Product Code: ISBN 9781913899455
Stationary Energy Storage Without Batteries: Grid, Microgrid, UPS, Trackside 2021-2041
Gravitational, Compressed Air, Liquified Air, Thermal Energy, Li-ion Capacitor, Supercapacitor, uninterruptible power supplies, peak shaving, frequency correction, intermittency compensation, peak power delivery, voltage compensation, pulse power, KERS.
Today, stationary energy storage usually means batteries or pumped hydro. They have environmental and scale-up issues from shortage of materials to shortage of sites. They poorly meet or fail completely with many of the emerging requirements, such as railway surges and seasonal storage of solar. That means a large market for alternatives.
Welcome the 195 page IDTechEx report, "Stationary Energy Storage Without Batteries: Grid, Microgrid, UPS, Trackside 2021-2041". Uniquely, it reveals how new battery-less stationary storage will surge to a $6.5 billion business in 2031, with much more beyond. Learn how compressing air or lifting weights can win for the developing market for massive seasonal storage of solar power but there are subsets and other options. Electric train systems taking over from diesel save 15% of their energy bill if 95% efficient supercapacitors grab train braking energy, then surge it into trains leaving. Batteries perform poorly for this, so they are being abandoned.
For electricity supply, see how there is scope for storing hydrogen for fuel cells, using flywheels, new lithium-ion supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, thermal storage, liquifying or compressing air. These non-battery solutions, mostly with no precious metals, toxins or explosions are also compared and prospects appraised. Which are excellent and which are a poor investment for this? Many non-battery options are promised to reach half the levelized cost of storage of lithium-ion batteries, today's stationary-storage favourite. Which ones and can they be believed?
The report is commercially-oriented to serve all in the value chain by clarifying where the technology and demands are leading, the players and the gaps in the market. Good and bad: assessment not eulogy. It is researched and frequently updated by IDTechEx analysts worldwide, often at PhD level, and carrying out interviews in local languages. Many new infograms, pictures, diagrams, graphs and ongoing 2021 news items make it both easily readable and up-to-date.
Questions answered for grid, microgrid, UPS and trackside rail include:
- What is the full picture of emerging stationary-storage needs 2021-2041?
- What is the complete portfolio of non-battery options 2021-2041?
- What does the research pipeline tell us?
- What is the bad and good of these vs emerging batteries for stationary storage?
- Projected costs vary from low to high. Which, why, what prospective improvement?
- Why is there a place for technologies with a few minutes to effectively infinite storage time?
- What do combinations as "hybrid energy storage systems" achieve?
- What are the many gaps in the emerging market for smart city distributed storage?
- Who will emerge as leading players making billion-dollar new businesses out of all this?
- What companies will make ideal collaborators?
The Executive Summary and Conclusions section is sufficient for those with limited time, its many new infograms and tables comparing the options, technologies, achievements and opportunities with many roadmaps and forecasts to 2041. They even reveal the later-arriving challenges and opportunities. See some mainstream battery uses being challenged by later-emerging cleaner, better-performing, safer, more affordable options covered in the report.
The rest consists of the following topics, all including many actual examples in action or under trial:
- 2. Introduction - Understand ongoing battery problems leading to the adoption of alternatives for reasons of safety, performance, and cost. See the contestants for more affordable, better performing, safer and more environmental energy storage than batteries can provide. We introduce the electricity grid structure, the service which the grid requires and microgrids and give new storage examples from 2021.
- 3. Supercapacitors and derivatives - Technology, success, best practice and potential for pure, symmetrical EDLC and derivatives lithium-ion capacitors LIC and pseudocapacitors in banks 1kWh and above, including multipurpose backup/ peak shaving/ power factor correction etc. Manufacturers compared.
- 4. Gravitational Energy Storage - 35 packed pages because of its importance and variety including U-PHES ARGES, MGES etc. In the initial part, a chart of the energy provided by a mass of different size and falling from different heights is provided to give the reader a feeling of the size of the mass required. The subchapter concludes with an analysis of GES and its capability to reach the market.
