市場調查報告書

全球汽車用黏劑市場:各樹脂,用途,車輛類型,及各地區預測

Global Automotive Adhesives Market Size study, by resin, By application, Based on vehicle type and Regional Forecasts 2019-2026

出版商 Bizwit Research & Consulting LLP 商品編碼 914551
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 2-3個工作天內
價格
Back to Top
全球汽車用黏劑市場:各樹脂,用途,車輛類型,及各地區預測 Global Automotive Adhesives Market Size study, by resin, By application, Based on vehicle type and Regional Forecasts 2019-2026
出版日期: 2019年11月08日內容資訊: 英文
簡介

本報告提供全球汽車用黏劑市場的相關調查,提供市場機會和趨勢,成長要素及課題,樹脂·用途·車輛類型·各地區的市場分析,競爭情形,主要企業的簡介等資訊。

目錄

第1章 摘要整理

  • 市場概述
  • 市場估計及預測:全體/各市場區隔
    • 各地區
    • 各技術
    • 各用途
    • 各車輛類型
  • 主要的趨勢
  • 估計方法
  • 調查的前提條件

第2章 市場定義及範圍

  • 調查的目的
  • 市場定義及範圍
    • 調查範圍
    • 產業的發展
  • 研究涵蓋年份
  • 匯率

第3章 市場動態

  • 市場影響分析
    • 市場成長要素
    • 市場課題
    • 市場機會

第4章 產業分析

  • 波特的五力分析
    • 供應商談判力
    • 買主談判力
    • 新加入廠商的威脅
    • 替代品的威脅
    • 產業內的競爭
    • 波特五力分析的未來性方法
  • PEST分析
    • 政治
    • 經濟
    • 社群
    • 技術性
  • 投資採用模式
  • 分析師的建議·結論

第5章 按市場分析:樹脂

  • 市場概述
  • 市場實際成果:潛在力分析
  • 市場估計及預測
  • 子區隔分析
    • 聚氨酯
    • 環氧樹脂
    • 丙烯
    • 矽膠
    • SMP
    • MMA
    • 其他

第6章 市場分析:各用途

  • 市場概述
  • 市場實際成果:潛在力分析
  • 市場估計及預測
  • 子區隔分析
    • 素車(BIW)
    • 動力傳動
    • 塗料店
    • 組合

第7章 市場分析:各車輛類型

  • 市場概述
  • 市場實際成果:潛在力分析
  • 市場估計及預測
  • 子區隔分析
    • 小客車
    • 巴士
    • 卡車
    • LCV(小型商旅車)
    • 售後市場

第8章 市場分析:各地區

  • 地區市場概述
  • 北美
    • 美國
    • 加拿大
  • 歐洲
    • 英國
    • 其他
  • 亞太地區
    • 中國
    • 印度
    • 日本
    • 其他
  • 南美
    • 巴西
    • 墨西哥
  • 其他

第9章 競爭情形

  • 主要企業的市場策略
  • 企業簡介
    • Henkel & Co. KGaA
    • Sika AG
    • 3M Company
    • Dupont (Dowdupont)
    • H.B. Fuller
    • Bostik S.A.
    • Huntsman International LLC.
    • Ashland
    • PPG Industries
    • Illinois Tool Works Corporation

第10章 調查方法

  • 調查方法
    • 資料探勘
    • 分析
    • 市場預測
    • 檢驗
    • 出版
  • 調查屬性
  • 調查的前提條件

本網頁內容可能與最新版本有所差異。詳細情況請與我們聯繫。

目錄

Global Automotive Adhesives Market is valued approximately at USD 7.7 billion in 2018 and is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than 5.70% over the forecast period 2019-2026. Automotive adhesive is a bonding material used to attach or join two parts or components with each other. These adhesives have wide applications in the automotive industry owing to its rapid and robust bonding quality between parts or components, ability to reduce vehicle weight lower carbon emission, fuel efficiency. Adhesives are used in automotive industry to assemble metal, rubber, plastics, glass, plastics and several other materials throughout the manufacturing of automobiles. In addition, these adhesives also assist in preventing the entrance of dirt and water in the car body shell and thus help in improving body stiffness, toughness and improved crash performance. Further, growing demand for lightweight and low carbon emitting vehicles, high demand for automotive adhesives from emerging economies has led the adoption of Automotive Adhesives in the forecast period. Also, with the increasing investment in EV, the adoption & demand for Automotive Adhesives is likely to increase over the forecast period. However, volatility in raw material prices impedes the growth of the market over the forecast period of 2019-2026.

The regional analysis of global Automotive Adhesives market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and Rest of the World. Asia-Pacific is the leading/significant region across the world in terms of market share owing to the growing production of passenger vehicles coupled with technology innovation. Further, with economic contraction and saturation in North America and Europe, manufacturers of adhesives are shifting their manufacturing base to APAC. This would create lucrative growth prospects for the Automotive Adhesives market across Asia-Pacific region.

