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Energy Storage Cost and Performance Report: Analysis of Life-Cycle Costs of Energy Storage Technologies

出版商 Energy Storage Update 商品編碼 340671
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 70 Pages; 29 Figures; 9 Tables
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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能源儲存成本、性能:蓄電技術生命週期費用分析 Energy Storage Cost and Performance Report: Analysis of Life-Cycle Costs of Energy Storage Technologies
出版日期: 2015年07月01日 內容資訊: 英文 70 Pages; 29 Figures; 9 Tables


本報告針對大型蓄電技術 (電網蓄電池) 市場動向與技術、提供成本構造分析、蓄電技術生命週期費用構造、動向與實際、代表性技術 (鋰離子電池、CAES (壓縮空氣儲能系統)) 活用範例、今後蓄電成本動向預測調查、考察。

第1章 介紹

第2章 代表性大型蓄電技術:概要

  • 抽蓄水力發電 (PHS)
  • 鋰離子電池
  • 最新型鉛蓄電池
  • 鈉硫黃電池
  • 壓縮空氣儲能系統 (CAES)
  • 飛輪
  • 其他技術

第3章 大型蓄電用途

  • 一般用途與機能
  • 商用代表範例
    • 可再生能源時移:加州
    • 資源最佳分配 (RA):加州
    • PJM頻率調整
  • 儲存方式與競爭選擇
    • 傳統發電廠 (一般) 修正

第4章 生命週期費用計測方法與建模

  • 概論
  • 生命週期費用建模
  • 鋰離子電池:電力網使用範例
    • CAPEX (資本支出額) 成本因素相關討論
    • OPEX (運用支出額) 成本因素相關討論
    • 其他生命週期費用要素
  • CAES:中間負擔資產範例
    • CAPEX成本因素相關討論
    • OPEX成本因素相關討論
  • 範例結論相關討論
    • 鋰離子電池
    • CAES
  • 其他蓄電選項相關、生命週期費用課題

第5章 今後成本動向



  • 附錄1 最新大型蓄電詳細評價
  • 附錄2 鋰離子電池生命週期成本範例數據
  • 附錄3 鋰離子電池OPEX參照事例:年度詳細
  • 附錄4 CASE生命週期費用範例數據



In-depth analysis of lifetime costs of grid scale energy storage technologies

Recently the proliferation of grid connected renewables, given their intermittency, has accentuated the need for energy storage technologies. In California, regulation has made it compulsory for utilities to install storage, accelerating the adoption of these technologies.

However, given the myriad applications and technology options available it is difficult to understand the economics of storage technologies.

The aim of this report is to provide a realistic lifecycle cost analysis of the main grid-scale electrical storage technologies, particularly Lithium Ion (Li-ion) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES), as well as insight into the expected evolution of storage costs.

Topics covered in the report:

  • Lifetime cost analysis: Find out what it costs to build and operate utility scale Li-ion and CAES storage facilities
  • Cost breakdown: Get insight into the cost of each component part of a storage system
  • Expected cost reductions: Get an insight into the factors that could drive down the costs of grid scale energy storage solutions
  • Pros and cons of energy storage technologies: Learn how storage technologies compare against each other and against non-storage options which deliver similar benefits
  • Practical applications of energy storage technologies: Get clarity on how storage technologies have actually been deployed in the USA and beyond

This report provides answers to these questions:

  • What are the life time costs of utility scale Li-ion and CAES storage?
  • What are the pros and cons of the main energy storage technologies?
  • Which technologies have been commercially deployed and what are their applications?
  • Which energy storage options are more cost effective for each application?
  • What are the expected cost reductions of the main technologies in a five year time-frame?

