市場調查報告書
商品編碼
1029322

麻醉用氣管內插管的全球市場:產業趨勢,佔有率,規模,成長,機會,預測(2021年-2026年)

Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2021-2026

出版日期: | 出版商: IMARC Services Private Limited | 英文 145 Pages | 商品交期: 2-3個工作天內

價格
  • 全貌
  • 簡介
  • 目錄
簡介

全球麻醉用氣管內插管的市場規模,從2015年到2020年顯示緩慢的成長,從2021年到2026年,預計以約5%的年複合成長率成長。

促進市場成長的重要要素,是全球的慢性疾病增加,容易有呼吸系統疾病和心血管障礙(CVD)的老年人口增加。COVID-19在全球持續擴大,醫療機關為了進行呼吸道相關的治療需求大幅度增加。創新的銀塗層麻醉用氣管內插管的開發等技術進步也成為促進成長的要素。

本報告提供全球麻醉用氣管內插管市場相關調查分析,全球市場,插管各類型,各產品類型,各終端用戶,各地區市場市場區隔,SWOT分析,價值鏈分析,波特五力分析,價格分析,競爭情形,企業簡介等資訊。

目錄

第1章 序文

第2章 範圍與調查手法

第3章 摘要整理

第4章 簡介

第5章 全球麻醉用氣管內插管市場

  • 市場概要
  • 市場效能
  • COVID-19的影響

第6章 市場區隔:各插管類型

  • 經鼻氣管
  • 經口氣管
  • 混合

第7章 市場區隔:各產品類型

  • 通常的管
  • 強化/裝甲管
  • 被表面塗層的管
  • 其他

第8章 市場區隔:各終端用戶

  • 醫院
  • 門診病人手術中心
  • 其他

第9章 市場區隔:各地區

  • 北美
    • 美國
    • 加拿大
  • 亞太地區
    • 中國
    • 日本
    • 印度
    • 韓國
    • 澳洲
    • 印尼
    • 其他
  • 歐洲
    • 德國
    • 法國
    • 英國
    • 義大利
    • 西班牙
    • 俄羅斯
    • 其他
  • 南美
    • 巴西
    • 墨西哥
    • 其他
  • 中東和非洲
    • 市場區隔:各國

第10章 SWOT分析

第11章 價值鏈分析

第12章 波特五力分析

第13章 價格分析

第14章 競爭情形

  • 市場結構
  • 主要參與者
  • 主要參與者的簡介
    • C. R. Bard Inc.(Becton, Dickinson and Company)
    • ConvaTec Group Plc
    • Fuji Systems Co. Ltd.
    • GE Healthcare Inc.(General Electric Company)
    • Intersurgical Limited
    • Medtronic Plc
    • Neurovision Medical Products Inc.
    • Sewoon Medical Co. Ltd.
    • Smiths Medical Inc.
    • Teleflex Incorporated
目錄
Product Code: SR1020F272_Report

The global anesthesia endotracheal tubes market exhibited moderate growth during 2015-2020. Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the market to grow at a CAGR of around 5% during 2021-2026. Keeping in mind the uncertainties of COVID-19, we are continuously tracking and evaluating the direct as well as the indirect influence of the pandemic on different end use sectors. These insights are included in the report as a major market contributor.

Anesthesia endotracheal tubes (ETTs) refer to flexible catheters used for endotracheal intubation to facilitate artificial breathing and introduce sedating gases. Some of the commonly used anesthesia endotracheal tubes include orotracheal tubes, which are inserted through the nose, and nasotracheal tubes, which are inserted through the mouth into the trachea. They are manufactured using polyvinylchloride (PVC) and are used for introducing oxygen, xenon, sevoflurane and isoflurane. These tubes also protect the lungs from contamination of gastric contents and nasopharyngeal matter. As a result, they find extensive applications for various medical procedures, such as general anesthetic surgeries for traumas or severe illnesses and preventing airway obstruction.

Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Trends:

  • The increasing prevalence of chronic medical ailments across the globe represents one of the key factors driving the growth of the market. Furthermore, the rising geriatric population, which is more susceptible to respiratory diseases and cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), is also driving the market growth. In line with this, as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to spread across the globe, there has been a significant increase in the demand for anesthesia ETTs in the healthcare centers for conducting airway-related procedures. Additionally, various technological advancements, such as the development of innovative silver-coated ETTs, are acting as other growth-inducing factors. These tubes minimize the risks of hospital-acquired infections in patients that are intubated or mechanically ventilated. Product manufacturers are also developing variants with flexible tips that can easily move through fragile airways with minimal discomfort, which is creating a positive outlook for the market. Other factors, including extensive research and development (R&D) activities, along with improvements in the healthcare infrastructure, are anticipated to drive the market further.

Key Market Segmentation:

  • IMARC Group provides an analysis of the key trends in each sub-segment of the global anesthesia endotracheal tubes market, along with forecasts at the global, regional and country level from 2021-2026. Our report has categorized the market based on region, intubation type, product type and end user.

Breakup by Intubation Type:

  • Nasotracheal
  • Orotracheal
  • Hybrid

Breakup by Product Type:

  • Regular Tubes
  • Reinforced/Armored Tubes
  • Coated Tubes
  • Others

Breakup by End User:

  • Hospitals
  • Ambulatory Surgery Centers
  • Others

Breakup by Region:

  • North America
  • United States
  • Canada
  • Asia Pacific
  • China
  • Japan
  • India
  • South Korea
  • Australia
  • Indonesia
  • Others
  • Europe
  • Germany
  • France
  • United Kingdom
  • Italy
  • Spain
  • Russia
  • Others
  • Latin America
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • Others
  • Middle East and Africa

Competitive Landscape:

The report has also analysed the competitive landscape of the market with some of the key players being C. R. Bard Inc. (Becton, Dickinson and Company), ConvaTec Group Plc, Fuji Systems Co. Ltd., GE Healthcare Inc. (General Electric Company), Intersurgical Limited, Medtronic Plc, Neurovision Medical Products Inc., Sewoon Medical Co. Ltd., Smiths Medical Inc. and Teleflex Incorporated. Key Questions Answered in This Report:

  • How has the global anesthesia endotracheal tubes market performed so far and how will it perform in the coming years?
  • What has been the impact of COVID-19 on the global anesthesia endotracheal tubes market?
  • What are the key regional markets?
  • What is the breakup of the market based on the intubation type?
  • What is the breakup of the market based on the product type?
  • What is the breakup of the market based on the end user?
  • What are the various stages in the value chain of the industry?
  • What are the key driving factors and challenges in the industry?
  • What is the structure of the global anesthesia endotracheal tubes market and who are the key players?
  • What is the degree of competition in the industry?

Table of Contents

1 Preface

2 Scope and Methodology

  • 2.1 Objectives of the Study
  • 2.2 Stakeholders
  • 2.3 Data Sources
    • 2.3.1 Primary Sources
    • 2.3.2 Secondary Sources
  • 2.4 Market Estimation
    • 2.4.1 Bottom-Up Approach
    • 2.4.2 Top-Down Approach
  • 2.5 Forecasting Methodology

3 Executive Summary

4 Introduction

  • 4.1 Overview
  • 4.2 Key Industry Trends

5 Global Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market

  • 5.1 Market Overview
  • 5.2 Market Performance
  • 5.3 Impact of COVID-19
  • 5.4 Market Forecast

6 Market Breakup by Intubation Type

  • 6.1 Nasotracheal
    • 6.1.1 Market Trends
    • 6.1.2 Market Forecast
  • 6.2 Orotracheal
    • 6.2.1 Market Trends
    • 6.2.2 Market Forecast
  • 6.3 Hybrid
    • 6.3.1 Market Trends
    • 6.3.2 Market Forecast

