Quantum Dot Materials and Technologies 2020-2030: Trends, Markets, Players
Materials, players and applications such as displays (edge optic, QD enhancement film, color filter, on-chip, emissive), lighting, visible & IR/NIR image sensor, photovoltaics, etc.
IDTechEx Research has been analysing the technologies and markets for quantum dots since 2013. Since that time, it has stayed extremely close to the latest research and market developments via its interview programme and company and conference visits.
Furthermore, IDTechEx Research has engaged closely with many of its clients, helping them better understand the technology and market landscape and helping them set their innovation and commercialization strategies.
In its analysis of quantum dots, IDTechEx Research brings its wealth of expertise in analysing advanced electronic materials and devices. We have been in this business for the past 19 years and in this time have closely observed the rise and/or fall, and the success and/or disappointment, of many emerging technologies.
This gives us a uniquely experienced eye when it comes to analysing emerging electronic material technologies. This is crucial because it helps us establish a realistic market and technology roadmap that reflects the true potential of the technology based on its intrinsic characteristics and on the true level of technical and commercial challenges that it faces.
The depth and breadth of our expertise in these fields is reflected in our report portfolio which covers numerous advanced materials, many emerging electronic devices such as printed and/or flexible electronics, and novel manufacturing processes.
What this report offers
This report provides a detailed technology analysis. It considers various quantum dot compositions such as Cd-based, In-based QDs as well as the likes of emerging organic and inorganic perovskites, PbS, CuInS2, InGaN, quantum rods, and so on. It also provides a detailed benchmarking of QDs vs existing phosphor technology. Our analysis is data driven, reflecting the latest commercial and academic results. For each material, as appropriate, we assess its performance, its key remaining material challenges, its production processes, and its directions/strategies of improvement.
Our technology roadmap also considers how the technology mix in various applications will be transformed with time. In displays, it considers the rise and fall of various QD integration approaches. It shows that film-type now reigns supreme after edge optic went obsolete. It however also shows the emerging approaches such as color filter or on-chip type, enabled by material improvements, will eventually unseat it. Furthermore, it will consider QDs as the ultimate emissive material for displays, tracing the trends in efficiency and lifetime improvements whilst exploring the remaining challenges in terms of performance, lifetime, deposition/patterning, device design, and so on.
In lighting, our roadmap considers how and when QDs will become used in LED lights either as direct or remote downconverters and either in general lighting or specialized niche applications. In sensors, it will explore hybrid QD-Si visible image sensors can simultaneously achieve high resolution and global shutter, whilst it shows how QD-Si infrared image sensors can overcome current resolution issues imposed unmonolothic integration. In photovoltaics, it reports the latest progress worldwide whilst stating the might commercial and technical challenges that are yet to be overcome and considers novel uses cases such as LCS.
Crucially, our technology analysis considers the requirements that must be met to enable each application and outlines the current progress and future strategies in achieving targets. Here, we will consider parameters such as stability (air, heat, light), self-absorption, blue absorbance, efficiency (QY), narrowband emission (FWHM) and so on.
This report also provides ten-year market forecasts in sqm (or Kg) and value, and at material and solution level, for 12 technologies: edge optic displays, film type displays, color filter QD display, on-chip QD display, emissive QD displays, QD-Si hybrid visible image sensors, IR/NIR image sensors, remote QD LED lights and on-chip QD LED lights, QD photovoltaics, researchers and more.
Our forecasts draw heavily from our technology analysis which gives us realistic and expert view of when and how various technologies can become commercially viable compared incumbents, and also from our detailed interviews, deep market insights, and close trend tracking.
This report also provides detailed overviews of 37 players in the value chain. In many cases, our overviews also include a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities, threats) analysis of the key players.
Quantum dots: time of change and growth
Quantum dots (QDs) are no longer a young technology. Even their commercialization process is not new since the pioneering companies were formed in the 2001-2005 period. The QDs are also not commercially novice: they have been employed in LCD displays as remote phosphors for several years.
