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A Guide to Processors for Wireless Base Stations, Fourth Edition

出版商 Linley Group 商品編碼 302676
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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無線基地台處理器 A Guide to Processors for Wireless Base Stations, Fourth Edition
出版日期: 2016年12月31日 內容資訊: 英文


本報告提供3G (UMTS) 、4G (LTE) 技術概要,以蜂巢式網路,基礎技術,關聯的半導體技術為焦點,基地台處理器影響市場的主要技術、商務趨勢相關驗證、主要供應商的企業文件、基地台處理器比較等,有系統的資訊。

第1章 蜂巢式網路概要

第2章 行動電話技術

第3章 基地台處理器

第4章 技術與市場趨勢

第5章 Broadcom

第6章 Cavium

第7章 Freescale

第8章 Intel

第9章 Texas Instruments

第10章 Qualcomm

第11章 處理器比較

第12章 結論



As smartphone users consume ever-increasing amounts of wireless data, operators are upgrading their networks to support LTE and LTE-Advanced. They are also deploying small-cell base stations to increase network capacity in congested areas and to extend coverage in sparsely covered areas.

Revenues are not necessarily increasing commensurately with bandwidth demand, however. The budget pressure on operators is in turn squeezing base-station OEMs. Fortunately, the onward march of Moore's Law and the trend toward smaller base stations are enabling semiconductor suppliers to integrate major baseband-processing functions in a single SoC.

In an effort to improve their return on investments, operators are looking at offloading cellular traffic to unlicensed spectrum. Chip vendors are taking different approaches to using this spectrum. At the same time, software-defined technologies and virtualization are changing traditional infrastructure equipment. The approach for base stations by each vendor differs in important ways. In some cases, vendors have made strategic decisions on the level of investment by the specific wireless infrastructure market segment. A Guide to Processors for Wireless Base Stations brings clarity to this evolving landscape by analyzing trends, describing the base-station processors, and drawing conclusions about the chip vendors and their products.

The report begins with an overview of 3G (UMTS) and 4G (LTE) technology, highlighting the aspects of the cellular network, the underlying communication technology, and relevant semiconductor technologies. We examine various options for using unlicensed spectrum to augment cellular communications. Another chapter discusses the major technology and business trends affecting the market for base-station processors, providing insight into the market's evolution. We examine new 5G technologies and make forecasts for residential, enterprise, and macro base stations. We also break down shipments of integrated base-station processors by vendor and project the potential revenue of this segment through 2020.

Following these introductory chapters, the report covers the major suppliers of base-station processors: Broadcom, Cavium, Intel, NXP (which acquired Freescale), Qualcomm, and Texas Instruments. We provide a synopsis of their business, explain their products' key features, and draw conclusions about their competitive standing and the types of designs for which their offerings are best suited. We also discuss the internal architecture of their processors, system-design considerations, and their likely product roadmaps.

We then dedicate a chapter to detailed head-to-head comparisons of some popular base-station processors. The report concludes with our outlook for the leading vendors.

As the leading analysts covering high-performance communications chips, The Linley Group has the expertise to deliver a comprehensive look at integrated base-station processors. Coauthors Jag Bolaria and Tom R. Halfhill use their broad experience in communications semiconductors and embedded processors to deliver the technical and strategic information you need to make informed business decisions.

This report is written for:

  • Engineers who need to select processors to design 3G and 4G (LTE) base stations
  • Marketing and engineering staff at companies that sell base-station processors, design services, or software that runs on base stations
  • Technology professionals who want an introduction to cellular base-station technology
  • Financial analysts who desire a detailed analysis and comparison of base-station processor vendors and their chances of success
  • Press and public-relations professionals who need to get up to speed on base-station technology

What's New in This Edition

  • Broadcom's new direction in small-cell processors
  • Cavium rolls out new Octeon Fusion M processors
  • NXP's direction after acquiring Freescale's QorIQ Qonverge family
  • Qualcomm's pending acquisition of NXP
  • Intel's focus on small-cell processors and Cloud RAN
  • Qualcomm's residential wins at T-Mobile and pending merger with NXP's QorIQ Qonverge family
  • Texas Instruments' revised strategy for KeyStone processors
  • Market forecasts through 2020
  • 2015 market shares for integrated base-station processors
  • Evolving 5G technologies and early market movers
  • New cellular standards for unlicensed spectrum and their market implications
  • Updated head-to-head comparisons of processors for 4G small cells

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

About the Authors

About the Publisher


Executive Summary

1. Cellular Networks

  • Cellular Standards
  • 3G Cellular Networks
  • LTE Cellular Networks
  • Base Stations
    • Types of Cellular Base Stations
    • Base-Station Anatomy

2. Cellular Technology

  • Cellular Protocols
    • 3G Technologies
    • 3.5G Technologies
    • 4G Technologies
    • 3GPP Release 11
    • 3GPP Release 12
    • 3GPP Release 13
    • LTE-Unlicensed
    • MulteFire
    • Future 5G Standard
  • Layer 2 and Above
  • Physical Layer
    • LTE Downlink
    • LTE Uplink
    • WCDMA
    • MIMO

3. Base-Station Processors

  • What Is a Base-Station Processor?
    • What Is Not a Base-Station Processor
  • Common Characteristics
    • DSPs
    • DSP Accelerators
    • CPUs
    • Packet-Processing Accelerators
    • RF Interfaces
    • Backhaul Interfaces
    • System Interfaces
  • Base-Station System Design

