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固態電池和聚合物電池 2019-2029年:技術和市場預測

Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2019-2029: Technology, Patents, Forecasts

出版商 IDTechEx Ltd. 商品編碼 382840
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 455 Slides
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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固態電池和聚合物電池 2019-2029年:技術和市場預測 Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2019-2029: Technology, Patents, Forecasts
出版日期: 2019年05月30日內容資訊: 英文 455 Slides
簡介

本報告考察固體電解質產業,提供販賣裝置數、生產能力及市場規模預測,並統整了製造固體電解質相關課題與大型企業如何處理這類課題、主要20家企業的比較及技術、製造應變度等相關排名。

第1章 執行摘要

第2章 簡介

  • 為什麼選擇固態電池?
  • 在固態電池方面的研究
  • 企業作為:BMW
  • 企業作為:Volkswagen
  • 企業作為:Panasonic
  • 企業作為:Hyundai
  • 企業作為:TOYOTA
  • 企業作為:Fisker Ink
  • 基於OEM的固態電池合作與收購
  • 至於電池製造商又是如何?:Samsung SDI
  • 至於電池製造商又是如何?:CATL
  • 安全性
  • 性能
  • 外形規格
  • 成本和其他

第3章 鋰離子技術概述

  • 糧食是之於人的電力
  • 何謂鋰電池(LIB)
  • LIB可以如何改進?
  • 更換陽極:鋰金屬
  • 更換陽極:鈦酸鋰
  • 更換陽極:碳同素異形體
  • 更換陽極:矽、合金材料
  • 更換陰極:LFP
  • 更換陰極:LNMO
  • 更換陰極:NMC
  • 更換陰極:五氧化二釩
  • 更換陰極:LCPO
  • 更換陰極:硫磺
  • 更換陰極:氧氣
  • 高能陰極需要含氟電解質

第4章 固態電池

  • 什麼是固態電池(SSB)?
  • SSB的歷史
  • 液體電解質和固體電解質的區別
  • 如何設計出好的固體電解質
  • 鋰離子電池 vs. 固態電池
  • 固體電解質的家譜:無機 vs. 聚合物
  • 薄膜 vs. Bulk型固態電池
  • 薄陶瓷板材
  • 固態電池的安全性如何?
  • 固態電池的性能能增加到多大?
  • 學術視角:University of Munster
  • 學術視角:Giessen University
  • 學術視角:Fraunhofer Batterien
  • SSB有多靈活和可定制?
  • 用於電動汽車的SSB
  • 用於家電的SSB

第5章 固體無機電解質

  • 適合鋰離子的固體無機電解質排行
  • 無機電解質的類型
  • 鋰-鹵素化合物
  • 鈣鈦礦
  • 鋰-氫化物
  • NASICON-like
  • Ohara Corp.
  • Schott
  • Garnet
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • 名古屋大學
  • Argyrodite
  • LiPON
  • Ilika
  • LISICON-like
  • 日立造船
  • 固體電解質:甲南大學
  • 東京工業大學

第6章 固體聚合物電解質

  • 鋰聚合物電池、聚合型電池、聚合物電池
  • 聚合物電解質的類型
  • 聚合物電解質的工作原理
  • 最常見的聚合物電解質類型
  • Bollore
  • Hydro-Quebec
  • Solvay
  • IMEC
  • Polyplus
  • 聚合型電池的用途、其他

第7章 無機 vs. 聚合物電解質

  • 無機電解質 vs. 聚合物電解質的比較
  • 聚合物電解質面臨的挑戰和優勢
  • 無機電解質的優點和挑戰
  • 樹枝狀結晶
  • 技術評估:聚合物 vs. LLZO vs. LATP vs. LGPS、其他

第8章 複合電解質

第9章 大於鋰離子的固體電解質

  • 鋰硫電池中的固體電解質
  • 鋰空氣電池中的固體電解質
  • 金屬-空氣電池中的固體電解質
  • 鈉離子電池中的固體電解質
  • 鈉硫電池中的固體電解質

第10章 固態電池製造

  • 實際障礙
  • 當前製程:層壓
  • 薄膜電解質可以執行嗎?
  • 當前固態薄膜電池產品相關問題
  • 生產手段
  • TOYOTA的做法
  • 日立造船的做法
  • llika的做法
  • Sakti3的做法
  • Planar Energy的做法

第11章 原始材料:鋰金屬

  • 為什麼鋰如此重要?
  • 鋰在哪裡?
  • 鋰的生產方法
  • 鋰用在哪裡?
  • 問題:需要多少鋰?