One might then be tempted to assume that QDs are now a stagnant technology with slow and unchanging commercial prospects. This assumption would however be very wrong. This article sets out to make this point, demonstrating that QDs have now entered a time of growth, and crucially, rapid technological change.
Quantum dot films in displays: past and present
QDs' first success beyond research uses came in the display industry. Here, first high-performance Cd-based QDs were adopted in LCDs either in edge-optic or film-type implementations. The industry however has already evolved beyond that status: the edge optic has largely become obsolete and the transition away from Cd based towards Cd-free/less QDs is in full swing. In parallel, improvements in QD yield, stability and production processes driving down costs, fully reshaping the end users' display-level pricing strategies. To read more on these trends see this article.
Quantum dots: when will color filter or on-chip QD displays arrive?
Quantum dots in displays are set to experience growth and major technology transitions. These is becoming technology improvements are enabling new integration approaches such as color filter and on-chip types. These developments threating the exclusive dominance of QD films in QD displays, thereby transforming the technology mix. Read this article to learn more about how, and when, these technologies are likely to commercially rise and fall.
Quantum dots: the ultimate emissive display material?
Many consider quantum dots (QDs) as the ultimate emissive (electroluminescent) material, one day representing the future of display and one day evolving emissive displays beyond the level that organic LEDs offer today. This is because potentially QD emissive displays offer extremely wide color gamut through their direct narrow band emission, high efficiency, high contrast, solution processing, and thinness. The latter attribute also gives a degree of future proofing as display technology finally transitions towards flexible and foldable screens.
But what is the reality? What is the status of performance and technology readiness? What are the challenges to overcome? And whether, and when, will it reach the market? To learn more, read this article.
Quantum dots: evolving downconverter technology beyond phosphors?
Quantum dots (QDs) are often billed as the ultimate, or at least as the next generation of, phosphors. The main driver often is the QDs' ability to act as ultra-narrowband downconverters, resulting in extremely wide color gamut displays and efficient and high CRI solid state LED lights. Read this article to explore the merits of quantum dots as ultimate phosphors.
Quantum dots: changes in material composition
The first successful QD was Cd based thanks to its high performance in displays. This material (e.g., CdSe) was however always on borrowed time due to its toxicity. Announced legislation in the EU has now accelerated the transition towards Cd-free or Cd-less compositions often based on an InP chemistry. There is still a penalty; the QY gap has been narrowed but the FWHM difference persists.
In additional, there are many novel material engineering progresses that are taking place. These seek to improve heat, light, and air stability, reduce self-absorption, improve dispersion in inks or photoresist, and so on.
In parallel, novel materials such as organic and organic perovskite QDs are also emerging whilst novel chemistries such as PbS or CuInS2 are being explored for sensor and photovoltaic applications. New material shapes such as rods are also being examined. All this makes for a dynamic and innovative industry driven by material improvements. To learn more consult the report.
Quantum dots: growing beyond displays
The work on QDs is not limited to displays. There are many other applications such as lighting, sensors, photovoltaics and so on. For example:
- Lighting is an attractive application not least because lighting is the largest application for LEDs. Here, the driver in the general lighting sector is to increase CRI of LED lights without sacrificing efficiency. This can be made possible with the narrow FWHM of QDs. This industry will make further progress as cost fall and, more crucially, as QDs become more stable enabling integration into more types of LEDs. Prior to that however, companies have proposed film-type QDs to optimize the emission light. However, market response has thus far been lukewarm. In parallel, some seek to deploy QD lights in specialize applications as horticulture in which QDs are used to finetune the emission spectra.
- Sensors are also a promising proposition. Here, the focus is on QDs' broad absorption characteristics. We can divide the work into two categories: visible and IR/NIR image sensors. In the former, QDs can be cast onto silicon read-out circuits to enable high resolution (small pixel) and highly sensitive images sensors with a global shutter and a large pixel capacitor. This hybrid QD-Si sensor is made possible because of the high sensitivity of the QD layer (if properly fused) and its ability to separate the photosensitive and processing circuits. In the latter approach (IR/NIR sensor), the right QD chemistry (e.g., PbS) can tune the absorption spectra to be sensitive to NI/IR. The QDs can also be added directly on the Si read-out circuit. As such, there will not need to un-monolithic integration of different semiconductor systems with silicon, limiting resolution.
