市場調查報告書

全球甘油市場規模調查-按工藝,來源,等級,應用和地區預測(2020-2027)

Global Glycerin Market Size study, by Process, By Source, By Grade, By Application, and Regional Forecasts 2020-2027

出版商 Bizwit Research & Consulting LLP 商品編碼 951176
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 2-3個工作天內
價格
全球甘油市場規模調查-按工藝,來源,等級,應用和地區預測(2020-2027) Global Glycerin Market Size study, by Process, By Source, By Grade, By Application, and Regional Forecasts 2020-2027
出版日期: 2020年07月10日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

甘油是一種流行的保濕劑,用於許多最終用途行業,例如個人護理,藥品,化學和製造。全球甘油製造商提供粗製或純化形式的甘油,兩者的純度均不同。此外,甘油可用於製藥和食品級以及技術級,從而擴大了其應用範圍。由於對生物可再生化學品的偏愛日益增加,以及歐洲和北美對可持續燃料的需求不斷增長,生物柴油的使用正在穩步增長。人們對全球氣候變化,能源穩定和石油價格波動的擔憂日益加劇,進一步加劇了需求的增長。預計這將增加對生物柴油的需求,這將在預測期內增加對甘油的需求。另外,甘油主要用於化妝品和個人護理產品中,以改善皮膚的光滑度和水分。甘油用於面部保濕劑,潤膚露,防曬霜,化妝品,頭髮護理,面部護理,剃鬚膏等。它可以起到保濕作用,防止化妝品中的水分過早流失,並為面部提供清涼效果。人們對皮膚問題的認識不斷提高,需要保持膚色均勻,對抗衰老化妝品的需求以及對看起來年輕美麗的渴望,都在推動產品銷售以及向新市場的滲透和擴展。

該報告調查了全球甘油市場,並提供了按過程,來源,等級,應用,地區和進入市場的公司的趨勢的市場概況。

內容

第1章執行摘要

第2章全球甘油市場的定義和範圍

第3章世界甘油市場動態

  • 甘油市場影響分析(2018-2027)

第4章全球甘油市場:工業分析

  • 波特的五力模型
  • PEST分析
  • 投資招聘模型
  • 分析師的建議和結論

第5章按工藝分列的全球甘油市場

  • 市場概況
  • 全球甘油市場,按工藝,性能潛力分析
  • 2017-2027年全球甘油市場估計和預測過程(十億美元)
  • 甘油市場,細分市場分析
    • 酯交換
    • 皂化
    • 脂肪分解

第6章全球甘油市場按來源

  • 市場概況
  • 資料來源:全球甘油市場,性能潛力分析
  • 全球甘油市場估計和預測按來源:2017-2027(十億美元)
  • 甘油市場,細分市場分析
    • 植物油
    • 生物柴油
    • 肥皂
    • 合成

第7章按等級劃分的全球甘油市場

  • 市場概況
  • 全球甘油市場(按等級,性能潛能分析)
  • 2017-2027年全球甘油市場估計和預測(十億美元)
  • 甘油市場,細分市場分析
    • 技術級
    • 製藥級

第8章全球甘油市場按應用

  • 市場概況
  • 全球甘油市場,按應用,性能潛能分析
  • 按應用分列的全球甘油市場估計和預測,2017-2027年(十億美元)
  • 甘油市場,細分市場分析
    • 工業
    • 化學中間體

第9章全球甘油市場,區域分析

  • 區域市場概況
  • 北美
    • 美國
    • 加拿大
  • 歐洲快照
    • 英國
    • 德國
    • 法國
    • 西班牙
    • 意大利
    • 其他
  • 亞太快照
    • 中國
    • 印度
    • 日本
    • 澳大利亞
    • 韓國
    • 其他
  • 拉丁美洲快照
    • 巴西
    • 墨西哥
  • 其他地區