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Executive Summary

1. Introduction

2. Overview of leading grid-scale storage technologies

  • 2.1. Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS)
  • 2.2. Lithium ion
  • 2.3. Advanced lead acid
  • 2.4. Sodium sulfur
  • 2.5. Compressed air energy storage (CAES)
  • 2.6. Flywheels
  • 2.7. Other technologies

3. Grid-scale applications of storage

  • 3.1. General applications and functions
  • 3.2. Leading commercial applications
    • 3.2.1. Renewable energy time shifting in California
    • 3.2.2. Resource Adequacy (RA) in California
    • 3.2.3. Frequency regulation in PJM
  • 3.3. Options that compete with storage
    • 3.3.1. Common modifications to conventional plant

4. Lifecycle cost methodology and modeling

  • 4.1. General
  • 4.2. Lifecycle cost modeling
  • 4.3. Li-ion - Energy application reference plant
    • 4.3.1. Discussion of CAPEX cost factors
    • 4.3.2. Discussion of OPEX cost factors
    • 4.3.3. Other lifecycle cost factors
  • 4.4. CAES intermediate load asset reference case
    • 4.4.1. Discussion of CAPEX cost factors
    • 4.4.2. Discussion of OPEX cost factors
  • 4.5. Discussion of reference case results
    • 4.5.1. Li-ion Battery
    • 4.5.2. CAES
  • 4.6. Lifecycle cost issues with other storage options

5. Future cost trends



  • Appendix 1. Recent Detailed Evaluations of Grid-Scale Storage
  • Appendix 2. Data for Li-ion life cycle cost reference case
  • Appendix 3. Annual breakdown of for Li-ion OPEX reference case
  • Appendix 4. Data for CAES Lifecycle Cost Reference Case

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Capacity ranges, and prevalence of leading grid-scale storage technologies
  • Figure 2. Distribution of small grid oriented storage technologies in recent utility evaluations (MW)
  • Figure 3. Share by leading technology represented by recent US utility evaluations
  • Figure 4. Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS)
  • Figure 5. Li-ion facility at the Salem Smart Power Center (5 MW)
  • Figure 6. Diagram of a sodium sulfur grid-scale battery system
  • Figure 7. Artist rendering for a CAES project under development in Texas
  • Figure 8. The 110 MW CAES plant in Alabama (US) operating for over 20 years
  • Figure 9. 20 MW advanced flywheel facility at Stephentown (NY, US) comprised of 1 MW “pods”
  • Figure 10. Grid-scale storage applications and suitable “generic” technology categories
  • Figure 11. The TurboPhase system
  • Figure 12. CAPEX of non-storage options ranges ($/kW)
  • Figure 13. Performance of different Li-ion chemistries
  • Figure 14. Battery System installed capital costs for Li-ion reference case
  • Figure 15. Li-ion reference case CAPEX life cycle cost factors
  • Figure 16. Li-ion reference case OPEX lifecycle cost factors
  • Figure 17. Possible five-year future scenario: reference case OPEX
  • Figure 18. Possible five-year future scenario: reference case CAPEX
  • Figure 19. Breakdown of CAES CAPEX (millions of US dollars)
  • Figure 20. CAEX CAPEX cost factors with more difficult underground geology (millions of US dollars)
  • Figure 21. CAES OPEX cost factors
  • Figure 22. Variability of monthly electricity prices in MISO
  • Figure 23. Variability of hourly electricity prices over a year in MISO
  • Figure 24. CAES OPEX under optimistic electricity pricing scenario (millions of US dollars)
  • Figure 25. Cost of Li-ion projects based on cost figures from DOE database ($/kW)
  • Figure 26. Li-ion cost reduction based on both public and confidential cost figures ($/kW)
  • Figure 27. Cost reduction trend expected based on data in above table ($/kWh)
  • Figure 28. Li-ion cost projections based on vehicle applications (2012-2025)
  • Figure 29. Li-ion cost projections from recent utility evaluation

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Brief descriptions of grid functions potentially provided by storage
  • Table 2. Options that compete with grid-scale storage
  • Table 3. Li-ion reference case design parameters
  • Table 4. Principal CAPEX factors
  • Table 5. Principal OPEX factors
  • Table 6. CAES reference case design basis
  • Table 7. Principal CAPEX cost factors in a CAES facility
  • Table 8. Principal OPEX factors in a CAES facility
  • Table 9. Li-ion cost for projects delivered (or to be delivered) in year indicated
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