Major market player included in this report are:

  • Henkel & Co. KGaA
  • Sika AG
  • 3M Company
  • Dupont (Dowdupont)
  • H.B. Fuller
  • Bostik S.A.
  • Huntsman International LLC.
  • Ashland
  • PPG Industries
  • 10 Illinois Tool Works Corporation

The objective of the study is to define market sizes of different segments & countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming eight years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors & challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and product offerings of key players. The detailed segments and sub-segment of the market are explained below:

By resin:

  • Polyurethane
  • Epoxy
  • Acrylics
  • Silicone
  • SMP
  • MMA
  • Others

By application:

  • Body in white
  • Paint shop
  • Assembly
  • Powertrain

Based on vehicle type:

  • Passenger car
  • LCV
  • Truck
  • Bus
  • Aftermarket

By Region:

  • North America
  • U.S.
  • Canada
  • Europe
  • UK
  • Germany
  • Asia Pacific
  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • Latin America
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • Rest of the World

Furthermore, years considered for the study are as follows:

  • Historical year - 2016, 2017
  • Base year - 2018
  • Forecast period - 2019 to 2026

Target Audience of the Global Automotive Adhesives Market in Market Study:

  • Key Consulting Companies & Advisors
  • Large, medium-sized, and small enterprises
  • Venture capitalists
  • Value-Added Resellers (VARs)
  • Third-party knowledge providers
  • Investment bankers
  • Investors

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Market Snapshot
  • 1.2. Global & Segmental Market Estimates & Forecasts, 2017-2026 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.1. Automotive Adhesives Market, by Region, 2017-2026 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.2. Automotive Adhesives Market, by Technology, 2017-2026 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.3. Automotive Adhesives Market, by Application, 2017-2026 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.4. Automotive Adhesives Market, by Vehicle type, 2017-2026 (USD Billion)
  • 1.3. Key Trends
  • 1.4. Estimation Methodology
  • 1.5. Research Assumption

Chapter 2. Global Automotive Adhesives Market Definition and Scope

  • 2.1. Objective of the Study
  • 2.2. Market Definition & Scope
    • 2.2.1. Scope of the Study
    • 2.2.2. Industry Evolution
  • 2.3. Years Considered for the Study
  • 2.4. Currency Conversion Rates

Chapter 3. Global Automotive Adhesives Market Dynamics

  • 3.1. Automotive Adhesives Market Impact Analysis (2018-2026)
    • 3.1.1. Market Drivers
    • 3.1.2. Market Challenges
    • 3.1.3. Market Opportunities

Chapter 4. Global Automotive Adhesives Market Industry Analysis

  • 4.1. Porter's 5 Force Model
    • 4.1.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers
    • 4.1.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers
    • 4.1.3. Threat of New Entrants
    • 4.1.4. Threat of Substitutes
    • 4.1.5. Competitive Rivalry
    • 4.1.6. Futuristic Approach to Porter's 5 Force Model (2016-2026)
  • 4.2. PEST Analysis
    • 4.2.1. Political
    • 4.2.2. Economical
    • 4.2.3. Social
    • 4.2.4. Technological
  • 4.3. Investment Adoption Model
  • 4.4. Analyst Recommendation & Conclusion

Chapter 5. Global Automotive Adhesives Market, by Resin

  • 5.1. Market Snapshot
  • 5.2. Global Automotive Adhesives Market by Resin, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 5.3. Global Automotive Adhesives Market Estimates & Forecasts by resin 2016-2026 (USD Billion)
  • 5.4. Automotive Adhesives Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 5.4.1. Polyurethane
    • 5.4.2. Epoxy
    • 5.4.3. Acrylic
    • 5.4.4. Silicone
    • 5.4.5. SMP
    • 5.4.6. MMA
    • 5.4.7. Others

Chapter 6. Global Automotive Adhesives Market, by Application

  • 6.1. Market Snapshot
  • 6.2. Global Automotive Adhesives Market by Application
  • 6.3. Global Automotive Adhesives Market Estimates & Forecasts by Product Design 2016-2026 (USD Billion)
  • 6.4. Automotive Adhesives Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 6.4.1. Body in White (BIW)
    • 6.4.2. Powertrain
    • 6.4.3. Paint shop
    • 6.4.4. Assembly

Chapter 7. Global Automotive Adhesives Market, by Vehicle Type

  • 7.1. Market Snapshot
  • 7.2. Global Automotive Adhesives Market by Vehicle type, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 7.3. Global Automotive Adhesives Market Estimates & Forecasts by Product Design 2016-2026 (USD Billion)
  • 7.4. Automotive Adhesives Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 7.4.1. Passenger Car
    • 7.4.2. Buses
    • 7.4.3. Trucks
    • 7.4.4. LCV
    • 7.4.5. Aftermarket