第12章 技術與市場回應能力

  • 技術和生產準備
  • 市場回應能力
  • 對電池的期待
  • 性能比較:電動汽車
  • 性能比較:CE & 可穿戴設備

第13章 市場預測

第14章 固體電解質相關專利分析

第15章 非複合無機或聚合物SSE

第16章 企業檔案

第17章 附錄

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目錄

Title:
Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2019-2029: Technology, Patents, Forecasts
Revolutionary approach for the battery business.

The potentials to reshuffle the battery supply chain have prompted a new wave of investment.

A typical commercial battery cell usually consists of cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte. One of the most successful commercial batteries is the lithium-ion technology, which has been commercialized since 1991. However, their worldwide success and diffusion in consumer electronics and, more recently, electric vehicles (EV) cannot hide their limitations in terms of safety, performance, form factor, and cost due to the underlying technology.

Most current lithium-ion technologies employ liquid electrolyte, with lithium salts such as LiPF6, LiBF4 or LiClO4 in an organic solvent. However, the solid electrolyte interface (SEI), which is caused as a result of the de-composition of the electrolyte at the negative electrode, limits the effective conductance. Furthermore, liquid electrolyte needs expensive membranes to separate the cathode and anode, as well as an impermeable casing to avoid leakage. Therefore, the size and design freedom for these batteries are constrained. Furthermore, liquid electrolytes have safety and health issues as they use flammable and corrosive liquids. Samsung's Firegate has particularly highlighted the risks that even large companies incur when flammable liquid electrolytes are used.

Solid-state electrolytes have the potential to address all of those aspects, particularly in the electric vehicle, wearable, and drone markets. Their first application was in the 70's as primary batteries for pacemakers, where a sheet of Li metal is placed in contact with solid iodine. The two materials behave like a short-circuited cell and their reaction leads to the formation of a lithium iodide (LiI) layer at their interface. After the LiI layer has formed, a very small, constant current can still flow from the lithium anode to the iodine cathode for several years. Fast forward to 2011, and researchers from Toyota and the Tokyo Institute of Technology have claimed the discovery of a sulphide-base material that has the same ionic conductivity of a liquid electrolyte, something unthinkable up to a decade ago. Five years later, they were able to double that value, thus making solid-state electrolytes appealing also for high power applications and fast charging. This and other innovations have fuelled research and investments into new categories of materials that can triple current Li-ion energy densities.

In solid-state batteries, both the electrodes and the electrolytes are solid state. Solid-state electrolyte normally behaves as the separator as well, allowing down-scaling due to the elimination of certain components (e.g. separator and casing). Therefore, they can potentially be made thinner, flexible, and contain more energy per unit weight than conventional Li-ion. In addition, the removal of liquid electrolytes can be an avenue for safer, long-lasting batteries as they are more resistant to changes in temperature and physical damages occurred during usage. Solid state batteries can handle more charge/discharge cycles before degradation, promising a longer life time.

With a battery market currently dominated by Asian companies, European and US firms are striving to win this arms race that might, in their view, shift added value away from Japan, China, and South Korea. Different material selection and change of manufacturing procedures show an indication of reshuffle of the battery supply chain. From both technology and business point of view, development of solid state battery has formed part of the next generation battery strategy. It has become a global game with regional interests and governmental supports.

This report covers the solid-state electrolyte industry by giving a 10-year forecast till 2029 in terms of numbers of devices sold, capacity production and market size, predicted to reach over $25B. A special focus is made on winning chemistries, with a full analysis of the 8 inorganic solid electrolytes and of organic polymer electrolytes. This is complemented with a unique IP landscape analysis that identifies what chemistry the main companies are working on, and how R&D in that space has evolved during the last 5 years.

Additionally, the report covers the manufacturing challenges related to solid electrolytes and how large companies (Toyota, Toshiba, etc.) try to address those limitations, as well as research progress and activities of important players. A study of lithium metal as a strategic resource is also presented, highlighting the strategic distribution of this material around the world and the role it will play in solid-state batteries. Some chemistries will be quite lithium-hungry and put a strain on mining companies worldwide.

