市場調查報告書
商品編碼
971190

OTT平台監管:通過調整歐洲監管體係來應對美國和中國平台的壟斷

OTT Platform Regulation: Harmonized European Regulatory Framework to Cope with the Dominance of US and Chinese Platforms

出版日期: | 出版商: IDATE DigiWorld | 英文 72 Pages | 商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內

價格
  • 全貌
  • 簡介
  • 目錄
簡介

新型冠狀病毒感染(COVID-19)危機過後,主要在線平台在消費者和公民生活的各個方面(工作/教育,新聞,娛樂,文化,購物等)發揮了作用。歐盟目前正在大力推動經濟和社會DX(數位轉型),以加強單一市場,規範互聯網巨頭以及取回(來自美國和中國平台的)數位主權。

本報告分析了歐洲國家OTT平台的監管現狀和未來修訂前景,以及當前的監管水平和內容,個人數據保護,內容創建支持,平台徵稅,禁止壟斷。我們將為您提供有關法規等信息,區域和國家級法規和稅收動向,特別是針對GAFA的動向,以及與北美國家(美國/加拿大)進行比較的信息。

目錄

第1章執行摘要

  • 在數位競爭中,歐洲落後於美國和中國
  • 在歐洲實現合作需求-國家間存在衝突

第2章簡介

第3章個人數據保護

  • 歐洲的主要問題
  • 歐洲監管框架
  • 歐洲監管框架中的缺陷
  • 大西洋兩岸有爭議的文字
  • 歐盟以外的數據傳輸選項:嚴格的規定
  • 歐盟和美國之間的隱私壁壘
  • 歐洲各地因個人數據洩露而增加罰款
  • 鼓勵非個人數據自由流通的運動
  • 主要歐洲國家/地區的狀態:德國,英國,法國
  • 北美情況:美國,加拿大

第4章對內容創建的支持

  • 歐洲的主要問題
  • 各種監管框架(2018年之前)
  • 視聽平台監管框架:歐洲尚不存在
  • 歐洲視聽行業監管方法的一般原則
  • 歐洲監管框架:視聽領域的關鍵監管程序
  • 2018年指令的主要規定
  • 向國內法過渡的前景(至2020年9月19日)
  • 根據國內法比較生產資金的敞口和貢獻(2010 AMS指令)
  • 協調歐洲版權法律框架
  • 版權指令的兩個要點
  • GAFA/自由互聯網衝突支持者和權利人指令
  • 法國:第一個轉移版權指令的國家
  • 北美情況:美國,加拿大

第5章對OTT平台徵稅

  • 歐洲的主要問題
  • 歐盟各地的稅收大不相同
  • 增值稅(VAT):歐盟的主要 "和諧" 稅
  • 爭取免稅
  • 希望在歐洲統一稅基
  • 在全球範圍內過渡到 "GAFA稅" 的可能性
  • 各國要求在自己的國家建立GAFA稅,然後才能實現更廣泛的和諧
  • 北美情況:美國,加拿大

第6章OTT平台之間的競爭

  • 歐洲的主要問題
  • 歐洲監管框架
  • 電子商務指令(2000/31/CE)
  • 主要針對媒體,電信和OTT平台的各種措施
  • 針對帝斯曼採取的行動,以統一單一市場規則並增強國際競爭力
  • 2020年:歐洲工業戰略的新一步和公平競爭條件的創造
  • "塑造歐洲數位化的未來" :旨在定義歐盟委員會優先事項的主要通訊(2020-2025)
  • 與電子商務有關的指令(2000/31/CE)更新
  • "工業戰略" 計劃
  • 歐洲競爭網絡(ECN)
  • 北美情況:美國,加拿大
目錄
Product Code: M20230MRA

While the Covid-19 crisis has shed light on the major role played by the leading online platforms in many aspects of the lives of consumers and citizens (work and education, news, entertainment, culture, shopping), Europe is taking new steps to complete the digital transformation of the economy and society, strengthen the single market and ultimately regulate the Internet giants to regain its digital sovereignty.

