Cover Image


Analyzing Coal to Liquids 2015

出版商 Aruvian's R'search 商品編碼 243420
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 190 pages
Back to Top
全球煤炭液化市場分析 Analyzing Coal to Liquids 2015
出版日期: 2015年02月01日 內容資訊: 英文 190 pages


本報告提供煤炭液化(CTL:Coal to Liquids)相關的全球市場相關分析,技術上特徵和處理工程,生產效率及成本,資金籌措、投資接收情形,二氧化碳排放和全球暖化的影響,燃料市場價格變動的關聯性,各國市場的概要,美國市場詳細內容趨勢,今後的企業發展預測,到現在為止的開發、引進案例,再加上主要企業簡介與措施等調查資料、考察,並將結果概述為以下內容。







  • 簡介
  • 直接性液化
  • 間接的液化
  • 高熱量/低熱量定義
  • 氣化科分析
  • 合成天然氣的傳統產品
  • 替代性天然氣所扮演的角色
  • 甲醇所扮演的角色
  • 二甲醚作用
  • 液體烴所扮演的角色



  • 簡介
  • 炭化和熱分解
  • 直接性液化相關考察
  • 間接的液化相關考察
  • 煤炭的汽油化相關考察
  • 甲醇的汽油化相關考察
  • 煤炭液化(CTL)和天然氣液化(GTL)比較





  • 概要
  • 運輸階段的排放
  • 處理階段的排放



  • 概要
  • 二氧化碳的回收與分離
  • 提高石油採收率和二氧化碳回收
  • 煤炭和生質能的混合氣化



  • 許可的問題
  • 供應商的契約相關問題



  • 全球市場概況
  • 澳洲
  • 中國
  • 德國
  • 印尼
  • 印度
  • 美國
  • 市場獎勵相關考察



  • 美國的煤炭液化活動的必要條件
  • 美國國內的龐大的煤炭供給
  • 美國國內的龐大的煤炭供給
  • 美國的現有技術
  • 對美國來說的煤炭液化的優點
  • 煤炭液化產業的商業化
  • 煤炭液化和美國的能源安全保障
  • 美國的環境問題與煤炭液化
  • 美國經濟與煤炭液化
  • 聯邦政府所扮演的角色
  • 未來的必要條件


  • 未來預測
  • 石油價格的預測與煤炭液化
  • 煤炭液化的資本成本的未來發展預測
  • 原料價格的未來發展預測
  • 煤炭液化廠房建築用設備的得到可能性預測
  • 法規預測
  • 運輸相關今後的必要條件
  • 二氧化碳排放量的預測
  • 中國的經濟發展
  • 技術進步
  • 全球煤炭液化市場預測



  • ConocoPhillips
  • Sasol
  • Rentech, inc.
  • Syntroleum Corporation
  • DKRW Advanced Fuels
  • NEDO
  • Shell China
  • Synthesis Energy Systems






Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish-black rock. It is a sedimentary rock, but the harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rocks because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. It is composed primarily of carbon along with assorted other elements, including sulfur. It is the largest single source of fuel for the generation of electricity world-wide, as well as the largest world-wide source of carbon dioxide emissions, slightly ahead of petroleum and about double that of natural gas. Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open pit mining.

Coals can also be converted into liquid fuels like gasoline or diesel by several different processes. The Fischer-Tropsch process of indirect synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons was used in Nazi Germany for many years and is today used by Sasol in South Africa. Coal would be gasified to make syngas (a balanced purified mixture of CO and H2 gas) and the syngas condensed using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to make light hydrocarbons which are further processed into gasoline and diesel. Syngas can also be converted to methanol, which can be used as a fuel, fuel additive, or further processed into gasoline via the Mobil M-gas process.

Coal liquefaction is one of the backstop technologies that could potentially limit escalation of oil prices and mitigate the effects of transportation energy shortage that some authors have suggested could occur under peak oil. This is contingent on liquefaction production capacity becoming large enough to satiate the very large and growing demand for petroleum. Estimates of the cost of producing liquid fuels from coal suggest that domestic U.S. production of fuel from coal becomes cost-competitive with oil priced at around 35 USD per barrel, (break-even cost). This price, while above historical averages, is well below current oil prices. This makes coal a viable financial alternative to oil for the time being, although current production is small.

Aruvian's R'search brings you an in-depth focus on the emerging technology of Coal to Liquids. The report focuses on all aspects of the various processes involved in the CTL process, conversion processes utilized on natural gas, the major companies which are investing in this technology, the reasons for investing in CTL and the investment scenario in the technology, and the financial difficulties faced during financing of projects.

The report looks at the growth factors, challenges and barriers, the concept of using CTL fuel for transportation, the economic feasibility of CTL technologies and CTL projects, the effect of CTL on the energy market, and of course, the basics of Coal to Liquid technologies. A lot more awaits you inside this comprehensive intelligent analysis of CTL technology and market.

