NEWS: 公告在東京證券交易所JASDAQ標準市場新上市

表紙
市場調查報告書

2021-2031年可持續替代燃料

Sustainable Alternative Fuels 2021-2031

出版商 IDTechEx Ltd. 商品編碼 988579
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 271 Slides
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
價格
2021-2031年可持續替代燃料 Sustainable Alternative Fuels 2021-2031
出版日期: 2021年02月12日內容資訊: 英文 271 Slides
簡介

標題
可持續發展的替代燃料2021-2031
生物燃料,可再生柴油,可持續航空燃料,電子燃料,綠色氨,技術,參與者,市場。

全球能源消耗的增長導致CO2和GHG排放量增加,進而導致全球平均溫度升高。包括煤炭,石油和天然氣在內的化石燃料的燃燒一直是其背後的主要驅動力,為非化石替代燃料的生產和使用提供了潛在的驅動力,可以幫助減少排放並緩解氣候變化。 >

電力和交通運輸行業已率先實施可再生能源技術。對於發電而言,風能和太陽能PV等可再生能源是全球許多地區增長最快的能源,降低了電力生產的碳強度。在公路運輸中,預計2020年代將是電池電動汽車和其他個人運輸方式在生命週期和前期成本上都比內燃機便宜的十年。這將導致電池電動汽車的廣泛採用。但是,電力和公路運輸的總和不到全球能源消耗和CO2 -e排放量的50%。重工業,供熱,航空和航運等行業的脫碳難度要大得多。在這裡,直接電氣化或使用電池技術不太可能提供解決方案。

因此,在這些部門中液體和氣體燃料將是必需的。例如,可再生柴油或HVO(食用氫植物油)有望實現十年的增長。可再生柴油的生產不同於常規生物柴油,因此可將其用作直接燃料,必須在其中混合生物柴油。此外,如果使用廢原料(例如用作廢食用油或動物脂肪),則可再生柴油可顯著減少CO2排放,可歸為第二代或高級生物燃料。燃料的增長由美國和歐洲驅動,在這些地區設定的排放目標是該報告提供了有關生產商和生產量的數據以及到2031年的產能預測(MMGY)。儘管有車輛電氣化的背景。 >

雖然運輸電氣化將削弱對道路運輸中替代燃料的需求,但可持續航空燃料(SAF)可能是航空業減少排放所必需的。儘管Covid-19大大減少了對航空旅行的需求,但還是在2020年發佈了包括宣佈購買協議在內的幾項公告,這些公告強調了對使用SAF航空脫碳的更多重視。截至2020年底,國際航空運輸協會認證了7種SAF生產工藝,可以將其與傳統的純淨燃料以不同的比例混合。最突出的SAF是基於加氫處理的酯和脂肪酸,其生產過程與可再生柴油相似。IDTechEx估計,到2020年SAF需求將佔航空燃料總需求的<0.1%,並且預計市場將出現顯著增長,預計2026年的需求仍將佔<1%。

儘管SAF生產目前是生物基的,但電子燃料(電子燃料)除了為生產其他直接燃料和原料提供途徑外,還可能在航空業的未來發揮重要作用。甲烷,甲醇和合成氣。電子燃料利用電解氫和大氣碳,無論是直接從空氣中捕獲還是從工業點源捕獲。因此,它們消除了生物燃料的一些擔憂,例如原料的可獲得性,土地用途的變化或與糧食種植的潛在競爭。但是,電子燃料市場尚處於發展的早期階段,電解技術是電子燃料生產的核心部分,可能需要進一步改進和大規模示範,以充分實現電子燃料的潛力。廉價的電力也將是經濟生產電子燃料的先決條件。該報告涵蓋了生產電子燃料的各種途徑,並詳細介紹了相關公司以及尋求商業化和擴大其電子燃料技術和生產能力的公司。

