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分散式發電 - 離網的零污染 (ZE) :2020年∼2040年

Distributed Generation: Off-Grid Zero-Emission kW-MW 2020-2040

出版商 IDTechEx Ltd. 商品編碼 932119
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 232 Slides
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
分散式發電 - 離網的零污染 (ZE) :2020年∼2040年 Distributed Generation: Off-Grid Zero-Emission kW-MW 2020-2040
出版日期: 2020年08月24日內容資訊: 英文 232 Slides

零污染 (ZE)的微電網進入能源市場,到2040年預計將成長到3,500億美元規模的商務。許多發電的未來是零污染 (ZE) 的電力生產。分散式發電,是重要的新市場機會。

本報告提供分散式發電的離網的零污染 (ZE) 調查分析,各種相關技術等系統性資訊。


第1章 摘要整理和結論

第2章 簡介

第3章 容器式、組合式的ZE微電網

  • 概要
  • 可攜式微電網
  • Scale Microgrid
  • VERGE,Specialised Solar,KR Power,ECOS,Mobile Solar
  • Excellerate
  • OffGridBox等

第4章 ZE微電網的建築物,汽車,船舶

  • Ovida Community Hubs Melbourne
  • 太陽能道路:City of Prince George Canada,Solar Roadways 美國
  • Solar greenhouses power robots
  • eVcentres 英國
  • SmartGreenCharge Highways 法國
  • PEARL Project Hawaii

第5章 分散式ZE微電網

  • 島:Borkum,Kodiak,King,Porto Santo
  • 農業:Stone Edge Farm,Solectrac

第6章 新的微電網收穫的形態:道路,窗戶,其他

  • 多模式道路、其他地面
  • 太陽能道路:Wattway,Pavenergy,SolaRoad,Solar Roadways
  • 構台 vs. 路面 PV
  • 透明、半透明的太陽能光伏發電
  • 太陽能窗戶:13組織
  • 無法作為微電網展開的太陽能光伏發電
  • SolarGaps太陽能百葉窗
  • 薄型混凝土太陽能:ETH Zurich

第7章 再配置可能的ZE微電網的風力,水力,波浪發電

  • 概要
  • 超過了太陽能的新的選擇:重新配置可能
  • 水力和AWE的雙曲線
  • 「潮流」電力選擇
  • 波浪發電技術
  • 內陸水力:水源,候補地等

第8章 微電網新興太陽能光伏發電技術

  • 優點與領導者
  • 太陽能光伏發電的趨勢和優先順序
  • 矽優勢
  • 晶圓 vs. 薄膜 PV
  • 5個基本的PV機制:情形,優點,課題,市場潛力
  • 超過矽的重要的PV選擇等

第9章 適當的電力電子技術與蓄電技術

  • 先進的電力電子技術變得重要
  • DC微電網慢慢登場
  • 鋰離子電池趨勢
  • 氧化還原液流電池得到立足點

Distributed Generation: Off-Grid Zero-Emission kW-MW 2020-2040
Microgrid forecasts, technology roadmap, opportunities.

"Zero emission microgrids slice into the energy market to become a massive $350Bn business in 2040."

This new 230 page IDTechEx report, "Distributed Generation: Off-Grid Zero-Emission kW-MW 2020-2040" concerns electricity production with zero emissions that is off-grid or capable of being off-grid when needed. This is the future of much electric power generation, displacing heating oil to power stations. Distributed generation capable of being islanded is a significant new market opportunity. Over 100 organisations are covered.

The report provides technical, market and company information useful to all in the value chain from materials and software suppliers to developers, product and system integrators and facilities managers. It concentrates on the present and the future and in particular benefits to society and opportunities for industry. The report primarily covers advanced countries because they are the largest value market but there is also much information on emerging countries.

The executive summary and conclusions is enough for those in a hurry. It embraces market drivers including why grids lose share. It simply presents technology comparisons, timelines and market forecasts unusually for short and long term - 2020-2040 and why 2021 will be a big year for orders and advances. Learn 13 new photovoltaic formats. A wealth of new infograms and graphs grasps the future of zero-emission electricity for buildings, construction, agriculture, mining, electric vehicle charging stations and more with clarity on how the improving microgrid systems design and harvesting fit in and when. From containerised to distributed, it is all here.

