表紙
市場調查報告書
商品編碼
1070156

H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種的全球市場規模:各治療類型、給藥途徑、終端用戶、地區的預測(2022年∼2028年)

Global H1N1 Vaccination Market Size study, By Treatment Type, By Route of Administration, By End User, and Regional Forecasts 2022-2028

出版日期: | 出版商: Bizwit Research & Consulting LLP | 英文 | 商品交期: 2-3個工作天內

價格
  • 全貌
  • 簡介
  • 目錄
簡介

全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種的市場規模,2021年約18億9,000萬美金,在2022年∼2028年之間的預測期間內預計以5.20%以上順利的成長率成長。

本報告提供全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場相關調查分析,市場趨勢,競爭情形,各市場區隔、地區的市場分析,主要企業的簡介等系統性資訊。

目錄

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場定義和範圍

第3章 全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場動態

  • H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場影響分析(2020年∼2028年)

第4章 全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場產業分析

  • 波特的五力分析
  • PEST分析
  • 投資採用模式
  • 分析師的推薦事項與結論
  • 主要的投資機會
  • 主要的成功策略

第5章 風險評估:COVID-19影響

    • COVID-19對產業的整體影響的評估
    • COVID-19前和COVID-19後的市場情境

第6章 全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場:各治療類型

  • 市場概述
  • 市場成果、潛在力分析:各治療類型
  • 市場估計與預測:各治療類型(2019年∼2028年)
  • 子區隔分析
    • 流感
    • 腦膜炎
    • 子宮頸癌
    • 肺炎球菌
    • 肝炎
    • 麻疹
    • 腮腺炎
    • 德國麻疹

第7章 全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場:各給藥途徑

  • 市場概述
  • 市場成果、潛在力分析:各給藥途徑
  • 市場估計與預測:各給藥途徑(2019年∼2028年)
  • 子區隔分析
    • 醫院
    • 診所
    • 研究所、臨床檢驗室
    • 其他

第8章 全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場:各終端用戶

  • 市場概述
  • 市場成果、潛在力分析:各終端用戶
  • 市場估計與預測:各終端用戶(2019年∼2028年)
  • 子區隔分析
    • 經鼻給藥
    • 結合型
    • 弱毒化疫苗
    • 不活化疫苗
    • 肌肉內疫苗
    • 類毒素

第9章 全球H1N1(豬流感)疫苗接種市場:地區分析

  • 地區市場概述
  • 北美
    • 美國
    • 加拿大
  • 歐洲
    • 英國
    • 德國
    • 法國
    • 西班牙
    • 義大利
    • 其他歐洲
  • 亞太地區
    • 中國
    • 印度
    • 日本
    • 澳洲
    • 韓國
    • 其他亞太地區
  • 南美
    • 巴西
    • 墨西哥
  • 其他地區

第10章 競爭資訊

  • 主要的市場策略
  • 企業簡介
    • AstraZeneca
    • Novavax, Inc.
    • Zydus Cadila.
    • Panacea Biotec Ltd.
    • Sinovac Biotech Ltd.
    • Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.
    • Green Cross Corp.
    • Abbott, Pfizer Inc.
    • Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.
    • Cipla Inc.

第11章 調查流程

目錄

Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market is valued approximately USD 1.89 billion in 2021 and is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than 5.20% over the forecast period 2022-2028.

The H1N1 virus is a term used for an infectious disease that is exhibits symptoms such as red-watery eyes, high fever, body aches, persistent cough, and headache. The infection is known to have a negative impact on the prevailing chronic illnesses, like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), pneumonia, and bronchitis, and can be deadly in several cases. H1N1 vaccines are introduced as a preventive measure that is administered by the means of intranasal and intradermal procedures to present active immunization against the virus. The rising number of government subsidies for vaccine manufacturing, growing prevalence of epidemic H1N1 infection, increasing public-private partnerships for the supply of H1N1 vaccines are the major factors that may surge the market demand around the world. Additionally, a rising number of research and development activities, as well as increasing levels of respiratory diseases and immune-deficient disorders are further stimulating the market growth globally. For instance, in February 2020, Abbott India announced the introduction of an inactive vaccine in India against four strains of the influenza virus. Thereby, an increasing number of product launches propels the market demand. However, high costs & lengthy manufacturing processes impede the growth of the market over the forecast period of 2022-2028. Also, the shift from egg-based to cell-based manufacturing is anticipated to act as a catalyzing factor for the market demand during the forecast period.

The key regions considered for the global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination market study include Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America, and the Rest of the World. North America is the leading region across the world in terms of market share owing to the growing expenditure of healthcare facilities, coupled with the increasing number of research and development activities.