由空氣中的電解氫和氮氣產生的綠色氨氣(e-氨)因其較高的液化溫度,使其能量密度更高而被吹捧為氫經濟的有希望的氫載體。比氫氣更容易儲存和運輸。特別是海上工業可以很好地利用氨作為燃料,儘管人們似乎對此很感興趣,但目前在海上使用氨作為燃料僅限於很少的項目。還正在進行一些項目,以測試綠色氨作為能量存儲形式的可行性,其中氨的生產成本較低(或可再生能源輸出較高),而氨的存儲量較高,而電力需求較高。在燃氣輪機,發動機或潛在的燃料電池中直接使用氨氣必須經過仔細控制和監控,以確保NOx排放量低。雖然將氨用作燃料或能源載體仍處於商業化的早期階段,但綠色氨的生產本身將很重要,因為該化學品已在全球範圍內用作肥料,目前的生產通常依賴於使用天然氣作為原料。

沼氣或生物液化天然氣(液化天然氣)是替代氨氣運輸的替代品,它們在穩定具有大量可再生能源的電網以及降低熱需求的碳中也可以發揮關鍵作用。沼氣可以得益於這樣一個事實,即成千上萬的加油站已經使用了液化天然氣,因此沼氣為向碳中和的過渡提供了可能,而氨將需要新船和翻新。

IDTechEx關於非化石替代燃料的報告涵蓋了廣泛的燃料,工藝和行業,旨在提供有關替代燃料市場狀況的見解,以及它們如何適應低碳經濟,這是關鍵玩家和發展。該報告包括對生物燃料的介紹,並進一步詳細介紹了可再生柴油,高級生物燃料,可持續航空燃料,電子燃料(電子燃料)和電子氨,提供了有關技術發展,產量的數據,趨勢,分析和討論。 ,公司公告以及目標應用和行業。

從IDTechEx進行分析訪問

所有報告購買都包括與專家分析師進行的長達30分鐘的電話時間,專家分析師將幫助您將報告中的關鍵發現與您要解決的業務問題聯繫起來。此NEE DS三個月購買的報告中使用。

目錄

1。執行摘要

  • 1.1。替代燃料範圍
  • 1.2。部門能源消耗
  • 1.3。脫碳途徑
  • 1。4.生物燃料世代
  • 1.5。生物燃料激勵措施
  • 1.6。美國可再生標識號
  • 1.7。生物燃料面臨的挑戰
  • 1.8。可再生柴油產能分配
  • 1.9。未來可再生柴油的產能分佈
  • 1.10。仁ewable柴油市場區域增長
  • 1.11。可再生柴油的預測
  • 1.12。先進的生物燃料技術概述
  • 1.13。生物燃料技術概述
  • 1.14。快速熱解和氣化-FT項目實例
  • 1.15。介紹biojet和可持續航空燃料
  • 1.16。生物噴射/SAF工藝路徑
  • 1.17。2020年的公告
  • 1.18。可持續航空燃料激勵措施
  • 1.19。SAF需求預測,十億升
  • 1.20。SAF需求預測,十億美元
  • 1.21。關於SAF的總結
  • 1.22。綠氨開發階段
  • 1.23。綠氨項目量
  • 1.24。氨氣運輸項目清單
  • 1.25。電子燃料生產途徑概述
  • 1.26。電子燃料
  • 1.27。通往電子燃料生產的途徑
  • 1.28。電子燃料玩家
  • 1.29。電子燃油容量公告
  • 1.30。電子燃料的應用
  • 1.31。比較低碳解決方案
  • 1.32。非化石替代燃料開發階段
  • 1.33。比較替代燃料
  • 1.34。比較替代燃料-SWOT
  • 1.35。生物燃料供應鏈
  • 1.36。電子燃料供應鏈
  • 1.37。低碳可持續性的權衡

2。簡介

  • 2.1。全球排放推動溫度上升
  • 2.2。部門能源消耗
  • 2.3。運輸能源消耗
  • 2.4。運輸排放
  • 2.5。工業能耗
  • 2.6。工業能源需求
  • 2.7。住宅能耗
  • 2.8。住宅供暖需求-英國示例
  • 2.9。脫碳途徑
  • 2.10。脫碳選擇的綠色證明