7 Market Breakup by Product Type

  • 7.1 Regular Tubes
    • 7.1.1 Market Trends
    • 7.1.2 Market Forecast
  • 7.2 Reinforced/Armored Tubes
    • 7.2.1 Market Trends
    • 7.2.2 Market Forecast
  • 7.3 Coated Tubes
    • 7.3.1 Market Trends
    • 7.3.2 Market Forecast
  • 7.4 Others
    • 7.4.1 Market Trends
    • 7.4.2 Market Forecast

8 Market Breakup by End User

  • 8.1 Hospitals
    • 8.1.1 Market Trends
    • 8.1.2 Market Forecast
  • 8.2 Ambulatory Surgery Centers
    • 8.2.1 Market Trends
    • 8.2.2 Market Forecast
  • 8.3 Others
    • 8.3.1 Market Trends
    • 8.3.2 Market Forecast

9 Market Breakup by Region

  • 9.1 North America
    • 9.1.1 United States
      • 9.1.1.1 Market Trends
      • 9.1.1.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.1.2 Canada
      • 9.1.2.1 Market Trends
      • 9.1.2.2 Market Forecast
  • 9.2 Asia Pacific
    • 9.2.1 China
      • 9.2.1.1 Market Trends
      • 9.2.1.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.2.2 Japan
      • 9.2.2.1 Market Trends
      • 9.2.2.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.2.3 India
      • 9.2.3.1 Market Trends
      • 9.2.3.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.2.4 South Korea
      • 9.2.4.1 Market Trends
      • 9.2.4.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.2.5 Australia
      • 9.2.5.1 Market Trends
      • 9.2.5.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.2.6 Indonesia
      • 9.2.6.1 Market Trends
      • 9.2.6.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.2.7 Others
      • 9.2.7.1 Market Trends
      • 9.2.7.2 Market Forecast
  • 9.3 Europe
    • 9.3.1 Germany
      • 9.3.1.1 Market Trends
      • 9.3.1.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.3.2 France
      • 9.3.2.1 Market Trends
      • 9.3.2.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.3.3 United Kingdom
      • 9.3.3.1 Market Trends
      • 9.3.3.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.3.4 Italy
      • 9.3.4.1 Market Trends
      • 9.3.4.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.3.5 Spain
      • 9.3.5.1 Market Trends
      • 9.3.5.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.3.6 Russia
      • 9.3.6.1 Market Trends
      • 9.3.6.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.3.7 Others
      • 9.3.7.1 Market Trends
      • 9.3.7.2 Market Forecast
  • 9.4 Latin America
    • 9.4.1 Brazil
      • 9.4.1.1 Market Trends
      • 9.4.1.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.4.2 Mexico
      • 9.4.2.1 Market Trends
      • 9.4.2.2 Market Forecast
    • 9.4.3 Others
      • 9.4.3.1 Market Trends
      • 9.4.3.2 Market Forecast
  • 9.5 Middle East and Africa
    • 9.5.1 Market Trends
    • 9.5.2 Market Breakup by Country
    • 9.5.3 Market Forecast

10 SWOT Analysis

  • 10.1 Overview
  • 10.2 Strengths
  • 10.3 Weaknesses
  • 10.4 Opportunities
  • 10.5 Threats

11 Value Chain Analysis

12 Porters Five Forces Analysis

  • 12.1 Overview
  • 12.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers
  • 12.3 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
  • 12.4 Degree of Competition
  • 12.5 Threat of New Entrants
  • 12.6 Threat of Substitutes