4. Market and Technology Trends

  • Technology Trends
    • Network Capacity
    • TDD vs. FDD
    • Heterogeneous Networks
    • Distributed Antenna Systems (DASs)
    • Wi-Fi Offload and Unlicensed Spectrum
    • Wireless Backhaul
    • Cloud RAN
    • ASICs vs. ASSPs
    • 5G Technology
    • Expanding 5G Spectrum
    • 5G Enabling New Applications
    • Transition to 5G
  • Market Trends
    • Macro Base Stations
    • Small Cells
    • Wireless-Base-Station Market Share

5. Broadcom

  • Company Background
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

6. Cavium

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
  • Internal Architecture
    • CPU Architecture
    • DSP Architecture
    • PHY and MAC
  • System Design
  • Developer Tools
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

7. Intel

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
    • Transcede Processors
    • PC3008 Processor
  • Internal Architecture
    • Transcede Processors
    • PC3008 Processor
  • System Design
  • Developer Tools
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

8. NXP

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
    • QorIQ Qonverge BSC913x Processors
    • QorIQ Qonverge B4860 and B4420 Processors
  • Internal Architecture
  • System Design
  • Developer Tools
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

9. Qualcomm

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
  • Internal Architecture
    • Cellular Modems
    • ARM-Compatible CPUs
    • ARM Cortex-A7
    • Hexagon DSP
  • System Design
  • Developer Tools
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

10. Texas Instruments

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
    • KeyStone I Processors
    • KeyStone II Processors
  • Internal Architecture
  • System Design
  • Developer Tools
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

11. Processor Comparisons

  • Processors for 4G Metrocells and Macrocells
  • Processors for 4G Picocells
  • Processors for 4G Femtocells

12. Conclusions

  • Vendor Outlook
    • Cavium
    • Intel
    • NXP
    • Qualcomm
    • Other Vendors
  • Closing Thoughts

Appendix: Further Reading


List of Figures:

  • Figure 1-1. 3G cellular network topology.
  • Figure 1-2. LTE cellular network topology.
  • Figure 1-3. Simplified block diagram of a base station.
  • Figure 2-1. Dual connectivity enables heterogeneous networks.
  • Figure 2-2. Downlink map of LTE logical, transport, and physical channels.
  • Figure 2-3. Layer 2 downlink architecture for LTE.
  • Figure 2-4. OFDM subcarriers.
  • Figure 2-5. Resource blocks in an LTE data stream.
  • Figure 2-6. Block diagram of LTE downlink signal chain (transmitter side).
  • Figure 2-7. Block diagram of WCDMA downlink signal chain. (transmitter side)
  • Figure 3-1. Two contrasting designs for LTE base stations.
  • Figure 4-1. Heterogeneous cellular network.
  • Figure 4-2. Forecast of mobile subscriptions by radio technology, 2012-2022.
  • Figure 4-3. Forecast of macrocell-base-station shipments, 2014-2020.
  • Figure 4-4. Forecast of small-cell base-station shipments, 2014-2020.
  • Figure 4-5. Forecast of base-station revenue, 2015-2020.
  • Figure 4-6. Worldwide revenue market share of the top four vendors of integrated base-station processors, 2014 and 2015.
  • Figure 6-1. Block diagram of Cavium Fusion-M CNF7500.
  • Figure 6-2. Memory architecture of Octeon Fusion-M's DSP subsystem.
  • Figure 6-3. Base station using Cavium Octeon Fusion-M.
  • Figure 7-1. Block diagram of Intel Transcede T21xx.
  • Figure 7-2. Block diagram of MAP vector unit.
  • Figure 7-3. Block diagram of Intel PC3008.
  • Figure 8-1. Block diagram of NXP QorIQ Qonverge B4860.
  • Figure 8-2. Block diagram of an LTE macrocell base station using Qonverge B4860.
  • Figure 9-1. Block diagram of Qualcomm Krait CPU.
  • Figure 9-2. Block diagram of Qualcomm Hexagon DSP.
  • Figure 9-3. Block diagram of Qualcomm FSM9955 in a 2x2 MIMO enterprise base station.
  • Figure 10-1. Block diagram of Texas Instruments KeyStone II TCI6636.
  • Figure 10-2. Block diagram of a base-station design using a TI KeyStone II processor.

List of Tables:

  • Table 2-1. Cellular technologies and data rates.
  • Table 2-2. LTE and LTE-A user-equipment (UE) categories.
  • Table 2-3. Summary of 3GPP releases.
  • Table 2-4. 3GPP Release 11 carrier aggregation.
  • Table 2-5. Comparison of 5GHz protocol features.
  • Table 6-1. Key parameters for Cavium Octeon Fusion-M processors.
  • Table 7-1. Key parameters for Intel Transcede processors.
  • Table 7-2. Key parameters for Intel PC3008 processor.
  • Table 8-1. Key parameters for NXP Qonverge BSC913x processors.
  • Table 8-2. Key parameters for NXP Qonverge B4860 and B4420 processors.
  • Table 9-1. Key parameters for selected Qualcomm FSM processors.
  • Table 10-1. Key parameters for TI KeyStone TCI6614 processor.
  • Table 10-2. Key parameters for TI KeyStone II processors.
  • Table 11-1. Comparison of processors for 4G macrocells and metrocells.
  • Table 11-2. Comparison of processors for 4G picocells.
  • Table 11-3. Comparison of processors for 4G enterprise femtocells.
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