- Photovoltaics are another interesting application. Here, the QDs can be complementary, helping extend the absorption range. Furthermore, perovskite QDs may hold potential but they are very immature and suffers from various instability issues (Note perovskite thin film PVs are the fastest improving PV technology ever and have now breached the 27% efficiency mark for champion cells). Novel PV technologies, such as perovskites, also enter a fiercely competitive landscape dominated by China and wafer-based Si PV technology. In parallel, others are exploring the use of QDs to enable luminescent solar concentrator in which the QDs absorb and reemit the light over transparent window surfaces.
- Other: QDs are of course already used in research particularly for imaging. Many other applications such as security applications are also being proposed. We expect that as the technology matures new applications will inevitably be established.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- 1.1. Acronyms
- 1.2. What are quantum dots?
- 1.3. An old technology?
- 1.4. Snapshot of readiness level of various QD applications
- 1.5. Displays: benchmarking various integration methods
- 1.6. QD Technology and Market Roadmap (10 year view)
- 1.7. Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics and so on
- 1.8. Ten-year quantum material market forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
2. MARKET FORECASTS
- 2.1. Overall
- 2.1.1. Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
- 2.1.2. Ten-year quantum material market forecasts in value segmented by 12 applications in displays, lighting, sensors, photovoltaics, and so on
- 2.2. Displays
- 2.2.1. Ten-year forecast of change in QD technology mix in display sector (%)
- 2.2.2. Ten-year forecast for different QD solutions in displays in area or M sqm (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
- 2.2.3. Ten-year forecast for different QD solutions in displays in TONNES (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
- 2.2.4. Ten-year quantum market solution forecasts in value in displays (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
- 2.2.5. Ten-year quantum dot material market forecasts in value in displays (film, color filter, on chip, edge optic, emissive QLED, etc.)
- 2.3. Non display
- 2.3.1. Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in lighting applications
- 2.3.2. Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in image sensors (visible and IR/NIR)
- 2.3.3. Ten-year quantum dot forecasts in value in other applications (photovoltaics, research, etc.)
3. BASIC INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM DOTS
- 3.1. An old technology?
- 3.2. What are quantum dots?
- 3.3. Typical structure of a quantum dot
- 3.4. Different types of colloidal quantum dots
- 3.5. Colloidal quantum dots
- 3.6. Photoluminescence of quantum dots
- 3.7. Typical nuclei based growth process
- 3.8. Example of a typical two-pot growth process for InP core-shell QDs
- 3.9. Basic approaches to synthesis: molecular seeding to lower temperature?
- 3.10. Basic approaches to synthesis: continuous QD growth
- 3.11. Key material requirements
4. CD AND CD FREE QUANTUM DOTS
- 4.1. Why use heavy metals?
- 4.2. Cadmium under RoHS
- 4.3. Cd-free InP-based quantum dots
- 4.4. Evolution of InP QD FWHM as a function of time
- 4.5. Cd-based to Cd-free quantum dots: commercial transition is in full swing
- 4.6. Timeline of exemption and the arrival of the ban
- 4.7. How much cadmium is there in a display?
- 4.8. Is Indium Phosphide a safer alternative?
5. OUTLINING SOME MATERIAL IMPROVEMENT TRENDS AND STRATEGIES
- 5.1. Eliminating self-absorption
- 5.2. Reducing lattice mismatch with graded core-shell compositions
- 5.3. Improved stability: embedding QDs in silica particles to form microspheres
- 5.4. Improved stability: embedding QDs in silica particles to form microspheres
- 5.5. Improved stability: sapphire QD coating
6. INTRODUCTION AND KEY ATTRIBUTES
- 6.1. Perovskite Quantum Dots
- 6.1.1. Perovskite quantum dots (or nanocrystals): a rival to traditional solutions?