- 5. Compressed Air Energy Storage - CAES Technical features, options, companies and future prospects.
- 6. Liquid Air Energy Storage - LAES technology, market and potential.
- 7. Thermal Energy Storage - TES technology, market and potential.
- 8. Company profiles - as links to IDTechEx database and detailed tables with critical appraisal.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
- 1.1. Batteries currently dominate stationary energy storage
- 1.2. Primary conclusions for stationary storage without batteries 2021-2041: big picture
- 1.3. New options tackle extremes where batteries fail and also start to tackle mainstream battery applications
- 1.4. Primary conclusions for stationary storage without batteries 2021-2041: Technology choices
- 1.5. A Growing Energy Storage Market
- 1.6. High Potential ES Technologies: Overview
- 1.7. High Potential ES Technologies: Parameters
- 1.8. Addressing the issues
- 1.9. High Potential ES Technologies: Technology Segmentation
- 1.10. Emerging W/kg & Wh/kg
- 1.11. Which technology will dominate the market?
- 1.12. High Potential ES Technologies: Parameter comparison
- 1.13. High Potential ES Technologies analysis
- 1.14. Technology/Manufacturing Readiness Level: definitions
- 1.15. Technology/Manufacturing Readiness Level
- 1.16. Why not Li-ion or Redox Flow batteries?
- 1.17. Comparison of energy storage devices
- 1.18. Forecast Methodology
- 1.19. Forecast Assumptions
- 1.20. Market Forecasts - Gravity, liquid air and compressed air stationary energy storage
- 1.21. Stationary energy storage without batteries: technology shares 2041
- 1.22. Forecast technology breakdown for leading technologies
- 1.23. Supercapacitor technology roadmap 2021-2041
- 1.24. Global supercapacitor value market by territory 2021-2041
- 2.1. Overview
- 2.2. Battery limitations
- 2.3. Renewable Energies: Energy generated and cost trend
- 2.4. The increasingly important role of stationary storage
- 2.5. Stationary energy storage is not new
- 2.6. Why We Need Energy Storage
- 2.7. Energy Storage Devices
- 2.8. Energy Storage Classification
- 2.9. Technology choices: no single winner for everything
- 2.10. Example: Trackside SESS
- 2.11. Example: Stationary energy storage for tramlines
- 2.12. ESS, BESS, BTM, FTM
- 2.13. Stationary Energy Storage Markets
- 2.14. New avenues for stationary storage
- 2.15. Example: Gravitational energy storage for grid
- 2.16. Incentives for energy storage
- 2.17. Overview of ES drivers
- 2.18. Renewable energy self-consumption
- 2.19. ToU Arbitrage
- 2.20. Feed-in-Tariff phase-outs
- 2.21. Net metering phase-outs
- 2.22. Demand Charge Reduction
- 2.23. Other Drivers
- 2.24. Values provided at the customer side
- 2.25. Values provided at the utility side
- 2.26. Values provided in ancillary services
- 2.27. Example: World's largest liquid air energy storage April 2021
- 2.28. Modernising pumped hydro
3. SUPERCAPACITORS AND DERIVATIVES
- 3.1. Basics
- 3.2. Typical stationary power applications of supercapacitors so far
- 3.3. Primary conclusions: regional differences and typical values by application
- 3.4. US railgun
- 3.5. Some supercapacitor applications targeted by manufacturers by sector
- 3.6. Examples of the large emerging market for 0.1 kWh to 1MWh supercapacitors
- 3.7. Trackside train and tram regeneration - Bombardier, Siemens, Cegelec, Greentech light rail and tram
- 3.8. Light rail: regen supercapacitors on train or trackside
- 3.9. Wayside Rail HESS: Frequency regulation, energy efficiency
- 3.10. Supercapacitors in the energy sector - Overview
- 3.11. New generation wave power and wave heave compensation
- 3.12. New generation tidal power
- 3.13. Wind power - Wind turbine protection and output smoothing
- 3.14. Airborne Wind Energy AWE
- 3.15. Utility energy storage and large UPS
- 3.16. The role of supercapacitors in the grid - Maxwell insight
- 3.17. Hybrid electric energy storage HEES: benefits
- 3.18. Purdue and Wisconsin Universities insight
- 3.19. Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cell SOEC fuel cell HEES with supercapacitor storage in grid
- 3.20. Example: Duke Energy Rankin PV intermittency smoothing + load shifting
- 3.21. Example: smoothing wind farm power output
- 3.22. Freqcon - utility-scale supercapacitors
- 3.23. Microgrids
- 3.24. Example: Ireland microgrid test bed
- 3.25. Borkum Municipality with a flagship project for stationary energy storage
4. GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY STORAGE (GES)
- 4.1.1. Gravitational Energy Storage (GES)
- 4.1.2. Calculation from Gravitricity technology
- 4.1.3. Piston Based GES - Energy Stored example
- 4.1.4. GES Technology Classification
- 4.1.5. Can the GES reach the market?