Finally, over 20 different companies are compared and ranked in terms of their technology and manufacturing readiness, with a watch list and a score comparison.

Players talked in this report:

24M, Applied Materials, BatScap (Bolloré Group) / Bathium, Beijing Easpring Material Technology, BMW, BrighVolt, BYD, CATL, Cenat, CEA Tech, China Aviation Lithium Battery, Coslight, Cymbet, EMPA, Enovate Motors, FDK, Fisker Inc., Flashcharge Batteries, Fraunhofer Batterien, Front Edge Technology, Ganfeng Lithium, Giessen University, Guangzhou Great Power, Guoxuan High-Tech Power Energy, Hitachi Zosen, Hyundai, Ilika, IMEC, Infinite Power Solutions, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ionic Materials, ITEN, Jiawei Long powers Solid-State Storage Tecnology RuGao City Co.,Ltd, JiaWei Renewable Energy, Johnson Battery Technologies, Kalptree Energy, Magnis Energy Technologies, Mitsui Metal, Murata, National Battery, National Interstellar Solid State Lithium Electricity Technology, NGK/NTK, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS, Oak Ridge Energy Technologies, Ohara, Panasonic, Planar Energy, Polyplus, Prieto Battery, ProLogium, Qing Tao Energy Development Co., QuantumScape, Sakti 3, Samsung SDI, Schott AG, SEEO, Solidenergy, Solid Power, Solvay, Sony, STMicroelectronics, Taiyo Yuden, TDK, Tianqi Lithium, Toshiba, Toyota, ULVAC, University of Münster, Volkswagen, Wanxian A123 Systems, WeLion New Energy Technology, Zhongtian Technology

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Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Players talked about in this report
  • 1.2. Industry efforts on solid-state batteries
  • 1.3. Status and future of solid state battery business
  • 1.4. Regional efforts: Germany, France, UK, Australia, USA, Japan, Korea and China
  • 1.5. Comparison of various solid-state lithium-based batteries
  • 1.6. Solid-state electrolyte technology approach
  • 1.7. Comparison of solid state electrolytes
  • 1.8. Technology evaluation
  • 1.9. Technology evaluation: polymer vs. LLZO vs. LATP vs. LGPS
  • 1.10. Technology and manufacturing readiness 1
  • 1.11. Technology and manufacturing readiness 2
  • 1.12. Score comparison
  • 1.13. Solid state battery collaborations / acquisitions by OEMs
  • 1.14. Battery ambitions
  • 1.15. Solid-state battery value chain
  • 1.16. Potential applications for solid-state batteries
  • 1.17. Market readiness 1
  • 1.18. Market readiness 2
  • 1.19. Market readiness 3
  • 1.20. Solid-state batteries for electric vehicles
  • 1.21. Solid-state batteries for consumer electronics
  • 1.22. Solid-state battery sales by units
  • 1.23. Solid-state battery production by GWh
  • 1.24. Forecasts by chemistry 2019-2029
  • 1.25. Forecasts by application 2019-2029
  • 1.26. Performance comparison: Electric Vehicles
  • 1.27. Market penetration by 2029 - EVs
  • 1.28. Market penetration by 2029 - drones
  • 1.29. Solid-state battery market for EVs ($B)
  • 1.30. Solid-state battery market share for EVs in 2024 and 2029
  • 1.31. Solid-state battery sales by units (EV)
  • 1.32. Solid-state battery market for electric cars ($B)
  • 1.33. Solid-state battery market for electric trucks ($B)
  • 1.34. Solid-state battery market for electric buses ($M)
  • 1.35. Market growth for solid-state batteries in wearables and CEs ($M)
  • 1.36. Performance comparison: CEs & wearables
  • 1.37. Solid-state battery market for wearables and CEs
  • 1.38. Market penetration by 2029 - wearables and CEs

CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND

2. Chapter 1: introduction

3. WHY IS BATTERY DEVELOPMENT SO SLOW?

  • 3.1. What is a battery?
  • 3.2. A big obstacle - energy density
  • 3.3. Battery technology is based on redox reactions
  • 3.4. Electrochemical reaction is essentially based on electron transfer
  • 3.5. Electrochemical inactive components reduce energy density
  • 3.6. The importance of an electrolyte in a battery
  • 3.7. Cathode & anode need to have structural order
  • 3.8. Failure story about metallic lithium anode