3。生物燃料概述

  • 3.1.1。生物燃料的作用
  • 3.1.2。生物燃料循環
  • 3.1.3。生物燃料世代
  • 3.1.4。定義先進和可再生燃料
  • 3.1.5。生物燃料激勵措施
  • 3.1.6。美國可再生標識號
  • 3.1.7。2020年美國RIN價格
  • 3.1.8。美國可再生柴油增長的驅動力
  • 3.1。9.歐盟生物燃料目標
  • 3.1.10。歐盟生物燃料可持續性
  • 3.1.11。生物燃料面臨的挑戰
  • 3.1.12。生物燃料的現狀-美國
  • 3.1.13。生物燃料的現狀-歐洲
  • 3.1.14。生物燃料的現狀-巴西
  • 3.1.15。生物燃料的現狀-中國,印度尼西亞
  • 3.1.16。公路運輸的機遇與威脅
  • 3.1.17。第一代生物乙醇
  • 3.1.18。常規生物柴油
  • 3.2。先進的生物燃料
    • 3.2.1。第二代生物燃料生產工藝
    • 3.2.2。生物燃料生產工藝的發展
    • 3.2.3。生物燃料技術概述
    • 3.2.4。氣化-FT項目實例
    • 3.2.5。快速熱解和熱液氣化工程為例ES
    • 3.2.6。費-托項目氣化
    • 3.2.7。紅石生物燃料
    • 3.2.8。速度
    • 3.2.9。支鏈生物能源
    • 3.2.10。席爾瓦綠色燃料
    • 3.2.11。生物油
    • 3.2.12。傑沃
    • 3.2.13。沼氣概論
    • 3.2.14。藻類生物燃料
  • 3.3。可再生柴油市場
    • 3.3.1。可再生柴油介紹
    • 3.3.2。生物柴油和生物噴氣燃料
    • 3.3.3。生物和可再生柴油生產
    • 3.3.4。更新柴油生產能力
    • 3.3.5。可再生柴油市場擴張
    • 3.3.6。可再生柴油市場區域增長
    • 3.3.7。可再生柴油市場區域份額
    • 3.3.8。可再生柴油市場擴展-加氫處理
    • 3.3.9。可再生柴油產能分配
    • 3.3.10。未來可再生柴油的產能分佈
    • 3.3.11。Eni SpA-霍尼韋爾
    • 3.3.12。雀巢
    • 3.3.13。內斯特案例研究
    • 3.3.14。可再生柴油的預測
    • 3.3.15 。可再生柴油預測-UCO可用性
    • 3.3.16。再生柴油的機會
  • 3.4。可持續航空燃料市場
  • 3.5。航空能耗
  • 3.6。生物噴氣機和可持續航空燃料
  • 3.7。生物燃料是航空脫碳的關鍵
  • 3.8。航空燃油需求
  • 3.9。covid-19的影響
  • 3.10。2020年的公告
  • 3.11。減少二氧化碳的措施
  • 3.12。科西亞
  • 3.13。SAF認證流程
  • 3.14。生物噴氣和可持續航空燃料介紹
  • 3.15。航空燃油成分
  • 3.16。生物柴油和生物噴氣燃料
  • 3.17。生物噴氣燃料生產途徑概述
  • 3.18。生物噴氣燃料原料和生產概述
  • 3.19。生物噴射/SAF工藝路徑
  • 3.20。P2X的SAF
  • 3.21。可持續航空燃料激勵措施
  • 3.22。商業計劃
  • 3.23。Covid-19 vs綠色復甦
  • 3.24。SAF市場
  • 3.25。可持續航空燃料包銷協議小號
  • 3.26。生產能力按工藝途徑
  • 3.27。SAF生產增長
  • 3.28。價格
  • 3.29。SAF生產成本
  • 3.30。關於SAF的總結
  • 3.31。航空燃油需求推斷和容量
  • 3.32。SAF需求預測,十億升
  • 3.33。SAF需求預測-十億美元