Table of Contents

A. Executive Summary

B. Understanding Coal

  • B.1. Coal Basics
  • B.2. Coal as a Fuel - Historical Perspective
  • B.3. Composition of Coal
  • B.4. Types of Coal
    • B.4.1. Anthracite
    • B.4.2. Lignite
    • B.4.3. Bituminous
    • B.4.4. Sub-Bituminous
  • B.5. Coal Fuel - The Environmental Fallout
  • B.6. Coal Burn Residue Management

C. Consolidation in the Global Coal Industry

D. Rising Global Demand for Oil

E. Background Analysis

  • E.1. Background
  • E.2. Technical Background

F. Overview of Coal to Liquids

  • F.1. Introduction
  • F.2. Direct Liquefaction
  • F.3. Indirect Liquefaction
  • F.4. Defining Higher Heating Value & Lower Heating Value
  • F.5. Analyzing the Gasification Process
  • F.6. Products Produced from Syngas
  • F.7. Role of Substitute Natural Gas
  • F.8. Role of Methanol
  • F.9. Role of Dimethyl-Ether
  • F.10. Role of Liquids Hydrocarbons

G. History of Coal to Liquids

  • G.1. Historical Overview
  • G.2. History of Direct Liquefaction
  • G.3. History of Indirect Liquefaction

H. Overview of the CTL Process

  • H.1. Introduction
  • H.2. Carbonization & Pyrolysis
  • H.3. Looking at Direct Liquefaction
    • H.3.1. Coal Liquefaction
    • H.3.2. Production of Hydrogen
    • H.3.3. Product Improvement
    • H.3.4. Offsite Plants
  • H.4. Looking at Indirect Liquefaction
    • H.4.1. Production of Syngas
    • H.4.2. Conversion of Synthesis Gas
    • H.4.3. Product Improvement
    • H.4.4. Offsite Plants
  • H.5. A Look at Coal to Gasoline
  • H.6. A Look at Methanol to Gasoline (MTG)
  • H.7. Comparing CTL and CTG

I. Analyzing Products of the CTL Process & Yields

J. Analyzing the Capital Cost Involved in CTL

K. Investment in Global Coal to Liquids

L. Analyzing Carbon Emissions from CTL Plants

  • L.1. Overview
  • L.2. Transport Emissions
  • L.3. Process Emissions

M. Liquid Coal & Global Warming

N. Managing GHG Emissions from CTL

  • N.1. Overview
  • N.2. Carbon Capture & Sequestration
  • N.3. Enhanced Oil Recovery & Carbon Capture
  • N.4. Combined Gasification of Coal & Biomass

O. Benefits of Coal to Liquids Production

P. Barriers to CTL

  • P.1. Permitting Issues
  • P.2. Agreements with Vendors Issues

Q. Rising Fuel Prices & CTL

R. Analyzing the Market Potential of CTL

  • R.1. Global Overview
  • R.2. Australia
  • R.3. China
  • R.4. Germany
  • R.5. Indonesia
  • R.6. India
  • R.7. United States
  • R.8. Market Incentives

S. Analyzing Processes Related to CTL

T. Coal to Liquids in the United States

  • T.1. Requirement of CTL in US
  • T.2. US' Abundant Supply of Coal
  • T.3. Why is CTL Not a Reality in the US
    • T.3.1. Dangers of Coal Mining
    • T.3.2. Global Warming & CO2 Emissions
    • T.3.3. Pollution from Liquid Coal
  • T.4. Existing Technologies in the US
  • T.5. Advantages of CTL to the US
  • T.6. Commercializing the CTL Industry
  • T.7. CTL & US Energy Security
  • T.8. US Environment & CTL
  • T.9. US Economy & CTL
  • T.10. Requirements for the Future

U. Future Perspective of CTL

  • U.1. Future Outlook
  • U.2. Oil Prices Outlook & CTL
  • U.3. Future Outlook on CTL Capital Costs
  • U.4. Future Outlook on Feedstock Costs
    • U.4.1. Coal Consumption
    • U.4.2. Coal Cost
    • U.4.3. Coal Quality
    • U.4.4. Barriers to Coal Production
  • U.5. Outlook for Availability of Equipment for CTL Plant Construction
  • U.6. Regulatory Outlook
  • U.7. Future Requirements for Transportation
  • U.8. Forecast on Carbon Dioxide Emissions
  • U.9. China's Economic Growth
  • U.10. Technological Advancements
  • U.11. Global Forecast for CTL Market

V. Case Studies

  • V.1. Alaska West Cook Inlet CTL Project
  • V.2. Healy Coal-to-Liquids Plant
  • V.3. CTL Project Carbon County, Wyoming
  • V.4. Sasol's CTL Project in the Shaanxi Province
  • V.5. Refinery-Based CTL Pathways for Jet Fuel & Other Products
  • V.6. Emergence of Plug-in Hybrids
  • V.7. Coal to Liquids in South Africa
  • V.8. Coal to Liquids in China