The introduction gives energy trends, microgrid and energy harvesting design, progress in emerging countries, good and bad practice. Chapter 3 covers the increasingly important containerised and modular ZE microgrids with 19 examples. Chapter 4 "Buildings, vehicles, ships as ZE microgrids" has much that is not covered in other studies, yet large in potential. There are 18 projects and new ideas from IDTechEx. Chapter 5 concerns distributed ZE microgrids across farm, island and so on with six examples assessed. Chapter 6 "New microgrid harvesting formats: roads, windows, other" takes 30 pages to reveal winning applications and technologies for what is coming, with comparison tables and many operating examples from the pioneers. Good and bad are revealed.

It is nonsense when so many treatises on ZE microgrids stop at wind and solar, so Chapter 7 "Wind, river and sea power as relocatable ZE microgrids" shows how these are increasingly important with many examples of success and predictions but also bad practice is revealed. Many comparison tables and maps are here and airborne wind energy is appraised. Given the importance and rapid improvement of it, Chapter 7 "Emerging photovoltaic technology for microgrids" is one of the longest chapters with many new infograms, comparisons and predictions with examples and latest progress. For example, why is single crystal silicon coming in fast and why has copper indium gallium diselenide CIGS got an ongoing, significant share? Chapter 8 covers appropriate power electronics and battery technology with cost predictions and gaps in the market. "Distributed Generation: Off-Grid Zero-Emission kW-MW 2020-2040" is the latest, most comprehensive and insightful work on this subject. It is based on multilingual PhD level IDTechEx analysts travelling widely with 20 years background and privileged access to data.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.



  • 1.1. Purpose and scope of this report
  • 1.2. Why national grids lose share 2020-2040
  • 1.3. Off-grid technologies compared
  • 1.4. Primary conclusions: cost breakdown and action arising
  • 1.5. Comparison of off-grid harvesting technology options for microgrids
  • 1.6. Clean microgrid format options
  • 1.7. Primary conclusions: format, chemistry, physics 2020-2040
  • 1.8. Diesel gensets vs clean microgrids kVA comparison
  • 1.9. Primary conclusions: Buildings and environs as microgrids
  • 1.10. Construction site of the future arriving now with moveable zero emission gensets
  • 1.11. Farm of the future arriving now
  • 1.12. Primary conclusions: Vehicles as microgrids, charging electric vehicles
  • 1.13. Market forecasts and technology timelines 2020-2040
    • 1.13.1. Why the delay?
    • 1.13.2. OG ZE microgrid unit number 1kW-10MW k 2020-2040
    • 1.13.3. OG ZE microgrid unit value 1kW-10MW $k 2020-2040
    • 1.13.4. OG ZE microgrid market value 1kW-10MW 2020-2040
    • 1.13.5. Global microgrid market
    • 1.13.6. Global charging infrastructure : on-road vehicles 2020
    • 1.13.7. Access to electricity by people 2020-2050
    • 1.13.8. Off-grid investment and location
    • 1.13.9. Expected electricity access 2030 assuming universal access.
    • 1.13.10. Addressable market for off-grid solar, millions of households Africa and Asia
    • 1.13.11. Li-ion battery demand, GWh 2020-2030
    • 1.13.12. LIB cell price forecast
    • 1.13.13. Flow battery forecast
    • 1.13.14. Solar car forecast $bn 2020-2030


  • 2.1. Increased versatility but winners and losers
  • 2.2. Microgrid design
    • 2.2.1. Basic configurations and V2G
  • 2.3. Why photovoltaics usually wins
  • 2.4. Decentralised microgrids
  • 2.5. Below 100kW wind turbines have become niche
  • 2.6. Wind turbine choices
  • 2.7. Requirements for isolated community microgrids
  • 2.8. Best practice: NREL river turbine Alaska
  • 2.9. Bad practice: fuel cells
  • 2.10. Before its time: Solar Bullet