4. SAFETY ISSUES WITH LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

  • 4.1. Safety of liquid-electrolyte lithium-ion batteries
  • 4.2. Modern horror films are finding their scares in dead phone batteries
  • 4.3. Samsung's firegate
  • 4.4. Safety aspects of Li-ion batteries
  • 4.5. LIB cell temperature and likely outcome

5. LI-ION BATTERIES

  • 5.1. Food is electricity for humans
  • 5.2. What is a Li-ion battery (LIB)?
  • 5.3. Anode alternatives: Lithium titanium and lithium metal
  • 5.4. Anode alternatives: Other carbon materials
  • 5.5. Anode alternatives: Silicon, tin and alloying materials
  • 5.6. Cathode alternatives: LNMO, NMC, NCA and Vanadium pentoxide
  • 5.7. Cathode alternatives: LFP
  • 5.8. Cathode alternatives: Sulphur
  • 5.9. Cathode alternatives: Oxygen
  • 5.10. High energy cathodes require fluorinated electrolytes
  • 5.11. Why is lithium so important?
  • 5.12. Where is lithium?
  • 5.13. How to produce lithium 1
  • 5.14. How to produce lithium 2
  • 5.15. Where is lithium used 1
  • 5.16. Where is lithium used 2
  • 5.17. Question: how much lithium do we need? 1
  • 5.18. Question: how much lithium do we need? 2
  • 5.19. Question: how much Li do we need? 3
  • 5.20. How can LIBs be improved? 1
  • 5.21. How can LIBs be improved? 2

6. BATTERY REQUIREMENT

  • 6.1. Push and pull factors in Li-ion research
  • 6.2. The battery trilemma
  • 6.3. Performance limit
  • 6.4. Form factor
  • 6.5. Cost

7. CONCLUSIONS

  • 7.1. Conclusions

CHAPTER 2: LONG FOR ALL SOLID-STATE BATTERIES

  • 8.1. Introduction

9. WHY SOLID-STATE BATTERIES

  • 9.1. A solid future?
  • 9.2. Lithium-ion batteries vs. solid-state batteries
  • 9.3. What is a solid-state battery (SSB)?
  • 9.4. How can solid-state batteries increase performance?
  • 9.5. Close stacking
  • 9.6. Energy density improvement
  • 9.7. Value propositions and limitations of solid state battery
  • 9.8. Flexibility and customisation provided by solid-state batteries

10. INTERESTS ON SOLID-STATE BATTERIES

  • 10.1. Research efforts on solid-state batteries
  • 10.2. A new cycle of interests
  • 10.3. Interests in China
  • 10.4. CATL
  • 10.5. Qing Tao Energy Development
  • 10.6. History of Qing Tao Energy Development
  • 10.7. Ganfeng Lithium
  • 10.8. Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS
  • 10.9. WeLion New Energy Technology 1
  • 10.10. WeLion New Energy Technology 2
  • 10.11. WeLion New Energy Technology 3
  • 10.12. JiaWei Renewable Energy
  • 10.13. Enovate Motors
  • 10.14. 11 other Chinese player activities on solid state batteries
  • 10.15. Regional interests: Japan
  • 10.16. Technology roadmap according to Germany's NPE
  • 10.17. Roadmap for battery cell technology
  • 10.18. SSB project-Ionics
  • 10.19. SSB project-SBIR 2016
  • 10.20. Automakers' efforts - BMW
  • 10.21. Automakers' efforts - Volkswagen
  • 10.22. Automakers' efforts - Hyundai
  • 10.23. Automakers' efforts - Toyota 1
  • 10.24. Automakers' efforts - Toyota 2
  • 10.25. Automakers' efforts - Fisker Inc.
  • 10.26. Automakers' efforts - Bolloré
  • 10.27. Battery vendors' efforts - Panasonic
  • 10.28. Battery vendors' efforts - Samsung SDI
  • 10.29. Academic views - University of Münster 1
  • 10.30. Academic views - University of Münster 2
  • 10.31. Academic views - Giessen University
  • 10.32. Academic views - Fraunhofer Batterien

CHAPTER 3: SOLID-STATE BATTERIES

12. INTRODUCTION TO SOLID-STATE BATTERIES

  • 12.1. History of solid-state batteries
  • 12.2. Solid-state battery configurations 1
  • 12.3. Solid-state battery configurations 2
  • 12.4. Solid-state electrolytes
  • 12.5. Differences between liquid and solid electrolytes
  • 12.6. How to design a good solid-state electrolyte
  • 12.7. Classifications of solid-state electrolyte
  • 12.8. Thin film vs. bulk solid-state batteries
  • 12.9. Scaling of thin ceramic sheets
  • 12.10. How safe are solid-state batteries?

13. SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTES

  • 13.1. Applications of polymer-based batteries
  • 13.2. LiPo batteries, polymer-based batteries, polymeric batteries
  • 13.3. Types of polymer electrolytes
  • 13.4. Electrolytic polymer options
  • 13.5. Advantages and issues of polymer electrolytes
  • 13.6. PEO for solid polymer electrolyte
  • 13.7. Polymer-based battery: Solidenergy
  • 13.8. Coslight
  • 13.9. BrightVolt batteries
  • 13.10. BrightVolt product matrix
  • 13.11. BrightVolt electrolyte
  • 13.12. Hydro-Québec
  • 13.13. Solvay 1
  • 13.14. Solvay 2
  • 13.15. IMEC 1
  • 13.16. IMEC 2
  • 13.17. Polyplus
  • 13.18. SEEO
  • 13.19. Innovative electrode for semi-solid electrolyte batteries
  • 13.20. Redefining manufacturing process by 24M
  • 13.21. Ionic Materials
  • 13.22. Technology and manufacturing process of Ionic Materials
  • 13.23. Prieto Battery
  • 13.24. Companies working on polymer solid state batteries
  • 13.25. Solid Inorganic Electrolytes
  • 13.26. Types of solid inorganic electrolytes for Li-ion 1
  • 13.27. Types of solid inorganic electrolytes for Li-ion 2
  • 13.28. Oxide Inorganic Electrolyte
  • 13.29. Oxide electrolyte
  • 13.30. Garnet
  • 13.31. QuantumScape's technology 1
  • 13.32. QuantumScape's technology 2
  • 13.33. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • 13.34. Nagoya University
  • 13.35. Toshiba
  • 13.36. NASICON-type
  • 13.37. Lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic powder-01
  • 13.38. LICGCTM PW-01 for cathode additives
  • 13.39. Ohara's products for solid state batteries
  • 13.40. Ohara / PolyPlus
  • 13.41. Application of LICGC for all solid state batteries
  • 13.42. Properties of multilayer all solid-state lithium ion battery using LICGC as electrolyte
  • 13.43. LICGC products at the show
  • 13.44. Manufacturing process of Ohara glass
  • 13.45. Taiyo Yuden
  • 13.46. Schott
  • 13.47. Perovskite
  • 13.48. LiPON
  • 13.49. LiPON: construction
  • 13.50. Players worked and working LiPON-based batteries
  • 13.51. Cathode material options for LiPON-based batteries
  • 13.52. Anodes for LiPON-based batteries
  • 13.53. Substrate options for LiPON-based batteries
  • 13.54. Trend of materials and processes of thin-film battery in different companies
  • 13.55. LiPON: capacity increase
  • 13.56. Technology of Infinite Power Solutions
  • 13.57. Cost comparison between a standard prismatic battery and IPS' battery
  • 13.58. Thin-film solid-state batteries made by Excellatron
  • 13.59. Johnson Battery Technologies
  • 13.60. JBT's advanced technology performance
  • 13.61. Ultra-thin micro-battery-NanoEnergy®
  • 13.62. Micro-Batteries suitable for integration
  • 13.63. From limited to mass production-STMicroelectronics
  • 13.64. Summary of the EnFilm™ rechargeable thin-film battery
  • 13.65. CEA Tech
  • 13.66. Ilika 1
  • 13.67. Ilika 2
  • 13.68. Ilika 3
  • 13.69. TDK
  • 13.70. CeraCharge's performance
  • 13.71. Main applications of CeraCharge
  • 13.72. ProLogium: Solid-state lithium ceramic battery
  • 13.73. ProLogium: EV battery pack assembly
  • 13.74. FDK
  • 13.75. Applications of FDK's solid state battery
  • 13.76. Companies working on oxide solid state batteries
  • 13.77. Sulphide Inorganic Electrolyte
  • 13.78. Solid Power
  • 13.79. LISICON-type 1
  • 13.80. LISICON-type 2
  • 13.81. Hitachi Zosen's solid-state electrolyte
  • 13.82. Hitachi Zosen's batteries
  • 13.83. Solid-state electrolytes - Konan University
  • 13.84. Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • 13.85. Argyrodite
  • 13.86. Companies working on sulphide solid state batteries
  • 13.87. Others
  • 13.88. Li-hydrides
  • 13.89. Li-halides
  • 13.90. Summary
  • 13.91. Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 1
  • 13.92. Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 2
  • 13.93. Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 3
  • 13.94. Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 4
  • 13.95. Dendrites - ceramic fillers and high shear modulus are needed
  • 13.96. Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes 1
  • 13.97. Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes 2