第10章競爭信息

  • 頂級市場策略
  • 公司簡介
    • Emery Oleochemicals
    • IOI Oleochemicals
    • Wilmar International Ltd.
    • Kuala Lumpur Kepong Berhad
    • Godrej Industries
    • Croda International PLC
    • Cargill Incorporated
    • P&G Chemicals
    • KAO Corporation
    • Avril Group

第11章調查過程

目錄

Title:
Global Glycerin Market Size study, by Process (Transesterification, Saponification, and Fat Splitting), By Source (Vegetable Oils, Biodiesel, Soaps, and Synthetic), By Grade (Technical Grade, and Pharmaceutical Grade), By Application (Industrial, and Chemical Intermediate), and Regional Forecasts 2020-2027.

Global Glycerin Market is valued approximately at USD XX million in 2019 and is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than XX% over the forecast period 2020-2027. Glycerin is a popular humectant used in numerous end-use industries, including Personal Care, Pharmaceuticals, Chemical and Manufacturing, among others. Global glycerin manufacturers deliver glycerin either in a crude form or in a refined form, both of which differ in terms of purity. In addition, the availability of glycerin in both the Pharma & Food grade and the Technical grade broadens its range of applications. Rising demand for sustainable fuels in Europe and North America, along with an increasing preference for bio-renewable chemicals, has steadily increased the use of biodiesel. This increase in demand is further attributed to growing concerns about global climate change, stable energy and fluctuating crude oil prices, which are expected to increase the demand for biodiesel, which will increase the demand for glycerin during the forecast period. Furthermore, Glycerin is mainly used in cosmetics and personal care products to improve the smoothness and moisture content of the skin. It is found in facial moisturizer, body lotion, sunscreen, makeup, hair care, facial treatment, shaving cream, etc. It serves as a moisturizing agent that avoids premature moisture loss from cosmetic items and has a cooling impact on the face. Growing awareness of skin challenges, the need to maintain even skin tone, the demand for anti-aging skin cosmetics and the desire to look beautiful and young is driving product sales, allowing deeper penetration and expansion into newer markets.

The regional analysis of global Glycerin market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and Rest of the World. The Asian Pacific Glycerin market would see strong growth during the forecast period due to the rising demand for personal care items. Increasing product demand from chemical intermediate manufacturers in the region, along with increasing demand for glycerin as a chemical platform, in particular in China, will boost overall regional demand for glycerin.

Major market player included in this report are:

Emery Oleochemicals

IOI Oleochemicals

Wilmar International Ltd.

Kuala Lumpur Kepong Berhad

Godrej Industries

Croda International PLC

Cargill Incorporated

P&G Chemicals

KAO Corporation

Avril Group

The objective of the study is to define market sizes of different segments & countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming eight years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors & challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and product offerings of key players. The detailed segments and sub-segment of the market are explained below:

By Process:

Transesterification

Saponification

Fat Splitting

By Source:

Vegetable Oils

Biodiesel

Soaps

Synthetic

By Grade:

Technical Grade

Pharmaceutical Grade

By Application:

Industrial

Chemical Intermediate

By Region:

North America

U.S.

Canada

Europe

UK

Germany

France

Spain

Italy

ROE

Asia Pacific

China

India

Japan

Australia

South Korea

RoAPAC

Latin America

Brazil

Mexico

Rest of the World

Furthermore, years considered for the study are as follows:

Historical year - 2017, 2018

Base year - 2019

Forecast period - 2020 to 2027

Target Audience of the Global Glycerin Market in Market Study:

Key Consulting Companies & Advisors

Large, medium-sized, and small enterprises

Venture capitalists

Value-Added Resellers (VARs)

Third-party knowledge providers

Investment bankers

Investors

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Market Snapshot
  • 1.2. Global & Segmental Market Estimates & Forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.1. Glycerine Market, by Region, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.2. Glycerine Market, by Process, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.3. Glycerine Market, by Source, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.4. Glycerine Market, by Grade, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.5. Glycerine Market, by Application, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 1.3. Key Trends
  • 1.4. Estimation Methodology
  • 1.5. Research Assumption