4。電子燃料

  • 4.1。電子燃料簡介
  • 4.2。點源二氧化碳捕獲
  • 4.3。什麼是直接空氣捕獲(DAC)?
  • 4.4。我thods DAC的
  • 4.5。DAC技術帶來的挑戰
  • 4.6。電燃料生產技術
  • 4.7。電子燃料生產途徑概述
  • 4.8。電子燃料的類型
  • 4.9。通往電子燃料生產的途徑
  • 4.10。電子燃料生產技術
  • 4.11。通往電子燃料生產的途徑
  • 4.12。燃料電池介紹
  • 4.13。燃料電池和電解槽概述
  • 4.14。電解至X
  • 4.15。電解基礎知識
  • 4.16。電解槽概述
  • 4.17。固體氧化物電解槽簡介
  • 4.18。固體氧化物電解槽和燃料電池的材料
  • 4.19。對國有企業的興趣
  • 4.20。SOEC合成氣生產
  • 4.21。Sunfire燃料電池有限公司
  • 4.22。靈活的SOEC操作?
  • 4.23。哈爾多·托普索
  • 4.24。電解槽降解
  • 4.25。固體氧化物電解槽播放器
  • 4.26。室溫電化學還原CO2
  • 4.27。電化學減少二氧化碳的產品
  • 4.28。電子燃料企業和市場概況
  • 4.29。北歐藍原油
  • 4.30。Synhelion太陽能
  • 4.31。普羅米修斯燃料
  • 4.32。普羅米修斯燃料工藝
  • 4.33。碳工程
  • 4.34。碳回收國際
  • 4.35。作品12
  • 4.36。Opus 12技術
  • 4.37。辣椒
  • 4.38。左旋體
  • 4.39。哥白尼P2X和MefCO2項目
  • 4.40。西門子-贏創P2X飛行員
  • 4.41。奧迪合成燃料
  • 4.42。P2X的SAF
  • 4.43。電子燃料玩家
  • 4.44。電子燃油容量城市公告
  • 4.45。電解/燃料電池製造商
  • 4.46。電子燃料的應用
  • 4.47。電子燃料應用備註
  • 4.48。評估電子燃料的作用

5。綠色氨水

  • 5.1。氫氣和氨氣簡介
  • 5.2。氨生產
  • 5.3。反向氨燃料電池
  • 5.4。氫或氨經濟
  • 5.5。綠氨
  • 5.6。使用氨的效率
  • 5.7。氨作為儲能
  • 5.8。氨作為燃燒燃料
  • 5.9。氨氣燃氣輪機
  • 5.10。日本共燒氨
  • 5.11。燃料電池用氨
  • 5.12。直接氨燃料電池
  • 5.13。氨項目及展望
  • 5.14。FREA氨示範廠
  • 5 .15。西門子的綠色氨水演示器
  • 5.16。蒂森克虜伯/H2U綠氨水演示器
  • 5.17。減少奈爾鹼性電解槽的成本
  • 5.18。硝酸綠氨
  • 5.19。綠氨項目量
  • 5.20。綠氨項目
  • 5.21。大規模生產綠色氨
  • 5.22。綠氨開發階段
  • 5.23。評估氨的作用
  • 5.24。評估氨
  • 5.25。替代燃料比較

6。運送綠色氨水

  • 6.1。替代燃料在運輸中的作用
  • 6.2。零排放運輸
  • 6.3。為什麼在海上使用綠色氨水?
  • 6.4。新聞中的氨氣
  • 6.5。船舶排放:問題
  • 6.6。海洋排放法規介紹
  • 6.7。減少SOx比NOx更重要
  • 6.8。二氧化碳運輸目標
  • 6.9。運輸預測中的二氧化碳
  • 6.10。監管發展時間表
  • 6.11。海上電氣化
  • 6.12。為什麼電池可以提供幫助 6.13。節省燃料成本和投資回報率
  • 6.14。海上電氣化的障礙
  • 6.15。Equinor-Eidesvik海上氨燃料電池船
  • 6.16。氨運輸
  • 6.17。曼能源解決方案2衝程發動機
  • 6.18。IHI公司-LNG拖船
  • 6.19。氨氣運輸項目清單
  • 6.20。液化天然氣運輸
  • 6.21。液化天然氣的環境效益
  • 6.22。氫,氨或生物液化天然氣
  • 6.23。氨氣或生物液化天然氣運輸

7。考慮可持續發展

  • 7.1。電動汽車的底層驅動程序
  • 7.2。生物燃料的可持續性
  • 7.3。土地用途變化產生的排放
  • 7.4。每MJ的燃料碳強度比較
  • 7.5。每公里燃料碳強度比較 < li> 7.6。生物燃料世代的土地使用排放
  • 7.7。生物燃料碳排放
  • 7.8。電動汽車的碳排放
  • 7.9。鋰離子材料的可持續性
  • 7.10。低碳可持續性的權衡
  • 7.11。比較低碳解決方案
目錄
Product Code: ISBN 9781913899332

Title:
Sustainable Alternative Fuels 2021-2031
Biofuels, renewable diesel, sustainable aviation fuels, e-fuels, green ammonia, technologies, players, markets.

