Batteries are the most expensive component of an electric car. At the end of their service life in electric vehicles, the retired batteries could still retain 70-80% of their initial capacity. Recycling is necessary in the end but before that, giving those retired but still capable batteries a 'second-life' in less-demanding applications such as stationary energy storage not only improves material efficiency, but also has the potential to bring tremendous value to a wide range of stakeholders across the automotive and energy sectors, as well as to the society and environment.
The first batch of batteries of electric vehicles is reaching their retirement age and the next ten years will see a huge increase in the volume of retired batteries: by 2029, there will be around 3 million used battery packs coming out of electric vehicles per year which represents around 108GWh available storage capacity. Major automotive companies have announced various projects and business initiatives for second-life batteries.
However, many technical, economic and regulatory challenges exist for battery second use and how to better extract value from second-life batteries still remains unknown.
Based on our conversations with industrial leaders in the area of second-life batteries and the expertise of IDTechEx's analyst team, this report presents a comprehensive analysis of the second-life battery industry and how it will evolve over the next ten years. The ten-year forecast on the available capacity of second-life batteries from different electric vehicle categories, passenger cars and electric buses (pure electric vehicles and plug-in electric vehicles), shows the potential size and constitution of the second-life battery market.
Second-life batteries are just like new batteries but with degraded capacity to different degrees. Therefore, the key is to match the 'right' batteries with the 'right' applications. This report analyses the potential markets for second-life batteries in both stationary and mobile energy storage applications. We present a timeline as well as a comprehensive analysis of announced battery second use projects and businesses in the industry and provide insights into the key technologies, applications and business models.
Second-life batteries connect the electric vehicle and energy storage value chains. The potential value of second-life batteries is impacted by how the batteries are designed and used in their first life in the electric vehicles, how they are collected and used in second-life applications as well as the value of recycling. This report presents a value chain analysis from the lifecycle perspective to help stakeholders identify potential value opportunities. Key technical challenges are identified and companies that are developing technologies to improve second-life battery value are analysed. This report also presents a cost analysis and the potential pricing mechanisms for second-life batteries. Existing business models of battery second use are analysed and how service-based business models could facilitate battery second use is discussed in the report.
Currently the second-life battery sector is still at its nascent stage and regulations could play a key role in the feasibility and value of battery second use. China has recently announced several measures and plans to regulate the recycling and second use of retired electric vehicle batteries. From August 2018, all electric vehicle batteries produced in China will be given a unique ID to help track the batteries from production throughout to sales, usage, collection, second use and recycling. This report presents the regulatory landscape which provide insights into the regulations and policies that are announced or implemented to specifically address battery second use related issues.
The report is complemented with 8 full company profiles, as well as dozens of interviews with automotive companies like Nissan and BYD, energy storage companies like Connected Energy as well as technology start-ups such as Relectrify. IDTechEx has a unique position to cover this topic as the experienced analyst team has been following the second-life battery industry since 2014 and engaging closely with the market players.
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Table of Contents
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- 1.1. Retired electric vehicle batteries can have a second-life before being recycled
- 1.2. Potential value of second-life batteries
- 1.3. Retired electric vehicle battery pack forecast 2019-2029 (thousand units/year)
- 1.4. Second-life electric vehicle battery availability forecast 2019-2029 (GWh)
- 1.5. Timeline of battery second use implementations
- 1.6. Main companies involved in battery second use
- 1.7. Regulatory landscape for battery second use
- 1.8. Battery second use connects the electric vehicle and battery recycling value chains
- 1.9. Cost and pricing of second-life batteries
2. WHAT ARE SECOND-LIFE ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERIES?
- 2.1. Why batteries fail?
- 2.2. When batteries retire from electric vehicles...
- 2.3. Redefining the 'end-of-life' of electric vehicle batteries: you live more than once
- 2.4. What is the 'second-life' of electric vehicle batteries?
- 2.5. Clarification of terminologies
- 2.6. Why battery second use matters?
- 2.7. Battery second use can bring various forms of benefits
- 2.8. Battery second use or recycling?
- 2.9. Battery second use or remanufacturing?
- 2.10. Battery second use in the news
- 2.11. Battery second use in the news
3. AVAILABILITY OF SECOND-LIFE ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERIES 2019-2029
- 3.1. Overview of the second-life electric vehicle battery forecast 2019-2029
- 3.2. Retired electric vehicle battery pack forecast 2019-2029 (thousand units/year)
- 3.3. Retired electric vehicle battery pack forecast 2019-2029 (thousand units/year) - summary
- 3.4. Annual retired electric vehicle battery capacity forecast 2019-2029 (GWh/year)
- 3.5. Annual retired electric vehicle battery capacity forecast 2019-2029 (GWh/year) - summary
- 3.6. Second-life electric vehicle battery annual available capacity forecast 2019-2029 (GWh/year)
- 3.7. Second-life battery annual capacity availability by electric vehicle categories (GWh)
- 3.8. Cumulative capacity of second-life electric vehicle batteries forecast 2019-2029 (GWh)
- 3.9. Second-life electric vehicle battery availability 2019-2029 (GWh) - summary
- 3.10. Capacity of available second-life batteries and new Li-ion battery production for stationary storage (GWh)
- 3.11. Assumptions for the forecast
- 3.12. Battery size (kWh) of different electric vehicle categories - summary
- 3.13. Battery age and remaining capacity
- 3.14. Battery age distribution and remaining capacity of pure electric passenger cars
- 3.15. Calculation of the second-life battery capacity availability
4. BATTERY SECOND USE APPLICATIONS
- 4.1. Potential applications for second-life batteries
- 4.2. Target markets for second-life batteries
- 4.3. What do we need stationary battery storage for?
