Global Chitosan Derivatives Market - 2021-2028
The global chitosan derivatives market size was valued at US$ YY billion in 2020 and is estimated to reach US$ YY billion by 2028, growing at a CAGR of YY % during the forecast period (2021-2028).
Chitosan Derivatives, because of their capacity to penetrate GI barriers, induce mucoadhesion, and aid in transitory openings of tight junctions. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide made up of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and -linked D-glucosamine that are randomly dispersed.Its derivatives are extremely important in oral administration.
The application of chitosan in biomedicine and the use of chitosan for oral insulin delivery is estimated to drive the market.
Chitosan is made via the deacetylation of chitin, a naturally occurring protein. It has active functional groups that are susceptible to chemical reactions allowing for chitosan derivatives. Modification of chitosan has been a major focus of chitosan research, with results demonstrating improved solubility, pH-sensitive targeting and a greater number of delivery systems, among other things.
Antibacterial materials are a novel class of functional materials that have the capability of killing or suppressing germs. Antibacterial materials, such as antibacterial plastics, antibacterial fibres and fabrics, antibacterial ceramics, and antibacterial methicillin, are a type of new functional material that can inhibit or kill. Chitosan and chitosan derivatives have long been utilised as antibacterial agents that are non-toxic or low-toxic. Chitosan is one of them. For example, quaternized chitosan has dramatically improved antibacterial activity compared to chitosan and can be employed in anti-inflammatory medications or as a filler fibre in wound dressing materials.
Chitosan and quaternized chitosan have yet to be proven to have antibacterial properties. There are just three possibilities. (1) Because chitosan and chitosan derivatives are positively charged, and bacteria are negatively charged, they attract and interact with one another due to electrostatic adsorption; (2) after adsorbing bacteria, chitosan and chitosan derivatives enter the inside of bacterial cells and bind to DNA, interfering with bacterial DNA transcription, resulting in bacterial death. The other application of chitosan is in bone tissue engineering. In bone tissue engineering, Carboxymethyl chitosan is a regularly used material. CMCS can also be used to construct nanofiber scaffolds in addition to the applications shown in CMCS. For the development of periosteal mimics in BTE, TMC and heparinoid are routinely employed materials.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder that affects over 400 million people worldwide. Patients with poorly regulated blood glucose levels are at risk of developing life-threatening consequences including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, retinopathy, and even death. Subcutaneous, parenteral insulin is still the most prevalent form of insulin therapy today. Patients find oral insulin treatment to be beneficial and convenient. Oral insulin administration, unlike injection, replicates the physiological process of endogenous insulin secretion. Due to the hostile physiological environment through the gastrointestinal track, oral insulin has a low absorption (less than 2%). (GIT). Using insulin encapsulation into nanoparticles as an advanced technique, several attempts have been undertaken over the last few decades to create an effective oral insulin formulation with high bioavailability. Nanoparticles as a delivery mechanism for oral insulin administration have been created using a variety of natural polymers.
Because of its appealing qualities, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, nontoxicity, and polycationic nature, chitosan, a natural polymer, has been extensively investigated. Several researches have been undertaken to assess the capabilities of chitosan and chitosan derivatives-based nanoparticles for oral insulin administration. Nanocarriers can increase insulin absorption via the GI tract, transport insulin to the bloodstream, and lower blood glucose levels. Although significant flaws in the technology, chitosan and chitosan derivative-based nanoparticles are highly attractive candidates for oral insulin delivery. The U.S FDA has approved that chitosan is safe in the use of foods and drugs.
Because chitosan is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, its applicability scope and fields of use are severely limited. Only when chitosan is in the polycationic form and at pH values below the pKa does it have antibacterial properties. The electrostatic interactions between polycationic chitosan molecules and negatively charged cell envelopes are responsible for chitosan's antibacterial properties. If the positive charge of chitosan is neutralised, food components such as NaCl, proteins, and carbohydrates have a negative impact on its activity. In order to manufacture safe and effective chitosan products, a lot of research has been done recently. However, the poor stability of chitosan-based systems limits its practical application; hence, establishing an adequate shelf-life for chitosan formulations has become a major difficulty. Controlling environmental parameters, altering production settings (e.g., temperature), introducing a suitable stabilising component, producing chitosan blends with another polymer, or modifying the chitosan structure using chemical or ionic agents can all help to improve stability.
For instance, even though chitosan is a unique and adaptable chemical with a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical and biomedical disciplines, there are few pharmaceutical products based on it (only hemostatic dressings, wound-healing preparations, and nutraceutical goods are available). This could be due to chitosan's high hygroscopicity and the fact that chitosan material isolated from different sources varies greatly in molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, degree of deacetylation, and purity level. Furthermore, chitosan's high vulnerability to external influences and processing conditions (such as heating or freezing) can cause structural stress and polymer degradation.