Growth in global energy consumption has caused CO2 and GHG emissions to rise, in turn causing an increase in average global temperatures. The combustion of fossil fuels including coal, oil, and natural gas, has been a key driver behind this, providing the underlying driver for the production and use of non-fossil alternative fuels that can help reduce emissions and mitigate against climate change.

The electrical power and transportation sectors have been first to implement renewable technologies. For electricity generation, renewable power sources such as wind and solar PV are the fastest growing energy source for many regions worldwide, reducing the carbon intensity of electricity production. In on-road transportation, the 2020s are forecast to be the decade where battery electric cars and other personal transport modes become cheaper, on both a lifetime- and upfront-cost basis, than their internal combustion engine counterparts. This will lead to widespread battery electric vehicle adoption. However, combined, electricity and on-road transportation account for less than 50% of global energy consumption and CO2 -e emissions. Sectors including heavy industry, heating, aviation, and shipping are far more difficult to decarbonise. Here, direct electrification or use of battery technology is unlikely to provide a solution.

Liquid and gaseous fuels will therefore be necessary in these sectors. Renewable diesel or HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil) for example is set for a decade of growth. Production of renewable diesel differs from conventional biodiesel, allowing it to be used as a drop-in fuel, where biodiesel will have to be blended. Further, if waste feedstocks are used, such as used cooking oil or animal fats, renewable diesel can offer significant CO2 emissions reductions and be classified as a 2nd generation or advanced biofuel. Growth in the fuel is driven by the US and Europe and emissions targets set in these regions with the report providing data on players and productions volumes and a capacity forecast (MMGY) through to 2031. This despite the backdrop of vehicle electrification.

While transport electrification will erode demand for alternative fuels in road transport, sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) are likely to be necessary for the aviation industry to reduce emissions. Despite Covid-19 significantly reducing demand for air travel, there were several announcements, including purchase agreements, made in 2020 that highlighted greater emphasis on the decarbonisation of aviation through use of SAFs. As of the end of 2020, there were 7 SAF production processes certified by the International Air Transport Association, which can be blended with conventional jet-fuel at various percentages. The most prominent SAF is based on hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids, produced in a process similar to renewable diesel. IDTechEx estimate that demand for SAF in 2020 accounted for <0.1% of total jet-fuel demand and despite significant growth expected from the market, demand in 2026 is forecast to still account for <1%.

While SAF production is currently bio-based, electro-fuels (e-fuels) could play an important role in the future for the aviation sector, in addition to providing a route to producing other drop-in fuels and feedstocks, including methane, methanol, and syngas. E-fuels make use of electrolytic hydrogen and atmospheric carbon, whether captured directly from the air or from an industrial point source. As such, they negate some of the concerns with biofuels, such as feedstock availability, land use changes or potential competition with food cultivation. However, the e-fuel market is at a much earlier stage of development and electrolyser technology, a central part of e-fuel production, is likely to need further improvement and demonstration at scale to fully realise the potential of e-fuels. Cheap electrical power will also be a pre-requisite for economical production of e-fuels. The report covers the various routes that can be taken to produce e-fuels, and details the companies involved and seeking to commercialise and expand their e-fuel technologies and production capacity.

Green ammonia (e-ammonia), produced from electrolytic hydrogen and nitrogen from the air, has been touted as being a promising hydrogen carrier for the hydrogen economy, due its higher temperature at which it liquefies, making it more energy dense than hydrogen, and easier to store and transport. The maritime industry in particular could be well placed to utilise ammonia as a fuel and while there is seemingly interest in it, use of ammonia as a fuel in maritime is currently limited to a very small number of projects. Projects are also underway to test the feasibility of green ammonia as a form of energy storage, with ammonia produced at times of low electricity cost (or high renewable output), stored, and power generated at times of high electricity demand. Direct use of ammonia, in a gas turbine, engine or potentially fuel cell, will have to be carefully controlled and monitored to ensure low levels of NOx emissions. While use of ammonia as a fuel or energy vector is still at the early stages of commercialisation, production of green ammonia will be important in its own right, with the chemical being used globally as a fertilizer and current production generally reliant on the use of natural gas as a feedstock.