13 Price Analysis

14 Competitive Landscape

  • 14.1 Market Structure
  • 14.2 Key Players
  • 14.3 Profiles of Key Players
    • 14.3.1 C. R. Bard Inc. (Becton, Dickinson and Company)
      • 14.3.1.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.1.2 Product Portfolio
    • 14.3.2 ConvaTec Group Plc
      • 14.3.2.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.2.2 Product Portfolio
      • 14.3.2.3 Financials
    • 14.3.3 Fuji Systems Co. Ltd.
      • 14.3.3.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.3.2 Product Portfolio
    • 14.3.4 GE Healthcare Inc. (General Electric Company)
      • 14.3.4.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.4.2 Product Portfolio
    • 14.3.5 Intersurgical Limited
      • 14.3.5.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.5.2 Product Portfolio
      • 14.3.5.3 Financials
      • 14.3.5.4 SWOT Analysis
    • 14.3.6 Medtronic Plc
      • 14.3.6.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.6.2 Product Portfolio
      • 14.3.6.3 Financials
      • 14.3.6.4 SWOT Analysis
    • 14.3.7 Neurovision Medical Products Inc.
      • 14.3.7.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.7.2 Product Portfolio
    • 14.3.8 Sewoon Medical Co. Ltd.
      • 14.3.8.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.8.2 Product Portfolio
      • 14.3.8.3 Financials
    • 14.3.9 Smiths Medical Inc.
      • 14.3.9.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.9.2 Product Portfolio
      • 14.3.9.3 Financials
      • 14.3.9.4 SWOT Analysis
    • 14.3.10 Teleflex Incorporated
      • 14.3.10.1 Company Overview
      • 14.3.10.2 Product Portfolio
      • 14.3.10.3 Financials
      • 14.3.10.4 SWOT Analysis

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Major Drivers and Challenges
  • Figure 2: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Billion US$), 2015-2020
  • Figure 3: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Breakup by Intubation Type (in %), 2020
  • Figure 4: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Breakup by Product Type (in %), 2020
  • Figure 5: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Breakup by End User (in %), 2020
  • Figure 6: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Breakup by Region (in %), 2020
  • Figure 7: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Billion US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 8: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Nasotracheal) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 9: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Nasotracheal) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 10: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Orotracheal) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 11: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Orotracheal) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 12: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Hybrid) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 13: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Hybrid) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 14: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Regular Tubes) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 15: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Regular Tubes) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 16: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Reinforced/Armored Tubes) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 17: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Reinforced/Armored Tubes) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 18: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Coated Tubes) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 19: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Coated Tubes) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 20: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Others) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 21: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Others) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 22: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Hospitals) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 23: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Hospitals) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 24: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Ambulatory Surgery Centers) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 25: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Ambulatory Surgery Centers) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 26: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Other End Users) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 27: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes (Other End Users) Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 28: North America: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 29: North America: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 30: United States: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 31: United States: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 32: Canada: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 33: Canada: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 34: Asia Pacific: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 35: Asia Pacific: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 36: China: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 37: China: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 38: Japan: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 39: Japan: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 40: India: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 41: India: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 42: South Korea: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 43: South Korea: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 44: Australia: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 45: Australia: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 46: Indonesia: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 47: Indonesia: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 48: Others: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 49: Others: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 50: Europe: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 51: Europe: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 52: Germany: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 53: Germany: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 54: France: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 55: France: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 56: United Kingdom: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 57: United Kingdom: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 58: Italy: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 59: Italy: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 60: Spain: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 61: Spain: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 62: Russia: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 63: Russia: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 64: Others: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 65: Others: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 66: Latin America: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 67: Latin America: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 68: Brazil: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 69: Brazil: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 70: Mexico: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 71: Mexico: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 72: Others: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 73: Others: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 74: Middle East and Africa: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2015 & 2020
  • Figure 75: Middle East and Africa: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Figure 76: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Industry: SWOT Analysis
  • Figure 77: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Industry: Value Chain Analysis
  • Figure 78: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Industry: Porter's Five Forces Analysis

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Key Industry Highlights, 2020 and 2026
  • Table 2: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Breakup by Intubation Type (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Table 3: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Breakup by Product Type (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Table 4: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Breakup by End User (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Table 5: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market Forecast: Breakup by Region (in Million US$), 2021-2026
  • Table 6: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Competitive Structure
  • Table 7: Global: Anesthesia Endotracheal Tubes Market: Key Players