Chinese Carmakers are closing the gap with their global competitors Tesla, Audi, BMW, Mercedes, Nissan and Honda. This report analyzes the Top-10 Chinese Carmakers in ADAS: BAIC, BYD, Changan, Chery, Dongfeng, FAW, Geely, Great Wall Motors, GAC, and SAIC. We examine their roadmaps in ADAS Level 2-4, their sensor technology for autonomous driving and their shares in the deployment of ADAS in China.
2021 will see leading Chinese carmakers shifting to mass-deployment of Level-3 Conditional Automation in driving and parking features
The efforts of Chinese carmakers to enhance their ADAS portfolios and narrow the technological gap for Lv.2-4 with their global competitors are intensifying.
- Changan's UNI series is equipped with Lv.3 Traffic Jam Pilot (TJP) and has started mass-production
- Geely's Xingyue is equipped with G-Pilot 4, which offers L2+ autonomous driving functions and high-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB-CUI high speed),
- GAC's Aion series equipped with ADiGO 3.0 driving assistant package that provides hands-free driving experience under specific scenarios;
In 2021, BYD, Changan, Great Wall, Geely, and SAIC have already introduced Self-Parking capabilities that rival the likes of Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Tesla
Chinese carmakers leverage their strategic partnerships with foreign OEMs and domestic tech pioneers to mass-deploy their autonomous parking capabilities. ORA's full-scene Automatic Parking system, BYD's Vision Fusion Automatic Parking, Geely's FOTA and 5G Autonomous Valet Parking, Changan's APA 5.0 Remote Control Valet Parking; all provide point-to-point memory parking by integrating visual SLAM and ultrasonic radars to memorize and learn commonly used parking spaces and driving routes.
The number of models offering partially-automated driving capabilities in China, as standard or optional equipment, rose with a CAGR X % over the last ... years to reach ... in 2021. Carmakers are gradually offering higher-speed functionality by expanding Cruise Assist (CA) and TJA offerings across their model range. Moreover, the number of models offering L2-Parking reached ... in 2021, of which ... offered Self & Remote Parking.
...as partially-automated model offerings expand to the premium smart-EV segment
An increasing number of Chinese carmakers collaborates with domestic tech giants in order to develop intelligent pure-electric platforms. BAIC with its premium smart-EV brand Arcfox, Dongfeng with Voyah, GWM with ORA and SAIC with IM; among others. The models offered under the newly-established premium EV brands, aim to combine high electric range, robust infotainment in-vehicle systems and autonomous driving capabilities beyond Lv.2. According to our analysis, the models provide Lv.2 autonomous driving functions.
What does this report deliver?
1. Understand the competitive advantage of each one of the Top-10 Chinese carmakers in ADAS, in terms of Level 2-4 features, sensors (radar, lidar, camera, other) and strategy
- 1. BAIC,
- 2. BYD,
- 3. Changan
- 4. Chery
- 5. Dongfeng
- 6. FAW
- 7. Geely
- 8. Great Wall Motors
- 9. GAC
- 10. SAI
2. Who will lead and who will follow in the autonomous vehicle race until 2025?
- Discover when leading carmakers will launch capabilities of L2, L3, L4 and L5 segmented into Driving (L2-TJA vs L3-TJP) and Parking features (e.g. L2-Self Park, L4-Valet Parking)
- What are the trends by ADAS levels in Top Premium OEMs' model range during 2016-25?
- Learn about the penetration of different levels of autonomy in European car sales in 2021
3. Learn about the status of vehicle automation in China between 2020 and 2025.
- What is the availability of key ADAS features, such as AEB, TSR, ACC, LKA, TJA, in China's leading domestic carmakers?
- What is the penetration rate of SAE Level 0, 1 and 2 in China car sales?
- Which OEMs lead L2 deployment in 2021 and why?
- What changes in 2019-21 in terms of deployment of L2 and L3?
4. Read how Chinese carmakers, Tier-1s and new-entrants, including tech giants Baidu, Huawei etc., plan to overcome the challenges and commercialize autonomous driving
- How do leading OEMs plan to achieve L4/5 capabilities and when?