  • This study takes a close look at the measures taken and strategies pursued by Europe in terms of personal data protection, supporting content creation, taxation of platforms and regulation of the competition
  • It also highlights the unique characteristics of national regulation in certain European countries and sanctions that have been implemented at the local level against GAFA
  • It compares the European approach to that adopted in North America by the United States and Canada
  • It helps us to understand how Europe is trying to meet the major challenges posed by the dominance of US and Chinese platforms, by developing and imposing a set of harmonized rules at the single European market level

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

  • Europe lagging behind United States and China in the digitalisation race
  • European realisation of the need to collaborate, but this notion clashes with national divergence

2. Introduction

3. Protection of personal data

  • 3.1. Key issues for Europe
  • 3.2. European regulatory framework
  • 3.3. European regulatory framework still incomplete
  • 3.4. Controversial text on both sides of the Atlantic
  • 3.5. The option of transferring data outside the EU is strictly regulated
  • 3.6. The EU-US Privacy Shield
  • 3.7. Increasing number of fines across Europe for infringement of personal data
  • 3.8. The free flow of non-personal data is being encouraged
  • 3.9. The situation in some key countries in Europe
  • > Germany > United Kingdom > France
  • 3.10. The situation in North America
  • > United States > Canada

4. Support for content creation

  • 4.1. Key issues for Europe
  • 4.2. Different regulatory frameworks until 2018
  • 4.3. No European framework for regulation of audiovisual platforms ...
  • 4.4. General principles of the European approach to regulation of the audiovisual sector
  • 4.5. European regulatory framework: the major regulatory steps in the audiovisual field
  • 4.6. Main provisions of the 2018 Directive
  • 4.7. Transposition into national law expected by 19 September 2020
  • 4.8. Comparison of exposure and production financing contribution in national law (2010 AMS Directive)
  • 4.9. Harmonisation of the European legal framework on copyright
  • 4.10. The two key points of the Copyright Directive
  • 4.11. A Directive that pits GAFA / proponents of a free internet and rightholders against each other
  • 4.12. France, 1st country to transpose the Copyright Directive
  • 4.13. The situation in North America
  • > United States > Canada

5. Taxation of OTT Platforms

  • 5.1. Key issues for Europe
  • 5.2. Very different taxation across the European Union
  • 5.3. VAT, the EU's main "harmonised" tax
  • 5.4. The fight against tax evasion
  • 5.5. The desire to harmonise the tax base at the European level
  • 5.6. Moving towards a "GAFA tax" on a global scale?
  • 5.7. Local hopes of creating national GAFA taxes while waiting for wider harmonisation
  • 5.8. The situation in North America
  • > United States > Canada

6. Competition between OTT Platforms

  • 6.1. Key issues for Europe
  • 6.2. The European regulatory framework
  • 6.3. Directive on electronic commerce (2000/31/CE)
  • 6.4. A variety of measures mainly focusing on the media, telecoms and OTT platforms
  • 6.5. Actions taken towards the DSM to harmonise single market rules and strengthen European industry against international competition
  • 6.6. 2020 marks a new stage in the European industrial strategy and in the creation of fair competition conditions
  • 6.7. "Shaping Europe's digital future": a major communication that aims to define the Commission's priorities for the 2020-2025 period
  • 6.8. Modernisation of Directive 2000/31/CE relating to electronic commerce
  • 6.9. The "Industrial strategy" package
  • 6.10. European Competition Network (ECN)
  • 6.11. The situation in North America
  • > United States > Canada

List of tables and figures

Protection of personal data

  • The key points of the GDPR
  • The key points of the proposed ePrivacy Regulation (text from January 2017)
  • Various laws covering privacy and identity protection (FTC)

Support for content creation

  • Examples of video services subject to different regulations
  • Examples of areas covered by national regulations
  • Comparison of the main obligations of promotion, distribution and production imposed on on-demand audiovisual media services in a selection of Member States

Taxation of OTT Platforms

  • Comparison of corporate taxes in Europe, (July 2020)
  • Comparison of VAT rates (standard rate) in Europe, July 2020
  • Comparison of VAT rates (reduced rate) in Europe, July 2020
  • Illustration of the "Double Irish" and "Dutch Sandwich" schemes
  • Various US tax reform measures
  • Expected tax revenue from taxing the revenues of large tech companies in Canada
  • Expected tax revenue from imposing GST on online sales of goods and services in Canada

Competition between OTT Platforms

  • Breakdown of online advertising revenues by major player, 2018
  • Amazon's market share in e-commerce, 2019
  • Market share of the major music streaming platforms, 2019
  • The Digital Single Market in a set of 16 targeted actions
  • Digital Single Market 2015
  • New industrial strategy 2020