- 6.1.2. Perovskite downconverters or emitters: an introduction
- 6.1.3. Perovskites: controlling emission wavelength via halide component
- 6.1.4. Perovskites: controlling emission wavelength via size
- 6.1.5. Perovskite QDs: higher defect tolerance of FWHM and QY
- 6.1.6. Perovskite QDs: high blue absorbance
- 6.2. Challenges or shortcomings
- 6.2.1. Perovskite quantum dots: why red is difficult
- 6.2.2. Red perovskite QDs: preventing phase instability
- 6.2.3. Perovskite quantum dots: self absorption issues
- 6.2.4. Perovskites: stability issue is a persistent concern
- 6.2.5. Perovskites: improving stability with ligands
- 6.2.6. Perovskite QDs: improving stability by embedding a host matrix
- 6.2.7. Perovskite QD-composites: improving stability by embedding in a polymer host
- 6.2.8. Perovskite QDs: toxicity concerns
- 6.3. Electroluminescent PeQD LEDs
- 6.3.1. Perovskite QLED: efficiency progress for inorganic green PeQLEDs?
- 6.3.2. Inorganic red PeQLED: what about lifetime?
- 6.4. Commercial progress and prospects
- 6.4.1. Perovskite green QD films for displays: stable commercial offerings
- 6.4.2. Perovskite QDs: the only way is hybrid?
- 6.4.3. Conclusions on perovskite QDs
- 6.4.4. InGaN/GaN QDs: viable material?
- 6.4.5. InGaN/GaN QDs: cutting reaction time and FWHM
- 6.4.6. InGaN/GaN QDs: cutting reaction time and FWHM
- 6.4.7. CuInS2/ZnS: broadband QDs useful in solar windows?
- 6.4.8. PdS QDs: optical sensor with high responsivity and wide spectrum
- 6.4.9. PdS QDs: optical sensor with high responsibility and wide spectrum
- 6.4.10. Rhodamine-based fluorescent materials as all organic downconverters
- 6.4.11. Carbon quantum dots (CQD)
- 6.4.12. Graphene Quantum Dots
- 6.4.13. ZnSe
- 6.4.14. White-blue emission from silicon QD
7. COMPARISON WITH PHOSPHORS
- 7.1. Phosphors: basic introduction
- 7.2. Thee ways to achieve white in LEDs
- 7.3. Requirements for phosphors in LEDs
- 7.4. Table of phosphor materials
- 7.5. Why the search for narrow FWHM red phosphors (I)?
- 7.6. Common and emerging red-emitting phosphors
- 7.7. Thermal stability of common red, green and yellow phosphors (I)
- 7.8. GE's narrowband red phosphor: KSF:Mn+4
- 7.9. Commercial progress of GE's narrowband red phosphor
- 7.10. Lumileds red emitting phosphor (SLA)
- 7.11. Toray: High performance organic phosphors
- 7.12. Suppliers of phosphors
- 7.13. Phosphors: FWHM comparison with quantum dots
- 7.14. Phosphors: color tunability comparison with quantum dots
- 7.15. Phosphors: Particle size comparison with quantum dots
- 7.16. Phosphors: Response time comparison with quantum dots
- 7.17. Phosphors: Stability comparison with quantum dots
- 7.18. Strength of hybrid phosphor-QD approach
- 7.19. Conclusions
8. QUANTUM ROD DISPLAYS
- 8.1. Quantum rods
- 8.2. Quantum rods: demonstrating printed greyscale displays
- 8.3. Quantum rods: material choices for red, green and blue photoluminescence
- 8.4. Quantum rods: material performance for red, green and blue photoluminescence
- 8.5. Quantum rods: principle of voltage controlled emission resulting in high contrast ratio
- 8.6. Quantum rod displays: performance of 17" active matrix inkjet printed QR display
- 8.7. Importance of early patents
- 8.8. Case Study: Evident
- 8.9. Nanoco vs Nanosys
- 8.10. IP acquisition
- 8.11. Nanosys vs QD Vision
9. APPLICATIONS IN LIFE SCIENCES
- 9.1. Quantum dots as fluorescent tags
- 9.2. Examples of images
- 9.3. Advantages over organic dyes
- 9.4. Comparison of absorption/emission
- 9.5. Major milestones in academic research
- 9.6. Various approaches to use quantum dots
- 9.7. Example: monitoring enzyme activity
- 9.8. Zymera in vivo imaging
10. INTRODUCTION TO COLOR GAMUT IN DISPLAYS
- 10.1. Understanding color standards
- 10.2. How LED backlights reduced color performances
- 10.3. 100% sRGB can be achieved without QD
- 10.4. The challenge of Rec 2020
- 10.5. FWHM and color gamut
- 10.6. Performance sensitivity to emission wavelength
11. DISPLAY APPLICATIONS
- 11.1. Displays: edge optic
- 11.1.1. LED backlight units in LCD
- 11.1.2. Replacing phosphors with quantum dots
- 11.1.3. Edge optic integration: a technology going obsolete?