  • 3.1. Overview
  • 3.2. Transportable microgrids for military, live events, easier installations
  • 3.3. Scale Microgrid
  • 3.4. VERGE, Specialised Solar, KR Power, ECOS, Mobile Solar
  • 3.5. Excellerate
  • 3.6. OffGridBox
  • 3.7. WindKinetic containerised microgrids Kazakhstan, Zambia, Cameroon
  • 3.8. Bad practice with small wind turbines
  • 3.9. Ecocapsule
  • 3.10. Brightfield USA
  • 3.11. SUDI Shade France
  • 3.12. HEP Croatia and Texas example.
  • 3.13. e-move Denmark
  • 3.14. ECOG subsea microgrid
  • 3.15. Solar with river turbines: Sea Bubble water taxi charging
  • 3.16. TwingTec containerised microgrid powered by tethered drone


  • 4.1. Ovida Community Hubs Melbourne
  • 4.2. Solar driveways: City of Prince George Canada, Solar Roadways USA
  • 4.3. Solar greenhouses power robots
  • 4.4. eVcentres UK
  • 4.5. SmartGreenCharge Highways France
  • 4.6. PEARL Project Hawaii
  • 4.7. Tesla
  • 4.8. Other projects
  • 4.9. Leading solar cars compared: Sono, Lightyear, Toyota
  • 4.10. Energy Observer France
  • 4.11. Wind and solar powered ships
  • 4.12. Energy independent electric ship opportunity


  • 5.1. Islands: Borkum, Kodiak, King, Porto Santo
  • 5.2. Agriculture: Stone Edge Farm, Solectrac


  • 6.1. Multi-mode roads and other ground surfaces
  • 6.2. Solar roads: Wattway, Pavenergy, SolaRoad, Solar Roadways
  • 6.3. Gantry vs road surface PV
  • 6.4. Transparent and translucent photovoltaics
  • 6.5. Solar windows: 13 organisations
  • 6.6. Unrollable photovoltaics as microgrids
  • 6.7. SolarGaps solar blinds
  • 6.8. Thin concrete solar: ETH Zurich


  • 7.1. Overview
  • 7.2. New options beyond solar: relocatable, much less intermittent
  • 7.3. Hype curve for water power and AWE
  • 7.4. Open tide "tide stream" power options mimic wind power options
  • 7.5. Open sea wave power technologies
  • 7.6. Inland water power: sources, location potential
  • 7.7. Overall small hydro potential for steady supply with little or no storage
  • 7.8. Sources and technologies of ocean power for microgrids
  • 7.9. Marine power: sources, location potential
  • 7.10. Where ocean power is both strongest and close to population
  • 7.11. Location of strongest ocean power for replacing diesel gensets
  • 7.12. Small inland hydro <10MW SOFT report
  • 7.13. Wave power <10MW SOFT report
  • 7.14. Tidal stream power <10MW SOFT report
  • 7.15. Minesto Sweden
  • 7.16. Ocean conversion technology winners and losers
  • 7.17. Airborne Wind Energy developers


  • 8.1. Benefits sought and leaders in providing them
  • 8.2. Photovoltaic trends and priorities 2020-2040
  • 8.3. Silicon the winner so far: variants and successes
  • 8.4. Wafer vs thin film PV 2020-2040
  • 8.5. Five basic PV mechanisms: status, benefits, challenges, market potential
  • 8.6. Important PV options beyond silicon compared
  • 8.7. Production readiness of Si alternatives for mainstream vehicle charging
  • 8.8. Best research-cell efficiencies 1975-2020
  • 8.9. Solar aircraft and boats show the future
  • 8.10. Flexible thin film versions slowly gain share
  • 8.11. Photovoltaic wild cards: 2D semiconductors, quantum dots, rectenna arrays


  • 9.1. Advanced power electronics becomes important
  • 9.2. DC microgrids slowly coming in
  • 9.3. Li-ion battery trends
  • 9.4. Redox flow batteries get a toehold