「IMO 2020」與其對石油、天然氣產業的影響 - 各主題分析
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 2020 and its impact on Oil and Gas Industry - Thematic Research
國際海事機關 (IMO) ，自2020年1月1日，禁止了硫磺份超過重量0.5％的船舶用燃料的使用。這是為了保護全球的海洋生態系統，抑制來自船舶的硫磺排放為目的。
本報告含括 "IMO 2020" 與其對石油、天然氣產業的影響，提供重要性，產業趨勢和法規趨勢，競爭情形，主要的煉油廠業者和海運企業的基準相關的系統性資訊。
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) imposed a ban on marine fuels having sulfur content above 0.5% by weight, effective from January 1, 2020. The idea is to curb sulfur emissions from shipping to preserve the marine ecosystems worldwide. This regulation is in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change designed to reduce the impact of human activities on the environment.
The IMO 2020 regulation was expected to cause considerable disruption in bunker fuel availability and cause oil prices to rise. However, this disruption was largely overshadowed by the outbreak of COVID-19. In fact, the pandemic created new problems for shippers and refiners alike. Lockdowns led to brief closure of shipbuilding yards globally, leading to delays in scrubber installations. Shippers, like Stolt-Nielsen from Norway, cancelled their plans to install scrubbers in April 2020 due to these delays. On the other hand, refiners had to contain with low demand for fuels, overflowing storages, and disruptions to ongoing expansion works. Demand for bunker fuel alone is estimated to have fallen between 7-17% in 2020. The second wave of COVID-19 has further heightened the fuel demand uncertainty, causing refiners like Shell and Marathon Petroleum to permanently close some of their facilities.