Chapter 2. Global Glycerine Market Definition and Scope

  • 2.1. Objective of the Study
  • 2.2. Market Definition & Scope
    • 2.2.1. Scope of the Study
    • 2.2.2. Industry Evolution
  • 2.3. Years Considered for the Study
  • 2.4. Currency Conversion Rates

Chapter 3. Global Glycerine Market Dynamics

  • 3.1. Glycerine Market Impact Analysis (2018-2027)
    • 3.1.1. Market Drivers
    • 3.1.2. Market Challenges
    • 3.1.3. Market Opportunities

Chapter 4. Global Glycerine Market: Industry Analysis

  • 4.1. Porter's 5 Force Model
    • 4.1.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers
    • 4.1.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers
    • 4.1.3. Threat of New Entrants
    • 4.1.4. Threat of Substitutes
    • 4.1.5. Competitive Rivalry
    • 4.1.6. Futuristic Approach to Porter's 5 Force Model (2017-2027)
  • 4.2. PEST Analysis
    • 4.2.1. Political
    • 4.2.2. Economical
    • 4.2.3. Social
    • 4.2.4. Technological
  • 4.3. Investment Adoption Model
  • 4.4. Analyst Recommendation & Conclusion

Chapter 5. Global Glycerine Market, by Process

  • 5.1. Market Snapshot
  • 5.2. Global Glycerine Market by Process, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 5.3. Global Glycerine Market Estimates & Forecasts by Process 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 5.4. Glycerine Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 5.4.1. Transesterification
    • 5.4.2. Saponification
    • 5.4.3. Fat Splitting

Chapter 6. Global Glycerine Market, by Source

  • 6.1. Market Snapshot
  • 6.2. Global Glycerine Market by Source, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 6.3. Global Glycerine Market Estimates & Forecasts by Source 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 6.4. Glycerine Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 6.4.1. Vegetable Oils
    • 6.4.2. Biodiesel
    • 6.4.3. Soaps
    • 6.4.4. Synthetic

Chapter 7. Global Glycerine Market, by Grade

  • 7.1. Market Snapshot
  • 7.2. Global Glycerine Market by Grade, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 7.3. Global Glycerine Market Estimates & Forecasts by Grade 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 7.4. Glycerine Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 7.4.1. Technical Grade
    • 7.4.2. Pharmaceutical Grade

Chapter 8. Global Glycerine Market, by Application

  • 8.1. Market Snapshot
  • 8.2. Global Glycerine Market by Application, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 8.3. Global Glycerine Market Estimates & Forecasts by Application 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 8.4. Glycerine Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 8.4.1. Industrial
    • 8.4.2. Chemical Intermediate

Chapter 9. Global Glycerine Market, Regional Analysis

  • 9.1. Glycerine Market, Regional Market Snapshot
  • 9.2. North America Glycerine Market
    • 9.2.1. U.S. Glycerine Market
      • 9.2.1.1. Process breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027
      • 9.2.1.2. Source breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027
      • 9.2.1.3. Grade breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027
      • 9.2.1.4. Application breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027
    • 9.2.2. Canada Glycerine Market
  • 9.3. Europe Glycerine Market Snapshot
    • 9.3.1. U.K. Glycerine Market
    • 9.3.2. Germany Glycerine Market
    • 9.3.3. France Glycerine Market
    • 9.3.4. Spain Glycerine Market
    • 9.3.5. Italy Glycerine Market
    • 9.3.6. Rest of Europe Glycerine Market
  • 9.4. Asia-Pacific Glycerine Market Snapshot
    • 9.4.1. China Glycerine Market
    • 9.4.2. India Glycerine Market
    • 9.4.3. Japan Glycerine Market
    • 9.4.4. Australia Glycerine Market
    • 9.4.5. South Korea Glycerine Market
    • 9.4.6. Rest of Asia Pacific Glycerine Market
  • 9.5. Latin America Glycerine Market Snapshot
    • 9.5.1. Brazil Glycerine Market
    • 9.5.2. Mexico Glycerine Market
  • 9.6. Rest of The World Glycerine Market