- OEM strategy, new business models and key collaborations
- Learn why leading Tier-1s are well-positioned to monetize ADAS growth
Here is an extract from our report:
Changan Vs. Geely: A comparison in Autonomous Driving Readiness
1. ADAS Strategy Comparison: Winner-Geely
- Roadmaps to Level 4-Autonomous Driving: Winner-Changan
- Changan offers Level 3-Conditional Automated Driving since 2020 and plans Level 4 in 2025
Geely, in cooperation with Volvo Cars, aims to have one-third of its sales with full autonomous drive capabilities by 2025. We expect Geely to follow a similar roadmap to Volvo which means they will have Level 4 in 2022 & L4-P VP.
Changan Auto's Lv.3 Traffic Jam Pilot in UNI-T and Level 2 iACC
In March 2020, Zhu Huarong, the President of Changan Automobile, demonstrated the Level 3 autonomous driving function of the UNI-T SUV. According to Changan's announcement, it was the first time that Level 3 autonomous driving technology was applied to mass production in China. Equipped with L3-TJP, the UNI-T vehicle monitors the traffic conditions on a continuous basis and conducts fully autonomous driving at speeds up to 40 km/h; when the speed is above 40 km/h, the driver only has to keep eyes on the road information
Launched in 2018, Changan's integrated Adaptive Cruise Control (IACC) facilitates smart driving features including traffic assisted driving, lane keep assist, lane change assist, automatic deceleration during turns, intelligent speed limit assist, and voice-activated cruise speed setting. Initially mass-produced on the CS 55 SUV, the IACC system is now installed in multiple Changan vehicles; including the UNI series, the Oushang X7 and the CS 85 series.
Geely does offer Level 3 yet but has a high Level 2 penetration
G-Pilot represents Geely's efforts in the AD technology field. From 2018 and onwards, Geely has equipped the majority of its models with G-Pilot 2.0; a system that combines Adaptive Cruise Control, Lane Keep Assist, Automatic Parking Assistant, Crash Detection and low-speed Emergency Braking (AEB); enabling this way Geely's capability to realize L2 autonomous driving functions.
The availability of Level 0-2 in their model Line-up in 2021 in China: Winner-Geely
- Geely: L1-Safety in 76% of their models in China whereas L2-D penetration was at 68% in 2020
- Changan: L1-Safety: 60%, L2-D: 37% and L3-D: 6%
Strategy execution incl. key partnerships
Changan and Huawei collaborate in Level-4 autopilot, 5G and C-V2X
Changan Automobile cooperates with Huawei on the "Beidou Tianshu Plan" aiming to create an intelligent network that integrates intelligent driving, vehicle connectivity and other software development; as well to promote the deployment of new energy vehicles. In this direction, Changan has also established strategic agreements with companies such as CATL, NIO, Alibaba, and Baidu. Changan aims to provide L4 autonomous driving volume production in 2025. In 2020, the Company spent ¥4.142 billion on R&D programs.
Geely partnered with Tencent for ICV and it is committed to developing autonomous technology jointly with Volvo
In 2019, ECARX, a strategically invested enterprise under Geely Holding Group, signed a cooperative agreement with Tencent; to jointly collaborate on intelligent connectivity services, joint user operations, AI, and cloud services. Currently, Tencent automotive applications have been successfully integrated into several Geely Auto and Lynk & Co models.
In June 2016, Volvo and Geely stated that they intended to deepen co-operation in driverless technologies and connectivity. Volvo has announced that it will move directly to SAE Level 4 autonomy from Level 2. It is expected that Geely will follow the same path. The company has tried to apply pressure to the Chinese government to open the high-definition mapping market, to accelerate AV development.
