are active in the reagent, consumables, and other niche fields. There is an ongoing trend of further consolidation, with the acquisition of new technology being a major focus. There are also some instances of acquisition of product lines and brands between key market participants.