Cover Image


Distributed Energy Storage 2014: Applications and Opportunities for Commercial Energy

出版商 Greentech Media Inc. 商品編碼 294997
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
Back to Top
分散式能源儲存:商業能源應用及機會 Distributed Energy Storage 2014: Applications and Opportunities for Commercial Energy
出版日期: 2014年02月06日 內容資訊: 英文



第1章 摘要整理:主要調查結果

第2章 簡介

  • 新的電力供給
  • 分散式能源經濟的課題與解決方案
  • 能源儲存的價值命題
  • 我們現在在哪裡?

第3章 分散式能源儲存市場促進要素

  • 迴避:成本機會
  • 生成收益的機會
  • 新的所有權、財務模式

第4章 貯存的誘因、規定

  • 聯邦法規
  • FERC (聯邦能源法規委員會) 的規則:指令 745
  • FERC (聯邦能源法規委員會) 的規則:指令 755
  • FERC (聯邦能源法規委員會) 的規則:指令 784
  • 聯邦的稅務政策
  • 州的獎勵

第5章 批發市場機會

  • PJM Interconnection
  • MISO
  • ISO-NE

第6章 市場障礙

  • 資本的利用及銀行可融資性
  • 分散式太陽能發電量的認識
  • 不能進入批發市場
  • 實質能源電表

第7章 預測

  • 摘要整理
  • 預測

第8章 未來的機會

  • Vehicle-to-grid

第9章 結論



Because electricity supply must match demand on a second-by-second basis, ensuring that demand is met requires costly planning and investments from grid operators throughout the energy supply chain, as well as critical ancillary services which ensure the stability of the electrical grid. While deregulation introduced competition to the generation portion of the electricity supply chain in some states, distribution of electricity has remained a regulated monopoly. However, the proliferation of intermittent, renewable generating sources (such as solar PV) over the last several years has presented utilities, grid operators, and project developers with a new set of challenges and opportunities - many of which can be addressed through the deployment of distributed energy storage.


Historically, regulators at both the state and federal level have struggled to fully recognize and quantify the value of the services provided by energy storage since storage can provide bidirectional system level benefits irrespective of geographic location. While there are more than 20 discrete value streams for storage, depending on the point at which it is interconnected, the greatest potential opportunity for layering of these values streams tends to be for systems interconnected closest to customer load.

This comprehensive new report explores distributed energy storage as a new paradigm of electricity supply, delving into the market drivers and barriers, storage incentives and regulations, and wholesale market opportunities. It also provides a forecast and details future opportunities in the distributed energy storage market and sub markets.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary: Key Findings

  • 1.1 Commercial Energy Storage Market Drivers
  • 1.2 Commercial Energy Storage Market Barriers

2. Introduction

  • 2.1 A New Kind of Electricity Supply
  • 2.2 Challenges and Solutions for a Distributed Energy Economy
  • 2.3 The Value Proposition of Energy Storage
  • 2.4 Where Are We Today?

3. Distributed Energy Storage Market Drivers

  • 3.1 Avoided-Cost Opportunities
  • 3.2 Revenue Generating Opportunities
  • 3.3 New Ownership and Financing Models

4. Storage Incentives and Regulations

  • 4.1 Federal Regulations
  • 4.2 FERC Order 745
  • 4.3 FERC Order 755
  • 4.4 FERC Order 784
  • 4.5 Federal Tax Policy
  • 4.6 State Incentives

5. Wholesale Market Opportunities

  • 5.1 PJM Interconnection
  • 5.2 NYISO
  • 5.3 CAISO
  • 5.4 ERCOT
  • 5.5 MISO
  • 5.6 ISO-NE

6. Market Barriers

  • 6.1 Access to Capital and Bankability
  • 6.2 Recognition of Distributed Solar Capacity Value
  • 6.3 Inability to Participate in Wholesale Markets
  • 6.4 Net Energy Metering

7. Forecast

  • 7.1 Executive Summary
  • 7.2 Forecast

8. Future Opportunities

  • 8.1 Vehicle-to-Grid

9. Conclusion


1. Executive Summary: Key Findings

2. Introduction

  • Cumulative U.S. Distributed PV Installations at Year End, 2000-2015E
  • Cumulative Installed Solar Capacity 2013
  • California Summer Generation Mix
  • Expected Changes in Net Load in California: The "Duck Chart"
  • California Independent System Operator Flexible Capacity Requirements
  • Hierarchy of Concerns for High-Penetration Distributed PV
  • Varying Locational Benefits of Energy Storage
  • Drivers for and Impediments to Deploying Energy Storage
  • Total Electric Consumers by Sector
  • Total Electric Revenue by Sector
  • Percent Change in Demand Charges Among California Utilities, 2008-2013
  • AB 2514 Procurement Targets (MW)
  • Map of Distributed Storage: Operational, Announced, and Under Construction
  • Selected Existing U.S. Commercial Energy Storage Deployments

3. Distributed Energy Storage Market Drivers

  • Storage Implementation Decision Process
  • Utility Bill Structure: Residential vs. Commercial
  • Select Utility Commercial Rate Structures With Demand Components ($/kW)
  • California Demand Charge Increases, 2008 -2013
  • Three Ownership Models for Energy Storage

4. Storage Incentives and Regulations

  • Summary of Key FERC Orders Pertaining to Energy Storage
  • Fossil Plant Regulation Response
  • Energy Storage Regulation Response
  • Original FERC Order 755 Implementation Timeline
  • Approximate Regulation Requirements of Regional Transmission Operators
  • Investment Tax Credit Private Letter Rulings
  • Self-Generation Incentive Program Structure
  • 2013 Self-Generation Incentive Program Budget
  • SGIP Applications by Technology, 2010-October 2013
  • SGIP Applications Capacity (kW) by Technology Class, 2012
  • SGIP Advanced Energy Storage Project Pipeline by Vendor, 2012-October 2013
  • AB 2514 Procurement Targets
  • NYSERDA PON 1219

5. Wholesale Market Opportunities

  • North American Independent System Operators and Regional Transmission Operators
  • Energy Market Structure Products
  • Behind-the-Meter Frequency Regulations Projects in PJM
  • PJM Regulation Requirements, January 2012-2013
  • RegA vs. RegD Mileage in PJM
  • Changes in the Frequency Regulation Market in PJM Post FERC Order 755
  • NYISO-EAST Regulation Clearing Prices, 2012-2013
  • NYISO-WEST Regulation Clearing Prices, 2012-2013
  • Day-Ahead Clearing Prices for Regulation Services, April 2009-March 2012
  • Response From Conventional and Fast-Responding Resources in ERCOT FRRS Pilot
  • Fast-Responding Regulation Signal Trial Clearing Prices
  • MISO Regulation Market Clearing Prices
  • Wind Energy Growth Rates in MISO, California, and Texas
  • MISO: Summary of Resource Participation
  • Resource Utilization in ISO-NE for Frequency Regulation

6. Market Barriers

  • Capacity Values of Solar Energy
  • Resource Valuation for Solar Energy
  • Comparison of Peaking Plant to Battery Storage
  • Net Metering Battlegrounds

7. Forecast

  • Baseline Commercial Capacity by Technology and ISO/RTO Region (MW)
  • Baseline Frequency Regulation and Bill Management by ISO/ RTO (MW)
  • Cumulative Installed Capacity by Region, 2014-2020

8. Future Opportunities

  • CAISO Vehicle-Grid Integration Roadmap

9. Conclusion

Back to Top