- 11.1.4. Color IQ from QD Vision: going obsolete
- 11.1.5. Film type integration: growing commercial success but for how long?
- 11.2. Displays: enhancement film or remote film-film QD phosphors
- 11.2.1. QDEF film from Nanosys
- 11.2.2. Key direction of development for film type integration (I): transition towards Cd free materials
- 11.2.3. Key direction of development for film type integration (II): reducing barrier requirements
- 11.2.4. Key direction of development for film type integration (III): Premium pricing vs expanding product portfolio
- 11.2.5. Key direction of development for film type integration (IV): Glass based QD sheet in LCD displays
- 11.3. Displays: quantum dot color filters
- 11.3.1. Colour filter type: approaching commercial readiness?
- 11.3.2. Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): patterning
- 11.3.3. QDCF: strategies to make QDs compatible with photoresist and photolithography
- 11.3.4. QDCF: strategies to make QDs compatible with photoresist and photolithography
- 11.3.5. QDFC: performance of epoxied silica QDs as QDCF
- 11.3.6. Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): inkjetting
- 11.3.7. Inkjet printed InP QD color filters: performance levels
- 11.3.8. Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): color purity and contrast
- 11.3.9. Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): new polarizers, short-pass filters, and other additional layers?
- 11.3.10. QD color filters on OLED
- 11.3.11. QD color filters on OLED: pros and cons
- 11.4. Displays: quantum on-chip LEDs
- 11.4.1. On chip integration: improving stability
- 11.4.2. Colour filter type remaining challenges (I): patterning
- 11.4.3. On chip type remaining challenges: stress conditions
- 11.4.4. On chip type remaining challenges (III): heat and light stability
- 11.4.5. On chip type remaining challenges (IV): light flux stability
12. PHOTOPATTERNING FOR MICROLED DISPLAYS
- 12.1. On-chip QDs for micro-LED displays: range of devices and stress conditions
- 12.2. QDs vs Phosphors for micro LED displays: the size and resolution advantage
- 12.3. QDs: photopatternable QDs for micro-displays
- 12.4. Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: material consideration
- 12.5. Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: rational for engineered multi core-shell giant QDs
- 12.6. Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: material challenges
- 12.7. Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: surviving the photopatterning process
- 12.8. Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: demonstrating heat and light flux stability
- 12.9. Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: performance levels
- 12.10. Photo-patternable QD for micro LED displays: comparison with RGB LEDs
13. EMISSIVE QLED (QUANTUM LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)
- 13.1. Display trend: evolution from PLED to PhOLED to TADF to QDs?
- 13.2. Emissive type: how far off from commercial readiness?
- 13.3. Emissive QLED remaining challenges: optimal device design
- 13.4. Nanophotonica: performance progress of QLEDs
- 13.5. Progress from QD Vision (no longer active)
- 13.6. Perovskite QLED: efficiency progress for inorganic green PeQLEDs?