An alternative to ammonia for shipping could be biogas or bio-LNG (liquefied natural gas), which could also play a key role in stabilising electricity grids with high levels of renewables and in decarbonising heat demand. Biogas could benefit from the fact that hundreds of tankers already make use of LNG, such that biogas presents the possibility for a smoother transition to carbon-neutrality, where ammonia would require new ships and retrofits.

IDTechEx's report on non-fossil alternative fuels covers a wide scope of fuels, processes and sectors, and aims to provide insight on the state of the market for alternative fuels, how they fit in to a low-carbon economy, the key players and developments. The report includes an introduction to biofuels with further detailed sections on renewable diesel, advanced biofuels, sustainable aviation fuels, electro-fuels (e-fuels), and e-ammonia, providing data, trends, analysis and discussion on technology development, production volumes, company announcements, and targeted applications and sectors.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1. Alternative fuel scope
  • 1.2. Energy consumption by sector
  • 1.3. Routes to decarbonisation
  • 1.4. Biofuel generations
  • 1.5. Biofuel incentives
  • 1.6. US Renewable identification numbers
  • 1.7. Challenges for biofuel
  • 1.8. Renewable diesel capacity distribution
  • 1.9. Future renewable diesel capacity distribution
  • 1.10. Renewable diesel market regional growth
  • 1.11. Renewable diesel forecast
  • 1.12. Advanced biofuels technology overview
  • 1.13. Biofuel technology overview
  • 1.14. Fast pyrolysis and gasification-FT project examples
  • 1.15. Introduction to biojet and sustainable aviation fuel
  • 1.16. Bio-jet/SAF process pathways
  • 1.17. Announcements during 2020
  • 1.18. Sustainable aviation fuel incentives
  • 1.19. SAF demand forecast, billion litres
  • 1.20. SAF demand forecast, billion $
  • 1.21. Concluding remarks on SAF
  • 1.22. Green ammonia development stage
  • 1.23. Green ammonia project volumes
  • 1.24. Ammonia shipping project list
  • 1.25. e-fuel production pathway overview
  • 1.26. e-fuels
  • 1.27. Routes to e-fuel production
  • 1.28. e-fuel players
  • 1.29. e-fuel capacity announcements
  • 1.30. Applications for e-fuels
  • 1.31. Comparing low-carbon solutions
  • 1.32. Non-fossil alternative fuel development stages
  • 1.33. Comparing alternative fuels
  • 1.34. Comparing alternative fuels - SWOT
  • 1.35. Biofuel supply chain
  • 1.36. E-fuel supply chain
  • 1.37. Low carbon sustainability trade-offs

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Global emissions driving temperature increase
  • 2.2. Energy consumption by sector
  • 2.3. Energy consumption in transportation
  • 2.4. Transport emissions
  • 2.5. Energy consumption in industry
  • 2.6. Industrial energy requirements
  • 2.7. Residential energy consumption
  • 2.8. Residential heating demand - UK example
  • 2.9. Routes to decarbonisation
  • 2.10. Green credentials of decarbonisation options