W. Leading Industry Contributors

  • W.1. ConocoPhillips
    • W.1.1. Corporate Profile
    • W.1.2. Business Segment Analysis
    • W.1.3. Financial Analysis
    • W.1.4. SWOT Analysis
  • W.2. Sasol
    • W.2.1. Corporate Profile
    • W.2.2. Business Segment Analysis
    • W.2.3. Financial Analysis
    • W.2.4. SWOT Analysis
  • W.3. Rentech, Inc.
    • W.3.1. Corporate Profile
    • W.3.2. Business Segment Analysis
    • W.3.3. Financial Analysis
    • W.3.4. SWOT Analysis
  • W.4. Syntroleum Corporation
    • W.4.1. Corporate Profile
    • W.4.2. Business Segment Analysis
    • W.4.3. Financial Analysis
  • W.5. DKRW Advanced Fuels
  • W.6. NEDO
  • W.7. Shell China
  • W.8. Synthesis Energy Systems

X. Appendix

Y. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Timeline of Coal History
  • Figure 2: Hydrogen Content of Coal Relative to Other Carbonaceous Fuels
  • Figure 3: Direct Liquefaction
  • Figure 4: Overall Conversion for Gasification
  • Figure 5: Water-Gas Shift Reaction
  • Figure 6: Potential Products derived from Syngas
  • Figure 7: Reaction from Synthesis Gas to Methane using Nickel Catalyst
  • Figure 8: Reaction from Synthesis Gas to Methane using Copper Catalyst
  • Figure 9: Reaction from Synthesis Gas to Hydrocarbons using Iron or Cobalt Catalyst
  • Figure 10: Location of the World's Main Fossil Fuel Reserves (Gigatons of Oil Equivalent)
  • Figure 11: Mild Pyrolysis
  • Figure 12: Process Flow Diagram for Direct Liquefaction
  • Figure 13: The NEDOL Process
  • Figure 14: The SASOL HTFT Process
  • Figure 15: HTI Direct Liquefaction
  • Figure 16: Process Flow Diagram for Indirect Liquefaction
  • Figure 17: Block Flow Diagram - Coal-to-Gasoline
  • Figure 18: HIS Min O/T Conversion
  • Figure 19: HIS Max O/T Conversion
  • Figure 20: HIS 100% Conversion
  • Figure 21: CTL Capital Costs
  • Figure 22: Capital Cost for CTL Plants with Varying Size and Configuration
  • Figure 23: Capital Costs: Impact of Scale
  • Figure 24: Unconventional Petroleum Liquids Capital Cost Investment (Thousand $ per Daily Barrel of Capacity)
  • Figure 25: Full Life-Cycle GHG Emissions for F-T and Petroleum Diesels
  • Figure 26: Emissions Reductions from Synthetic Fuels - Europe
  • Figure 27: Historical Energy Price Trends (US$ per Ton of Oil Equivalent)
  • Figure 28: Process Flow Diagram for Indirect Liquefaction Process Co-Producing of F-T Liquids & Power
  • Figure 29: Process Flow Diagram for Co-Producing SNG & Power
  • Figure 30: Coal to Liquids US Production, 2030
  • Figure 31: Historical Energy Commodity Prices ($/mmBtu)
  • Figure 32: EIA Oil Price Forecast (Dollars per Barrel), 2006-2030
  • Figure 33: Capital Cost for CTL Plants from Various Sources and Sizes
  • Figure 34: Projected CTL/CTG US Coal Consumption (Billions of Tons per Year), 2030
  • Figure 35: CTL Barrels per Ton Conversion (Barrels per Ton), 2030
  • Figure 36: Millions of Btu of Coal per Barrel, 2030
  • Figure 37: Expected Fuel Costs for CTL, 2004-2030
  • Figure 38: Heat Content of Coal (Btu/Lb), 2030
  • Figure 39: 80,000 bbl/d Coal to Liquids Beluga CTL Plant
  • Figure 40: Process Inputs and Outputs for the Healy F-T Plant
  • Figure 41: Site Location
  • Figure 42: Figure 6: Fischer-Tropsch Technology used by Sasol
  • Figure 43: Global Vehicle Stock Growth
  • Figure 44: Growth in World Oil Demand 2002-2030
  • Figure 45: Global Coal Reserves at end 2014
  • Figure 46: Main World Coal Trade Flows
  • Figure 47: Geological Storage Options for CO2
  • Figure 48: Coal to Liquids Process

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Global Coal Acquisition History Primary Acquisitions
  • Table 2: United States Coal Production 15 Year Production Contrast
  • Table 3: CTL Plant Economics
  • Table 4: Coal-to-Liquids Plants being considered in the US
  • Table 5: CTL Pilot Plants in the US
  • Table 6: International CTL Plants & Projects
Back to Top