- 4.1.6. Structure of the remainder of this chapter
- 4.2. ARES
- 4.2.1. ARES LLC Technology Overview
- 4.2.2. ARES Technologies: Traction Drive, Ridgeline
- 4.2.3. Technical Comparison: Traction Drive, Ridgeline
- 4.2.4. A considerable Landscape footprint
- 4.2.5. ARES Market, and Technology analysis
- 4.3. Piston Based Gravitational Energy Storage (PB-GES)
- 4.3.1. Energy Vault - Technology working principle
- 4.3.2. Energy Vault - Brick Material
- 4.3.3. Energy Vault Technology and market analysis
- 4.3.4. Gravitricity - Piston-based Energy storage
- 4.3.5. Gravitricity technology analysis
- 4.3.6. Mountain Gravity Energy Storage (MGES): Overview
- 4.3.7. Mountain Gravity Energy Storage (MGES): Analysis
- 4.4. Underground - Pumped Hydro Energy Storage (U-PHES)
- 4.4.1. Underground - PHES:
- 4.4.2. U-PHES - Gravity Power
- 4.4.3. U-PHES - Heindl Energy
- 4.4.4. Detailed description of Heindl Energy technology
- 4.4.5. U-PHES - Heindl Energy
- 4.4.6. Underground - PHES: Analysis
- 4.5. Under Water Energy Storage (UWES)
- 4.5.1. Under Water Energy Storage (UWES) - Analysis
5. COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE (CAES)
- 5.1. CAES Historical Development
- 5.2. CAES Technologies overview
- 5.3. Drawbacks of CAES
- 5.4. Diabatic Compressed Energy Storage (D-CAES)
- 5.5. Huntorf D-CAES - North of Germany
- 5.6. McIntosh D-CAES - US Alabama
- 5.7. Adiabatic - Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES)
- 5.8. A - CAES analysis
- 5.9. Isothermal - Compressed Air Energy Storage (I - CAES)
- 5.10. Main players in CAES technologies
- 5.11. CAES Players and Project
6. LIQUID AIR ENERGY STORAGE (LAES)
- 6.1. Liquid Air Energy Storage
- 6.2. The Dawn of Liquid Air in the Energy Storage Market
- 6.3. Sumitomo Industries invests in Highview Energy
- 6.4. Hot and Cold Storage Materials:
- 6.5. Industrial Processes to Liquify Air
- 6.6. LAES Historical Evolution
- 6.7. LAES Companies and Projects
- 6.8. LAES Players
- 6.9. LAES Analyst analysis
7. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE (TES)
- 7.1. TES Technology Overview and Classification
- 7.2. Diurnal TES Systems - Domestic application
- 7.3. Diurnal TES Systems - Solar Thermal Power Plants (CSP)
- 7.4. Seasonal and long-duration TES Systems
- 7.5. Seasonal TES Systems - Underground TES
- 7.6. Seasonal TES Systems - Solar Ponds
8. COMPANY PROFILES
- 8.1. Company Profiles
- 8.2. Manufacturers of supercapacitors and derivatives for stationary energy storage - Explanation of our 10 assessment columns
- 8.3. Number of supercapacitor manufacturers by territory 2020 and trend to 2041