- 13.7. Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): blue QD challenge
- 13.8. Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): ink formulation challenge
- 13.9. Emissive QLED remaining challenges (II): transfer printing
- 13.10. Emissive QLED remaining challenges (III): lifetime
- 13.11. Inorganic red PeQLED: what about lifetime?
14. QUANTUM DOT IMAGE SENSORS (VISIBLE AND IR/NIR)
- 14.1. Improving silicon image sensors
- 14.1.1. QD layer advantage in image sensor (I): Increasing sensor sensitivity and gain
- 14.1.2. QD-Si hybrid image sensors(II): reducing thickness
- 14.1.3. How is the QD layer applied?
- 14.1.4. QD optical layer: approaches to increase conductivity of QD films
- 14.1.5. QD-Si hybrid image sensors(III): enabling high resolution global shutter
- 14.1.6. QD-Si hybrid image sensors(III): enabling high resolution global shutter
- 14.1.7. QD-Si hybrid image sensors(III): Low power and high sensitivity to structured light detection for machine vision?
- 14.1.8. Can hybrid organic CMOS image sensors also give high res global shutter?
- 14.1.9. Progress in CMOS global shutter using silicon technology only
- 14.2. Quantum dots for near infra sensors
- 14.2.1. Current issue with infrared image sensors
- 14.2.2. Quantum: covering the range from visible to near infrared
- 14.2.3. Results and status for IR vision
- 14.2.4. Potential unresolved questions and issues
- 14.2.5. PdS QDs: optical sensor with high responsibility and wide spectrum
15. QUANTUM DOTS IN LIGHTING APPLICATIONS
- 15.1. Quantum dots in lighting applications
- 15.2. QDs in horticulture
- 15.3. Achieving high CRI in general lighting
- 15.4. Why the search for narrow FWHM red phosphors (I)?
- 15.5. Achieving warm colours using 'remote' QD phosphors
- 15.6. Examples of LED lights with remote QD integration
- 15.7. Achieving high CRI using on-chip phosphors
- 15.8. On-chip QD integration: different LED types and performance requirements
- 15.9. Achieving high CRI using on-chip QDs: stability results
- 16.1. Many competing technologies in PV
- 16.2. Quantum dot PV is still in early stage
- 16.3. Comparison of efficiencies
- 16.4. Quantum dot PV: SWOT analysis
- 16.5. Progress in QD photovoltaics
- 16.6. QD luminescent solar concentrator?
17. OTHER APPLICATIONS
- 17.1. Hydrogen production
- 17.2. Visible light photocatalysis
- 17.3. Sunscreen
- 17.4. Lasers
- 17.5. QDChip spectrometer
- 17.6. Security tagging
18. COMPANY PROFILES
- 18.1. Avantama
- 18.2. BOE
- 18.3. Consistent Electronic Materials
- 18.4. Cree
- 18.5. CrystalPlex
- 18.6. Dow Electronic Materials
- 18.7. Fraunhofer
- 18.8. Hansol
- 18.9. Korea University
- 18.10. Kyung Hee University
- 18.11. LG Display
- 18.12. LMS
- 18.13. Lumileds
- 18.14. Najing Technology Company
- 18.15. Nanoco
- 18.16. Nanosys
- 18.17. Nanophotonica
- 18.18. NexDot
- 18.19. Pacific Lighting Technology (Osram)
- 18.20. QD Vision
- 18.21. Qlight (Merck)
- 18.22. ?
- 18.23. Quantag
- 18.24. Quantum Material Corporation
- 18.25. Quantum Solutions
- 18.26. QustomDot
- 18.27. Samsung
- 18.28. Saphlux
- 18.29. Sharp
- 18.30. Shoei Chemical
- 18.31. SWIR Vision Sensors
- 18.32. Taiwan Nanocrystal
- 18.33. Takoma/Huntplus/Kyung Hee
- 18.34. TCL
- 18.35. Tohoku University
- 18.36. UbiQD
- 18.37. Ulvac Solutions
- 18.38. Wah Hong
- 18.39. Zhijing Nanotech
- 18.40. ZH-QTECH