Whereas, Asia-Pacific is anticipated to exhibit the highest CAGR over the forecast period 2022-2028. Factors such as the rising number of infected populations, as well as growing awareness regarding the availability of the H1N1 vaccines, would create lucrative growth prospects for the H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination market across the Asia-Pacific region.

Major market players included in this report are:

AstraZeneca

Novavax, Inc.

Zydus Cadila.

Panacea Biotec Ltd.

Sinovac Biotech Ltd.

Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.

Green Cross Corp.

Abbott, Pfizer Inc.

Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.

Cipla Inc.

The objective of the study is to define market sizes of different segments & countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming eight years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors & challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and product offerings of key players. The detailed segments and sub-segment of the market are explained below:

By Treatment Type

Influenza

Meningococcal

Cervical Cancer

Pneumococcal

Hepatitis

Measles

Mumps

Rubella

By Route of Administration

Hospitals

Clinics

Research and Diagnostic Laboratories

Others

By End User

Intranasal

Conjugate

Attenuated Vaccines

Inactivated Vaccines

Intramuscular Vaccines

Toxoid

By Region:

North America

U.S.

Canada

Europe

UK

Germany

France

Spain

Italy

ROE

Asia Pacific

China

India

Japan

Australia

South Korea

RoAPAC

Latin America

Brazil

Mexico

Rest of the World

Furthermore, years considered for the study are as follows:

Historical year - 2018, 2019, 2020

Base year - 2021

Forecast period - 2022 to 2028

Target Audience of the Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market in Market Study:

Key Consulting Companies & Advisors

Large, medium-sized, and small enterprises

Venture capitalists

Value-Added Resellers (VARs)

Third-party knowledge providers

Investment bankers

Investors

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Market Snapshot
  • 1.2. Global & Segmental Market Estimates & Forecasts, 2020-2028 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.1. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, by Region, 2020-2028 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.2. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, by Treatment Type, 2020-2028 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.3. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, by Route of Administration, 2020-2028 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.4. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, by End User, 2020-2028 (USD Billion)
  • 1.3. Key Trends
  • 1.4. Estimation Methodology
  • 1.5. Research Assumption

Chapter 2. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Definition and Scope

  • 2.1. Objective of the Study
  • 2.2. Market Definition & Scope
    • 2.2.1. Scope of the Study
    • 2.2.2. Industry Evolution
  • 2.3. Years Considered for the Study
  • 2.4. Currency Conversion Rates

Chapter 3. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Dynamics

  • 3.1. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Impact Analysis (2020-2028)
    • 3.1.1. Market Drivers
      • 3.1.1.1. Public-private partnerships for supply of H1N1 vaccine
      • 3.1.1.2. Government subsidies for vaccine manufacture
    • 3.1.2. Market Challenges
      • 3.1.2.1. High costs & lengthy manufacturing process
    • 3.1.3. Market Opportunities
      • 3.1.3.1. Shift from egg-based to cell-based manufacturing

Chapter 4. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Industry Analysis

  • 4.1. Porter's 5 Force Model
    • 4.1.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers
    • 4.1.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers
    • 4.1.3. Threat of New Entrants
    • 4.1.4. Threat of Substitutes
    • 4.1.5. Competitive Rivalry
    • 4.1.6. Futuristic Approach to Porter's 5 Force Model (2019-2028)
  • 4.2. PEST Analysis
    • 4.2.1. Political
    • 4.2.2. Economical
    • 4.2.3. Social
    • 4.2.4. Technological
  • 4.3. Investment Adoption Model
  • 4.4. Analyst Recommendation & Conclusion
  • 4.5. Top investment opportunity
  • 4.6. Top winning strategies

Chapter 5. Risk Assessment: COVID-19 Impact

    • 5.1.1. Assessment of the overall impact of COVID-19 on the industry
    • 5.1.2. Pre COVID-19 and post COVID-19 market scenario

Chapter 6. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, by Treatment Type

  • 6.1. Market Snapshot
  • 6.2. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by Treatment Type, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 6.3. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Estimates & Forecasts by Treatment Type 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • 6.4. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 6.4.1. Influenza
    • 6.4.2. Meningococcal
    • 6.4.3. Cervical Cancer
    • 6.4.4. Pneumococcal
    • 6.4.5. Hepatitis
    • 6.4.6. Measles
    • 6.4.7. Mumps
    • 6.4.8. Rubella

Chapter 7. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, by Route of Administration

  • 7.1. Market Snapshot
  • 7.2. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by Route of Administration, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 7.3. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Estimates & Forecasts by Route of Administration 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • 7.4. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 7.4.1. Hospitals
    • 7.4.2. Clinics
    • 7.4.3. Research and Diagnostic Laboratories
    • 7.4.4. Others