- 4.4. Residential, commercial & industrial and utility-scale battery storage
- 4.5. Let the Duck and Nessie fly
- 4.6. Behind-the-meter battery storage
- 4.7. Value streams from behind-the-meter battery storage
- 4.8. Utility-scale battery storage
- 4.9. Value streams from utility-scale battery storage
- 4.10. Mobile energy storage
- 4.11. Powertrain for low-speed electric vehicles
- 4.12. Four-wheel low-speed electric vehicles in China
- 4.13. Second-life batteries can be used as powertrain for electric forklifts
5. CURRENT STATUS OF BATTERY SECOND USE IMPLEMENTATIONS
- 5.1. Battery second use in practice
- 5.2. Summary of announced battery second use initiatives
- 5.3. 4R Energy
- 5.4. The Light Reborn
- 5.5. Mobile EV charging powered by second-life batteries - FreeWire Technologies
- 5.6. The Nissan-FreeWire business model
- 5.7. Commercial energy storage powered by second-life batteries - Green Charge Networks
- 5.8. xStorage - The Nissan-Eaton partnership
- 5.9. Technical specifications of xStorage
- 5.10. xStorage - residential, buildings and grid
- 5.11. Amsterdam Arena switches on the second-life battery storage system in July 2018
- 5.12. Second-life battery storage for fast-charging stations - Renault & Connected Energy
- 5.13. Second-life smart home battery - Renault & Powervault
- 5.14. Second-life batteries to store renewable energy for the 'smart island' in Porto Santo
- 5.15. ELSA - Energy Local Storage Advanced System using second-life batteries
- 5.16. ELSA second-life battery pilots
- 5.17. The ELSA battery storage system architecture
- 5.18. Daimler closing the loop
- 5.19. 13MWh grid-connected second-life batteries
- 5.20. Second-life BMW batteries connected to UC San Diego's microgrid
- 5.21. 2.8 MWh second-life BMW battery storage system
- 5.22. BMW's second-life battery farm in Leipzig
- 5.23. 208 old Toyota Camry Hybrid batteries' new life in Yellowstone
- 5.24. Toyota's verification project with Chubu Electric Power
- 5.25. BYD's activities in second-life batteries
- 5.26. MAN and VHH to test second-life electric bus batteries for charging stations
- 5.27. China Tower's high demand for second-life batteries
- 5.28. Hyundai and Wärtsilä announced the partnership on second-life batteries
- 5.29. Second-life batteries supporting EVgo's fast chargers in California
- 5.30. BMS that extends second-life battery lifetime by Relectrify
- 5.31. Dukosi's wireless BMS that facilitates battery second-life
- 5.32. Aceleron turning used batteries into serviceable, long-term energy storage
- 5.33. Spiers New Technologies - second-life battery service provider
- 5.34. Stakeholders in the battery second use ecosystem
6. REGULATORY LANDSCAPE
- 6.1. Lack of policy and regulation for second-life batteries
- 6.2. Europe
- 6.3. European Commission: the Innovation Deal
- 6.4. EU to review its regulatory framework for battery second use
- 6.5. China is paving the way for battery second use
- 6.6. China is paving the way for battery second use
- 6.7. Regulatory framework for battery second use in China
7. SECOND-LIFE BATTERY VALUE CHAIN
- 7.1. The lifecycle view of the battery second use value chain
- 7.2. Battery first-life in the EVs
- 7.3. Designing EV batteries for second-life
- 7.4. Lack of standardization in EV batteries
- 7.5. Battery second-life in post-EV applications
- 7.6. China is pushing the EV battery traceability management system
- 7.7. The battery recycling and traceability management platform
- 7.8. Battery traceability system developed by Zhidou
- 7.9. Battery end of life - material recycling
- 7.10. Battery recycling market worldwide
- 7.11. Closed-loop value chain of electric vehicle batteries
8. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SECOND-LIFE BATTERIES
- 8.1. Technical challenges for battery second use
- 8.2. Battery pack aging performance
- 8.3. Battery cell balancing and control
- 8.4. Charging/discharging controlled by Relectrify BMS
- 8.5. The impact of different Li-ion battery chemistries on battery second use
- 8.6. Warranties for second-life batteries
- 8.7. Battery repurposing cost breakdown
- 8.8. Cost of second-life batteries today is around $75-100/kWh
- 8.9. Second-life battery cost can be as low as $20/kWh
- 8.10. New Li-ion battery cost forecast according to IDTechEx
- 8.11. Second-life battery pricing today
- 8.12. Price competition from new Li-ion batteries?
- 8.13. Revenue streams from second-life batteries
- 8.14. €3,500/year revenue from battery second use for a car manufacturer
- 8.15. Case study with BYD: improving second-life battery cycling performance by refilling the electrolyte
- 8.16. Service-based business models
- 8.17. Second-life batteries could generate more value than new batteries
9. COMPANY PROFILES
- 9.1.1. BMW
- 9.1.2. BYD
- 9.1.3. Connected Energy
- 9.1.4. Daimler
- 9.1.5. Hyundai
- 9.1.6. Nissan
- 9.1.7. Relectrify
- 9.1.8. Toyota