COVID-19 has affected the healthcare industry. To stop its development, government-imposed lockdown. Chitin and chitosan biopolymers, as well as their derivatives have been widely studied for their antibacterial characteristics. They have the ability to stop a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungus from growing. The antibacterial activities of chitin or chitosan as direct antimicrobial agents have been investigated against a variety of diseases. They exert antibacterial actions by interacting with the negative surfaces of bacterial membranes due to the presence of NH3+ groups. Some investigations have attempted to determine whether chitosan nanoparticle technology can prevent coronavirus infection. However, more research is needed to create a completely validated method based on the application of these nanoparticles and the specified polymers against COVID-19. Chitosan and its derivatives have a lot of potential for therapeutic use against COVID-19 soon. Hence, the chitosan derivatives market is estimated to see a positive impact in the forecast period.
The carboxymethyl moieties will change the CS characteristics by modifying two hydroxyls and one amino group on the CS chains. The carboxymethylation degree determines the water solubility of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) in different pH conditions. CMC derivatives can interact with cells, resulting in cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, and wound healing. They are also used in the cosmetics industry because of their moisture absorption-retention, antibacterial, and emulsion stabilising properties.
Chitin is deacetylated to produce chitosan, a polymer with medicinal and nonpharmaceutical applications. The limited solubility of certain applications is a barrier to understanding. With its enhanced solubility in water, carboxymethylation of chitosan helps to overcome this barrier. Even though there is much study on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), there isn't a comprehensive review of the topic. Direct alkylation, reductive alkylation, and Michael addition have all been used to make CMC, studied using FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, DSC, titrimetry, viscometry, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and capillary zone electrophoresis. The carboxymethyl group can be found on either the O or N atoms of the chitosan molecule or both. CMC has been modified for chelating, sorption, moisture retention, cell functioning, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiapoptotic, and other physical and biological properties. CMC is employed in the delivery of prolonged or controlled-release drugs, pH-responsive drugs and DNA delivery as a permeation enhancer, among other things. Alkylation and acylation can be used to modify CMC further.
Drug delivery solutions are being developed because of chitosan's unique polymeric cationic property and its gel and film formation. As evidenced by the huge number of research published in recent years, it is currently regarded as a new carrier material in drug delivery systems. The absorption-enhancing, controlled drug release, and bio-adhesive features of high-purity chitosan have been studied for pharmaceutical formulation and drug delivery applications. Drug delivery wound healing ointments and dressings, artificial skin, homeostatic agents, enzyme immobilisation, dialysis membranes, contact lenses or eye bandages, orthopaedics, surgical sutures, and dentistry are medical and pharmaceutical applications of chitosan. Because chitosan has favourable biological qualities like non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, it has gained much attention. It accelerates wound healing and gives connective tissue an ordered structure. The use of chitosan oligosaccharide reduces the production of severe scars.
In the biopharmaceutical industry, its applications are available for drug, gene, ocular and nasal drug delivery. For example, the usage of muco-adhesive dosage forms has improved the bioavailability of medications. This is because increased medication absorption can be obtained by lengthening the residence period of drug carriers at the absorption site. Higher molecular weight chitosan has superior muco-adhesion than lower molecular weight chitosans, according to research. To increase the enteric absorption of insulin, researchers produced insulin-loaded liposomes covered with chitosan. This mucoadhesive property makes chitosan an ideal candidate for oral delivery of drugs. After looking at various ocular drug delivery experiments, it became clear that chitosan-loaded nanoparticles and microspheres had good ocular tolerance. Chitosan is beneficial in slowing drug release and genetic abnormalities, in addition to its muco-adhesive qualities. It improves transformation efficiency and promotes more efficient gene delivery via receptormediated endocytosis without causing cytotoxicity when suitable ligands are added to the DNA-chitosan complex. The use of chitosan-based colloidal represents a useful approach to increase ocular bioavailability of drugs
More pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical research and development in this region is estimated to dominate the chitosan derivatives market in this region.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved that chitosan is safe in the use of foods and drugs. The American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM F04 division IV) is working to develop standards for tissue-created medical goods. The F2103 guidance explains how to evaluate chitosan salts for usage in medical applications. Furthermore, chitosan hydrochloride (a chitosan derivative) has been added to the European Pharmacopeia.
The biopharmaceutical industry in the United States stands out as leading research and development (R&D) and advanced manufacturing industry at a time when economic competitiveness at the national and state levels is recognised to be strongly rooted in the ability to advance innovation-based industries. Over the last 30 years, the United States has cemented its position as the world's leading biopharmaceutical innovator. Today, that global leadership is based on a strong foundation of U.S. enterprises that perform and support sophisticated R&D as well as maintain a broad and large-scale supply chain for biopharmaceutical research, production, and distribution. The United States is the world's largest biopharmaceutical market, accounting for almost a third of global sales, and the world's leader in biopharmaceutical research and development. According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association (PhRMA), American companies do more than half of all pharmaceutical R&D ($75 billion) and own the intellectual property rights to the majority of new drugs.
The major key players in the global chitosan derivatives market are: FMC Corp, Kitozyme, Kunpoong Bio, BIO21, Heppe Medical Chitosan, Yaizu Suisankagaku, Golden-Shell, Lushen Bioengineering, AK BIOTECH, Zhejiang New Fuda Ocean Biotech, Weifang Sea Source Biological Products, Qingdao Honghai Biotech, Haidebei Marine Bioengineering, Jiangsu, Aoxin Biotechnology and Jinhu Crust Product.
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