2. ADAS Portfolio & Technology Capabilities: Winner-Geely
SAE Level 2-ADAS fitment in new car sales in 2020: Winner-Geely
Regarding the fitment of Level 2 features, according to our analysis at the end of 2020:
- 37% of Changan's models in China feature L2-Cruising and 32% feature L2-Parking
- 68% of Geely's models in China are equipped with L2-Cruising and 56% L2-Parking
At the end of 2020, 37% of Changan's models featured L2-Cruising and 32% L2-Parking
- Changan offers L2 Traffic Jam Assist in the CS55, CS75, CS85 and the Qushang X7; L3 Traffic Jam Pilot in UNI-T;
- L2 Self-Parking, is available in 7 of 22 models; L3 Remote Valet Parking with auto-learning park pilot is providing in UNI-T, CS75 Petrol version, CS 95 and Qushang X7;
- From 2018, Changan new models started featuring the more integrated Adaptive Cruise Assist, which is capable of highway assistance, therefore a L2-Cruise Assist;
- From 2020, CS 75 Plus, CS 85 Coupe and UNI-T. incorporate the networked operating system Tinove OS, developed by Wutong Auto;
- The vehicles under the Oushang brand, are equipped with Huawei's Hicar intelligent in-car operating system;
In the end of 2020, 68% of Geely's models in China feature Level 2-Cruising and 56% L2-Parking features
- Geely's G-Pilot 2.0 system offers driving functions such as full-speed Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Centring Assist (ICC) and Lane keep Assist (LKA) that combined are capable of providing L2 autonomous driving experience;
- Geely's vehicles equipped with G Pilot 2.0 can provide L2 parking functions; the Automated Park Assist system (APA) helps the driver to park or even automatically park the vehicle itself;
- Xingyue, Geely's flagship SUV, is equipped with G-Pilot 4, the highest level of Geely's autonomous driving technical route;
- The Binyue (Coolray) model performs L2 high-speed Autonomous Braking. In more detail, by integrating a monocular camera and 77 GHz millimetre wave radar, Binyue's Pre-Crash Safety system can identify pedestrians and vehicles in front within a speed range of 5-150km/h and actively brake and decelerate the vehicle.
ADAS sensor technology for Level 2-Self & Remote Parking
Geely's Xingyue comes with L2-Parking 5G-enabled, completely unmanned automated valet system
Within a 200-metre area such as a parking lot, the parking system enables the Xingyue to drive 100% on its own, search for parking spaces, park itself; or pick up the vehicle user within a 200-metre area. To accomplish the fully autonomous parking function, the system integrates 12 ultrasonic radars, 5-millimetre wave radars, 4 HD surround-view cameras, 1 monocular camera, 1 dashcam, 1 interior camera, and 24 environmental sensors.
Changan's UNI-T is equipped with APA 5.0 remote control valet parking system, IACC, and an AI chip developed by Horizon Robotics
APA 5.0 parking system integrates 4 HD wide-angle cameras (360° view) and front/rear parking radars to enable the vehicle to realize horizontal parking, vertical and diagonal parking, find a parking space within 20m, enter the parking space and complete the parking process automatically. The car owner can also use the mobile phone APP to carry out one-key remote parking. The system integrates ultrasonic radar and high-definition camera data to identify parking spaces, vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles, etc., and has an emergency braking function.
Changan's UNI-T is the first model to feature an AI chip and AI vision developed by Horizon Robotics, The Horizon's SoC technology integrates a deep learning processing unit engine (BPU), an ARM CPU subsystem and a dedicated Image Signal Processor (ISP), to enable object detection, object classification and pixel-level semantic segmentation.
3. Market leadership in Level 2 car sales volume in China: Winner-Geely
Geely claims they are a leader in Lv.2 car sales in China
"L2 leader in China in terms of adoption. In the first four months of 2019, Geely Auto has sold over 450,000 vehicles equipped with Level 2 technologies" Geely, 2019.
In 2019, Geely achieve the production of L2 level autonomous drive capable vehicles, according to their press release. The announcement claimed that "L2 leader in China in terms of adoption. In the first four months of 2019, Geely Auto has sold over 450,000 vehicles equipped with Level 2 technologies". We estimate that Geely's Level 2-equipped cars amounted to 601,235 in 2020 vs. 549,093 for Changan.