Chapter 8. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, by End User

  • 8.1. Market Snapshot
  • 8.2. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by End User, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 8.3. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Estimates & Forecasts by End User 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • 8.4. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 8.4.1. Intranasal
    • 8.4.2. Conjugate
    • 8.4.3. Attenuated Vaccines
    • 8.4.4. Inactivated Vaccines
    • 8.4.5. Intramuscular Vaccines
    • 8.4.6. Toxoid

Chapter 9. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, Regional Analysis

  • 9.1. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, Regional Market Snapshot
  • 9.2. North America H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.2.1. U.S. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
      • 9.2.1.1. Treatment Type estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028
      • 9.2.1.2. Route of Administration estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028
      • 9.2.1.3. End User estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028
    • 9.2.2. Canada H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
  • 9.3. Europe H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Snapshot
    • 9.3.1. U.K. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.3.2. Germany H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.3.3. France H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.3.4. Spain H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.3.5. Italy H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.3.6. Rest of Europe H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
  • 9.4. Asia-Pacific H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Snapshot
    • 9.4.1. China H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.4.2. India H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.4.3. Japan H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.4.4. Australia H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.4.5. South Korea H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.4.6. Rest of Asia Pacific H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
  • 9.5. Latin America H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market Snapshot
    • 9.5.1. Brazil H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
    • 9.5.2. Mexico H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
  • 9.6. Rest of The World H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market

Chapter 10. Competitive Intelligence

  • 10.1. Top Market Strategies
  • 10.2. Company Profiles
    • 10.2.1. AstraZeneca
      • 10.2.1.1. Key Information
      • 10.2.1.2. Overview
      • 10.2.1.3. Financial (Subject to Data Availability)
      • 10.2.1.4. Product Summary
      • 10.2.1.5. Recent Developments
    • 10.2.2. Novavax, Inc.
    • 10.2.3. Zydus Cadila.
    • 10.2.4. Panacea Biotec Ltd.
    • 10.2.5. Sinovac Biotech Ltd.
    • 10.2.6. Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.
    • 10.2.7. Green Cross Corp.
    • 10.2.8. Abbott, Pfizer Inc.
    • 10.2.9. Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.
    • 10.2.10. Cipla Inc.

Chapter 11. Research Process

  • 11.1. Research Process
    • 11.1.1. Data Mining
    • 11.1.2. Analysis
    • 11.1.3. Market Estimation
    • 11.1.4. Validation
    • 11.1.5. Publishing
  • 11.2. Research Attributes
  • 11.3. Research Assumption

LIST OF TABLES

  • TABLE 1. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, report scope
  • TABLE 2. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by Region 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 3. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by Treatment Type 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 4. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by Route of Administration 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 5. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by End User 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 6. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 7. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 8. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 9. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 10. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 11. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 12. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 13. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 14. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 15. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 16. U.S. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 17. U.S. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 18. U.S. H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 19. Canada H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 20. Canada H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 21. Canada H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 22. UK H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 23. UK H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 24. UK H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 25. Germany H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 26. Germany H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 27. Germany H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 28. RoE H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 29. RoE H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 30. RoE H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 31. China H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 32. China H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 33. China H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 34. India H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 35. India H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 36. India H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 37. Japan H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 38. Japan H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 39. Japan H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 40. RoAPAC H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 41. RoAPAC H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 42. RoAPAC H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 43. Brazil H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 44. Brazil H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 45. Brazil H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 46. Mexico H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 47. Mexico H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 48. Mexico H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 49. RoLA H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 50. RoLA H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 51. RoLA H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 52. Row H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts, 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 53. Row H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 54. Row H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2019-2028 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 55. List of secondary sources, used in the study of global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
  • TABLE 56. List of primary sources, used in the study of global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market
  • TABLE 57. Years considered for the study
  • TABLE 58. Exchange rates considered

LIST OF FIGURES

List of figures

  • FIG 1. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, research methodology
  • FIG 2. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, market estimation techniques
  • FIG 3. Global market size estimates & forecast methods
  • FIG 4. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, key trends 2021
  • FIG 5. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, growth prospects 2022-2028
  • FIG 6. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, porters 5 force model
  • FIG 7. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, pest analysis
  • FIG 8. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, value chain analysis
  • FIG 9. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 10. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 11. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 12. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 13. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market by segment, 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 14. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, regional snapshot 2019 & 2028
  • FIG 15. North America H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 16. Europe H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 17. Asia pacific market 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 18. Latin America H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market 2019 & 2028 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 19. Global H1N1 (swine flu) Vaccination Market, company market share analysis (2021)