Chapter 10. Competitive Intelligence

  • 10.1. Top Market Strategies
  • 10.2. Company Profiles
    • 10.2.1. Emery Oleochemicals
      • 10.2.1.1. Key Information
      • 10.2.1.2. Overview
      • 10.2.1.3. Financial (Subject to Data Availability)
      • 10.2.1.4. Industry Summary
      • 10.2.1.5. Recent Developments
    • 10.2.2. IOI Oleochemicals
    • 10.2.3. Wilmar International Ltd.
    • 10.2.4. Kuala Lumpur Kepong Berhad
    • 10.2.5. Godrej Industries
    • 10.2.6. Croda International PLC
    • 10.2.7. Cargill Incorporated
    • 10.2.8. P&G Chemicals
    • 10.2.9. KAO Corporation
    • 10.2.10. Avril Group

Chapter 11. Research Process

  • 11.1. Research Process
    • 11.1.1. Data Mining
    • 11.1.2. Analysis
    • 11.1.3. Market Estimation
    • 11.1.4. Validation
    • 11.1.5. Publishing
  • 11.2. Research Attributes
  • 11.3. Research Assumption

LIST OF TABLES

  • TABLE 1. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, REPORT SCOPE
  • TABLE 2. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY REGION 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 3. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY PROCESS 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 4. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SOURCE 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 5. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY GRADE 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 6. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY APPLICATION 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 7. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 8. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 9. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 10. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 11. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 12. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 13. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 14. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 15. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 16. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 17. U.S. GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 18. U.S. GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 19. U.S. GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 20. CANADA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 21. CANADA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 22. CANADA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 23. UK GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 24. UK GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 25. UK GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 26. GERMANY GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 27. GERMANY GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 28. GERMANY GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 29. ROE GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 30. ROE GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 31. ROE GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 32. CHINA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 33. CHINA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 34. CHINA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 35. INDIA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 36. INDIA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 37. INDIA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 38. JAPAN GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 39. JAPAN GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 40. JAPAN GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 41. ROAPAC GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 42. ROAPAC GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 43. ROAPAC GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 44. BRAZIL GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 45. BRAZIL GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 46. BRAZIL GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 47. MEXICO GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 48. MEXICO GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 49. MEXICO GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 50. ROLA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 51. ROLA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 52. ROLA GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 53. ROW GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 54. ROW GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 55. ROW GLYCERINE MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2017-2027 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 56. LIST OF SECONDARY SOURCES, USED IN THE STUDY OF GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET
  • TABLE 57. LIST OF PRIMARY SOURCES, USED IN THE STUDY OF GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET
  • TABLE 58. YEARS CONSIDERED FOR THE STUDY
  • TABLE 59. EXCHANGE RATES CONSIDERED

LIST OF FIGURES

  • FIG 1. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • FIG 2. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, MARKET ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES
  • FIG 3. GLOBAL MARKET SIZE ESTIMATES & FORECAST METHODS
  • FIG 4. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, KEY TRENDS 2019
  • FIG 5. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, GROWTH PROSPECTS 2020-2027
  • FIG 6. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, PORTERS 5 FORCE MODEL
  • FIG 7. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, PEST ANALYSIS
  • FIG 8. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
  • FIG 9. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 10. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 11. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 12. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 13. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 14. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, REGIONAL SNAPSHOT 2017 & 2027
  • FIG 15. NORTH AMERICA GLYCERINE MARKET 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 16. EUROPE GLYCERINE MARKET 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 17. ASIA PACIFIC GLYCERINE MARKET 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 18. LATIN AMERICA GLYCERINE MARKET 2017 & 2027 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 19. GLOBAL GLYCERINE MARKET, COMPANY MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS (2019)