Table of Contents
Executive Summary (4 pages)
- Chinese carmakers lead Lv.3-Parking & catch up with European, Japanese & US rivals
- What this report delivers
- Methodology: 10 leading Auto Groups & 313 models examined
1. State of the Art: SAE Lv. 0-3 in China in 2021 by Top-10 Chinese OEMs (6 pages)
- 1.1. Roadmaps of Chinese Carmakers to Lv.4 Autonomous Driving by 2025
- 1.2. SAE Level 3-Driving in China: New car launches, features and penetration
- 1.2.1. Combined Lv.0-3 Models & Sales in 2020 by Top-10 Chinese Carmakers
- 1.2.2. Lv.3-Driving & Parking availability in Top-10 Chinese OEMs' models
- 1.3. SAE Level 2-D status in China: Penetration & Technology offerings
- 1.3.1. Level 2-Driving feature description, model fitment and sales in 2020
- 1.3.2. Level 2-Driving Car sales in China in 2020 by Chinese Carmaker
- 1.3.3. Ranking by Lv.2 Sales in Driving & Parking by Chinese Carmakers
- 1.3.4. Lv.2-D & Lv.2-P availability in China in 2021 by Top-10 Chinese OEMs
- 1.3.5. SAE Lv.2 penetration (%) in Top 10 Chinese Carmakers' brands
- 1.4. Top-10 Chinese Carmakers Lv. (0 to 3) Breakdown by Model and Sales
- 1.5. ADAS Lv.0-Lv.3 Availability in BAIC, BYD, in China in 2021
2. Top-10 Chinese Carmakers in Autonomous Driving (42 pages)
- 2.1. BAIC Motors
- 2.1.1. BAIC's position in China's Passenger Car market
- 2.1.2. The availability of ADAS Level 0-2 in BAIC's model Line-up in 2021
- 2.1.3. BAIC's Strategy and Roadmap to Level-4 Autonomous Driving
- 2.1.4. BAIC's Top Investments in Autonomous Driving Technology
- 2.2. BYD
- 2.2.1. BYD's Car sales in 2020
- 2.2.2. Vision & Strategy in ADAS & Autonomous Driving
- 2.2.3. Key partnerships and Investments
- 2.2.4. The availability of Level 0-3 in BYD's model Line-up in 2021 in China
- 2.3. CHANGAN
- 2.3.1. Changan's Car sales in 2020 including JVs
- 2.3.2. Changan's Vision & Roadmaps to Level 4-Autonomous Driving
- 2.3.3. ADAS Portfolio & Technology Capabilities
- 2.3.4. Strategy execution incl. key partnerships
- 2.4. Chery
- 2.4.1. Chery's position in the Chinese market
- 2.4.2. Chery's Strategy in ADAS & Autonomous Driving
- 2.4.3. ADAS Portfolio, Feature Penetration & Technology Capabilities
- 2.5. Dongfeng Motors
- 2.5.1. Dongfeng's position in the Chinese market
- 2.5.2. ADAS Portfolio, Feature Penetration & Technology Capabilities
- 2.6. FAW
- 2.6.1. FAW's ADAS Portfolio, Feature Penetration & Technology Capabilities
- 2.6.2. FAW Strategy's to reach Lv.4 Autonomous Driving
- 2.7. GUANGZHOU AUTOMOBILE GROUP (GAC)
- 2.7.1. GAC's Strategy in ADAS & Autonomous Driving
- 2.7.2. ADAS Portfolio and Feature Penetration in GAC's line-up
- 2.8. Geely
- 2.8.1. Geely's Position in the Automotive Market in 2020
- 2.8.2. Geely's Vision & Roadmaps to Level 4-Autonomous Driving
- 2.8.3. Strategy execution incl. key partnerships
- 2.8.4. The availability of Level 0-2 in Geely's model Line-up in 2021 in China
- 2.8.5. Geely's market leadership in Lv.2 car sales volume in China
- 2.9. Great Wall Motors (GWM)
- 2.9.1. GWM Group Structure, Brands and positioning
- 2.9.2. GWM's Strategy in ADAS & Autonomous Driving
- 2.9.3. The availability of Level 0-2 in GWM's model Line-up in 2021
- 2.10. SAIC
- 2.10.1. SAIC's Strategy in ADAS & Autonomous Driving
- 2.10.2. The availability of Level 0-2 in SAIC's model Line-up in 2021
3. The evolution of Autonomous Driving in China (6 pages)
- 3.1. China Automated Driving Forecast: L2-D to L4-D 2025
- 3.2. China's regulation & Policy for Intelligent & Connected Vehicles (ICVs)
- 3.2.1. China's AD regulatory framework is still under development
- 3.2.2. Concerns over the regulatory action needed in China
- 3.3. Investment boom
- 3.4. Player collaboration