Chapter 8. Global Automotive Adhesives Market, Regional Analysis

  • 8.1. Automotive Adhesives Market, Regional Market Snapshot
  • 8.2. North America Automotive Adhesives Market
    • 8.2.1. U.S. Automotive Adhesives Market
      • 8.2.1.1. vehicle type breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2016-2026
      • 8.2.1.2. Resin breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2016-2026
    • 8.2.2. Canada Automotive Adhesives Market
  • 8.3. Europe Automotive Adhesives Market Snapshot
    • 8.3.1. U.K. Automotive Adhesives Market
    • 8.3.2. Rest of Europe Automotive Adhesives Market
  • 8.4. Asia-Pacific Automotive Adhesives Market Snapshot
    • 8.4.1. China Automotive Adhesives Market
    • 8.4.2. India Automotive Adhesives Market
    • 8.4.3. Japan Automotive Adhesives Market
    • 8.4.4. Rest of Asia Pacific Automotive Adhesives Market
  • 8.5. Latin America Automotive Adhesives Market Snapshot
    • 8.5.1. Brazil Automotive Adhesives Market
    • 8.5.2. Mexico Automotive Adhesives Market
  • 8.6. Rest of The World Automotive Adhesives Market

Chapter 9. Competitive Intelligence

  • 9.1. Top Market Strategies
  • 9.2. Company Profiles
    • 9.2.1. Henkel & Co. KGaA
      • 9.2.1.1. Key Information
      • 9.2.1.2. Overview
      • 9.2.1.3. Financial (Subject to Data Availability)
      • 9.2.1.4. Product Summary
      • 9.2.1.5. Recent Developments
    • 9.2.2. Sika AG
    • 9.2.3. 3M Company
    • 9.2.4. Dupont (Dowdupont)
    • 9.2.5. H.B. Fuller
    • 9.2.6. Bostik S.A.
    • 9.2.7. Huntsman International LLC.
    • 9.2.8. Ashland
    • 9.2.9. PPG Industries
    • 9.2.10. Illinois Tool Works Corporation

Chapter 10. Research Process

  • 10.1. Research Process
    • 10.1.1. Data Mining
    • 10.1.2. Analysis
    • 10.1.3. Market Estimation
    • 10.1.4. Validation
    • 10.1.5. Publishing
  • 10.2. Research Attributes
  • 10.3. Research Assumption

List of Tables

  • TABLE 1. LIST OF SECONDARY SOURCES, USED IN THE STUDY OF GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET
  • TABLE 2. LIST OF PRIMARY SOURCES, USED IN THE STUDY OF GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET
  • TABLE 3. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, REPORT SCOPE
  • TABLE 4. YEARS CONSIDERED FOR THE STUDY
  • TABLE 5. EXCHANGE RATES CONSIDERED
  • TABLE 6. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY REGION 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 7. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY PRODUCT TYPE 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 8. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY PRODUCT DESIGN 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 9. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 10. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 11. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 12. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 13. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 14. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 15. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 16. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 17. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 18. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY REGION, ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 19. U.S. AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 20. U.S. AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 21. U.S. AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 22. CANADA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 23. CANADA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 24. CANADA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 25. UK AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 26. UK AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 27. UK AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 28. GERMANY AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 29. GERMANY AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 30. GERMANY AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 31. ROE AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 32. ROE AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 33. ROE AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 34. CHINA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 35. CHINA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 36. CHINA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 37. INDIA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 38. INDIA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 39. INDIA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 40. JAPAN AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 41. JAPAN AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 42. JAPAN AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 43. ROAPAC AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 44. ROAPAC AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 45. ROAPAC AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 46. BRAZIL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 47. BRAZIL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 48. BRAZIL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 49. MEXICO AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 50. MEXICO AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 51. MEXICO AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 52. ROLA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 53. ROLA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 54. ROLA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 55. ROW AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS, 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 56. ROW AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)
  • TABLE 57. ROW AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET ESTIMATES & FORECASTS BY SEGMENT 2016-2026 (USD BILLION)

List of Figures

  • FIG 1. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • FIG 2. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, MARKET ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES
  • FIG 3. GLOBAL MARKET SIZE ESTIMATES & FORECAST METHODS
  • FIG 4. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, KEY TRENDS 2018
  • FIG 5. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, GROWTH PROSPECTS 2019-2026
  • FIG 6. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, PORTERS 5 FORCE MODEL
  • FIG 7. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, PEST ANALYSIS
  • FIG 8. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
  • FIG 9. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 10. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 11. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 12. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 13. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 14. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, REGIONAL SNAPSHOT 2016 & 2026
  • FIG 15. NORTH AMERICA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 16. EUROPE AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 17. ASIA PACIFIC AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 18. LATIN AMERICA AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET 2016 & 2026 (USD BILLION)
  • FIG 19. GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE ADHESIVES MARKET, COMPANY MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS (2018)
Back to Top