3. OVERVIEW OF BIOFUELS

  • 3.1.1. Role of biofuels
  • 3.1.2. Biofuel cycle
  • 3.1.3. Biofuel generations
  • 3.1.4. Defining advanced and renewable fuels
  • 3.1.5. Biofuel incentives
  • 3.1.6. US Renewable identification numbers
  • 3.1.7. US RIN prices 2020
  • 3.1.8. Drivers of US growth in renewable diesel
  • 3.1.9. EU biofuel targets
  • 3.1.10. EU biofuel sustainability
  • 3.1.11. Challenges for biofuel
  • 3.1.12. Current state of biofuels - USA
  • 3.1.13. Current state of biofuels - Europe
  • 3.1.14. Current state of biofuels - Brazil
  • 3.1.15. Current state of biofuels - China, Indonesia
  • 3.1.16. Opportunity and threat for on-road transport
  • 3.1.17. 1st generation bioethanol
  • 3.1.18. Conventional biodiesel
  • 3.2. Advanced biofuels
    • 3.2.1. 2nd generation biofuel production processes
    • 3.2.2. Biofuel production process developments
    • 3.2.3. Biofuel technology overview
    • 3.2.4. Gasification-FT project examples
    • 3.2.5. Fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal gasification project examples
    • 3.2.6. Gasification to Fischer-Tropsch projects
    • 3.2.7. Redrock Biofuels
    • 3.2.8. Velocys
    • 3.2.9. Fulcrum Bioenergy
    • 3.2.10. Silva Green Fuel
    • 3.2.11. Bio2Oil
    • 3.2.12. Gevo
    • 3.2.13. Introduction to biogas
    • 3.2.14. Algae based biofuels
  • 3.3. Renewable diesel market
    • 3.3.1. Renewable diesel introduction
    • 3.3.2. Biodiesel and bio-jet fuel
    • 3.3.3. Bio- and renewable diesel production
    • 3.3.4. Renewable diesel production
    • 3.3.5. Renewable diesel market expansion
    • 3.3.6. Renewable diesel market regional growth
    • 3.3.7. Renewable diesel market regional shares
    • 3.3.8. Renewable diesel market expansion - hydroprocessing
    • 3.3.9. Renewable diesel capacity distribution
    • 3.3.10. Future renewable diesel capacity distribution
    • 3.3.11. Eni SpA - Honeywell
    • 3.3.12. Neste
    • 3.3.13. Neste case study
    • 3.3.14. Renewable diesel forecast
    • 3.3.15. Renewable diesel forecast - UCO availability
    • 3.3.16. Opportunity for renewable diesel
  • 3.4. Sustainable aviation fuels market
  • 3.5. Energy consumption in aviation
  • 3.6. Bio-jet and sustainable aviation fuels
  • 3.7. Biofuels key to aviation decarbonisation
  • 3.8. Aviation fuel demand
  • 3.9. Impact of covid-19
  • 3.10. Announcements during 2020
  • 3.11. CO2 reduction measures
  • 3.12. CORSIA
  • 3.13. SAF certification process
  • 3.14. Introduction to biojet and sustainable aviation fuel
  • 3.15. Jet fuel composition
  • 3.16. Biodiesel and bio-jet fuel
  • 3.17. Overview of bio-jet fuel production pathways
  • 3.18. Overview of bio-jet fuel feedstocks and production
  • 3.19. bio-jet/SAF process pathways
  • 3.20. SAF from P2X
  • 3.21. Sustainable aviation fuel incentives
  • 3.22. Commercial initiatives
  • 3.23. Covid-19 vs Green Recovery
  • 3.24. SAF market
  • 3.25. Sustainable aviation fuel offtake agreements
  • 3.26. Production capacity by process pathway
  • 3.27. SAF production growth by process
  • 3.28. Price
  • 3.29. SAF production cost
  • 3.30. Concluding remarks on SAF
  • 3.31. Jet fuel demand extrapolation and capacity
  • 3.32. SAF demand forecast, billion litres
  • 3.33. SAF demand forecast- billion $

4. ELECTRO-FUELS (E-FUELS)

  • 4.1. Introduction to e-fuels
  • 4.2. Point source CO2 capture
  • 4.3. What is Direct Air Capture (DAC)?
  • 4.4. Methods of DAC
  • 4.5. Challenges associated with DAC technology
  • 4.6. Electro-fuel production technology
  • 4.7. e-fuel production pathway overview
  • 4.8. Types of e-fuel
  • 4.9. Routes to e-fuel production
  • 4.10. e-fuel production technologies
  • 4.11. Routes to e-fuel production
  • 4.12. Introduction to fuel cells
  • 4.13. Fuel cell and electrolyser overview
  • 4.14. Electrolysis for power-to-X
  • 4.15. Electrolyser basics
  • 4.16. Electrolyser overview
  • 4.17. Introduction to solid oxide electrolysers
  • 4.18. Materials for solid-oxide electrolysers and fuel cells
  • 4.19. Interest in SOECs
  • 4.20. SOEC syngas production
  • 4.21. Sunfire Fuel Cells Gmbh Power-to-liquid
  • 4.22. Flexible SOEC operation?
  • 4.23. Haldor Topsoe
  • 4.24. Electrolyser degradation
  • 4.25. Solid oxide electrolyser cell players
  • 4.26. Room-temperature electrochemical CO2 reduction
  • 4.27. Electrochemical CO2 reduction products
  • 4.28. E-fuel players and market overview
  • 4.29. Nordic Blue Crude
  • 4.30. Synhelion solar fuel
  • 4.31. Prometheus fuels
  • 4.32. Prometheus fuels process
  • 4.33. Carbon Engineering
  • 4.34. Carbon Recycling International
  • 4.35. Opus 12
  • 4.36. Opus 12 technology
  • 4.37. Caphenia
  • 4.38. Lectrolyst
  • 4.39. Copernicus P2X and MefCO2 projects
  • 4.40. Siemens - Evonik P2X pilot
  • 4.41. Audi synthetic fuel
  • 4.42. SAF from P2X
  • 4.43. e-fuel players
  • 4.44. e-fuel capacity announcements
  • 4.45. Electrolyser/fuel cell manufacturers
  • 4.46. Applications for e-fuels
  • 4.47. e-fuel applications remarks
  • 4.48. Evaluating the role of e-fuels