14. PATENT ANALYSIS AROUND SOLID-STATE ELECTROLYTES

  • 14.1. Overview of investigation
  • 14.2. Total number of patents by electrolyte type and material
  • 14.3. The SSE patent portfolio of key assignees

15. PATENT ANALYSIS ON NON-COMPOSITE INORGANIC OR POLYMERIC SOLID-STATE ELECTROLYTE

  • 15.1. Total number of patents by SSE material
  • 15.2. Patent application fluctuations from 2014 to 2016
  • 15.3. Legal status of patents in 2018 by SSE material
  • 15.4. Key assignee's patent portfolio of non-composite SSEs
  • 15.5. PEO: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.6. LPS: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.7. LLZO: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.8. LLTO: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.9. Lithium Iodide: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.10. LGPS: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.11. LIPON: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.12. LATP: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.13. LAGP: Patent Activity
  • 15.14. Argyrodite: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.15. LiBH4: Patent Activity Trends
  • 15.16. Conclusions

16. COMPOSITE ELECTROLYTES

  • 16.1. The best of both worlds?
  • 16.2. Toshiba

17. SOLID-STATE ELECTROLYTES BEYOND LI-ION

  • 17.1. Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-sulphur batteries
  • 17.2. Lithium sulphur solid electrode development phases
  • 17.3. Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-air batteries
  • 17.4. Solid-state electrolytes in metal-air batteries
  • 17.5. Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-ion batteries 1
  • 17.6. Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-ion batteries 2
  • 17.7. Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-sulphur batteries 1
  • 17.8. Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-sulphur batteries 2

CHAPTER 4: SOLID-STATE BATTERY MANUFACTURING

19. SOLID-STATE BATTERY MANUFACTURING

  • 19.1. The real bottleneck
  • 19.2. The incumbent process: lamination
  • 19.3. Solid battery fabrication process
  • 19.4. Manufacturing equipment for solid-state batteries
  • 19.5. Typical manufacturing method of the all solid-state battery (SMD type)
  • 19.6. Are thin film electrolytes viable?
  • 19.7. Summary of main fabrication technique for thin film batteries
  • 19.8. PVD processes for thin-film batteries 1
  • 19.9. PVD processes for thin-film batteries 2
  • 19.10. PVD processes for thin-film batteries 3
  • 19.11. Ilika's PVD approach
  • 19.12. Avenues for manufacturing
  • 19.13. Toyota's approach 1
  • 19.14. Toyota's approach 2
  • 19.15. Hitachi Zosen's approach
  • 19.16. Sakti3's PVD approach
  • 19.17. Planar Energy's approach

CHAPTER 5: COMPANY PROFILES

21. COMPANY PROFILES

22. APPENDIX

  • 22.1. Glossary of terms - specifications
  • 22.2. Useful charts for performance comparison
  • 22.3. Battery categories
  • 22.4. Commercial battery packaging technologies
  • 22.5. Comparison of commercial battery packaging technologies
  • 22.6. Actors along the value chain for energy storage
  • 22.7. Primary battery chemistries and common applications
  • 22.8. Numerical specifications of popular rechargeable battery chemistries
  • 22.9. Battery technology benchmark
  • 22.10. What does 1 kilowatthour (kWh) look like?
  • 22.11. Technology and manufacturing readiness
  • 22.12. List of acronyms
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