5. GREEN AMMONIA

  • 5.1. Introduction to hydrogen and ammonia
  • 5.2. Ammonia production
  • 5.3. Reverse ammonia fuel cell
  • 5.4. Hydrogen or ammonia economy
  • 5.5. Green ammonia
  • 5.6. Efficiency of using ammonia
  • 5.7. Ammonia as energy storage
  • 5.8. Ammonia as a combustion fuel
  • 5.9. Ammonia fuelled gas turbine
  • 5.10. Co-firing ammonia in Japan
  • 5.11. Ammonia for fuel cells
  • 5.12. Direct ammonia fuel cells
  • 5.13. Ammonia projects and outlook
  • 5.14. FREA ammonia demonstration plant
  • 5.15. Siemens' green ammonia demonstrator
  • 5.16. ThyssenKrupp/H2U green ammonia demonstrator
  • 5.17. Nel alkaline electrolyser cost reduction
  • 5.18. Green ammonia nitrate
  • 5.19. Green ammonia project volumes
  • 5.20. Green ammonia projects
  • 5.21. Large-scale green ammonia production
  • 5.22. Green ammonia development stage
  • 5.23. Evaluating the role of ammonia
  • 5.24. Evaluating ammonia
  • 5.25. Alternative fuel comparisons

6. GREEN AMMONIA FOR SHIPPING

  • 6.1. Role of alternative fuels in transport
  • 6.2. Zero emission shipping
  • 6.3. Why green ammonia for maritime?
  • 6.4. Ammonia in the news
  • 6.5. Shipping emissions: the problem
  • 6.6. Introduction to marine emissions regulation
  • 6.7. SOx reductions more important than NOx
  • 6.8. CO2 target for shipping
  • 6.9. CO2 in shipping forecast
  • 6.10. Timeline of regulatory developments
  • 6.11. Maritime electrification
  • 6.12. Why batteries can help
  • 6.13. Fuel cost savings and ROI
  • 6.14. Roadblocks to maritime electrification
  • 6.15. Equinor-Eidesvik Offshore ammonia fuel cell vessel
  • 6.16. Ammonia for shipping
  • 6.17. MAN Energy Solutions 2-stroke engine
  • 6.18. IHI corporation - LNG fuelled tugboat
  • 6.19. Ammonia shipping project list
  • 6.20. LNG in shipping
  • 6.21. Environmental benefit of LNG
  • 6.22. Hydrogen, ammonia or bio-LNG
  • 6.23. Ammonia or bio-LNG for shipping

7. CONSIDERING SUSTAINABILITY

  • 7.1. Underlying Drivers for Electric Vehicles
  • 7.2. Sustainability of biofuels
  • 7.3. Emissions from land use change
  • 7.4. Fuel carbon intensity comparison per MJ
  • 7.5. Fuel carbon intensity comparisons per km
  • 7.6. Land use emissions from biofuel generations
  • 7.7. Biofuel carbon emissions
  • 7.8. Carbon emissions from electric vehicles
  • 7.9. Sustainability of Li-ion materials
  • 7.10. Low carbon sustainability trade-offs
  • 7.11. Comparing low-carbon solutions