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Analyzing the Technology of Hybrid Power Systems Utilizing Renewable Energies

出版商 Aruvian's R'search 商品編碼 165981
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 265 Pages
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利用再生能源的混合發電系統技術分析 Analyzing the Technology of Hybrid Power Systems Utilizing Renewable Energies
出版日期: 2015年01月01日 內容資訊: 英文 265 Pages



  • 所謂混合發電系統
  • 滲透度
  • 混合動力系統結構
  • 供電選擇
  • 能源儲存選擇
  • 混合發電系統的優點
  • 成本、性能、風險

風力 - 柴油發電系統

  • 歷史背景
  • 風力 - 柴油發電系統概要
  • 風力 - 柴油發電系統技術
  • 風力發電系統模型
  • 風力 - 氫燃料混合發電系統概要


  • 簡介
  • 混合動力系統
  • 技術特性
  • MTG-SOFC:分散式發電系統
  • MTG-SOFC:集中型發電系統
  • 結論



  • 簡介
  • 太陽能光電發電系統的熱門
  • 能源系統的整合
  • 負載模式的理解
  • 電力及能源的運算
  • 結構的最佳化
  • 結論








Hybrid power systems are combinations of two or more energy conversion devices, or two or more fuels for the same device, that when integrated, overcome limitations that may be inherent in either.

The most common examples of hybrid power systems include:

  • Wind generation combined with diesel generation
  • Photovoltaic generation combined with battery storage or diesel generation
  • Fuel cell generation combined with microturbine generation.

The system efficiencies of hybrid power systems are generally greater than that of the individual technologies used separately, and higher reliability can be accomplished with redundant technologies and/or energy storage.

Aruvian's R'search presents its research report on hybrid power systems which utilize renewable energy such as wind energy or solar photovoltaics. Analyzing the Technology of Hybrid Power Systems Utilizing Renewable Energies covers the various types of hybrid power systems using renewable energy, such as wind-diesel hybrid power systems, fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid systems, and of course, the more common solar PV hybrid power systems.

The report covers the basics of a hybrid power system, such as what the technology involves, understanding the workings of a hybrid power station, energy storage options in such types of systems, and much more.

The report covers the leading manufacturers of hybrid power systems using renewable energy such as 1stPower, Advanced Energy Systems Inc, BluWav Systems LLC, Direct Power and Water Corporation, Eaton Corporation, among others, and also researches various case studies that have successfully incorporated such hybrid power systems along with renewable energy.

Table of Contents

A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction to Hybrid Power Systems

  • B.1. What are Hybrid Power Systems?
  • B.2. Penetration Levels
  • B.3. Hybrid System Architectures
  • B.4. Dispatchable Power Options
  • B.5. Energy Storage Options
  • B.6. Benefits of Hybrid Power Systems
    • B.6.1. Efficient Use of Energy Resources
    • B.6.2. Favorable Siting of Generation
    • B.6.3. Lowering of Pollution
    • B.6.4. High Quality of Power
    • B.6.5. Flexibility of Fuel
    • B.6.6. Other Benefits
  • B.7. Cost, Performance & Associated Risk

C. Introduction to Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems

  • C.1. Historical Overview
  • C.2. Overview of Wind-Diesel Power Systems
  • C.3. Technology behind Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems
  • C.4. Wind Power System Modeling
  • C.5. Brief Look at Wind-Hydrogen Hybrid Power Systems

D. Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

  • D.1. Introduction
  • D.2. Hybrid Systems
  • D.3. Technical Options
  • D.4. MTG-SOFC: Distributed Power Generation
  • D.5. MTG-SOFC: Central Power Generation
  • D.6. Summing Up

E. Hybrid Power Plants in Geothermal Uses

F. Solar PV Hybrid Systems

  • F.1. Introduction
  • F.2. Popularity of Solar PV Systems
  • F.3. Integrating the Energy Systems
  • F.4. Following the Load Pattern
  • F.5. Calculating the Power & Energy
  • F.6. Ideal Configuration
    • F.6.1. Configuration A
    • F.6.2. Configuration B
    • F.6.3. Configuration C
    • F.7. Conclusion

G. Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

H. Case Study: Using Hybrid Mini-Grids for Electrification

  • H.1. Introduction
  • H.2. What is a Hybrid Mini Grid?
  • H.3. Why Use a Hybrid Mini Grid?
  • H.4. Difference between Hybrid Power Systems & Other Power Systems
  • H.5. Design of Hybrid Mini Grids
  • H.6. Mini Grid Configuration
  • H.7. Cost Comparison
  • H.8. Role of Natural Conditions
  • H.9. Impact of Diesel Fuel Price
  • H.10. Different Models for Mini Grids in Rural Areas
  • H.11. Impacts on Using Hybrid Mini Grids
    • H.11.1. O&M Issues
    • H.11.2. Access to Financing
    • H.11.3. Tariffs and Subsidies
  • H.12. Hybrid Technologies and System Design Issues
    • H.12.1. Batteries
    • H.12.2. Diesel Generators
    • H.12.3. Micro-hydro Turbines
    • H.12.4. Small Wind
    • H.12.5. Solar Photovoltaic (PV)
  • H.13. Conclusion

I. Case Study: Analysis of a Hydro-PV-Diesel Hybrid System in Greece

  • I.1. Introduction
  • I.2. Overview of the Installation
  • I.3. Understanding the Energy Balance of the System
  • I.4. Conclusion

J. Case Study: Wind-PV-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems in Fiji & Hawaii

  • J.1. Introduction
  • J.2. Nabouwalu (Fiji) Wind-PV Hybrid System
  • J.3. Kahua Ranch (Hawaii) Hybrid System
  • J.4. Cost of Electricity Production

K. Case Study: Wind-Hybrid Power System for New England Islands

  • K.1. Introduction
  • K.2. Cataloging and Classification of Islands
  • K.3. Offshore Renewable Energy Resources
    • K.3.1. Wind Energy
    • K.3.2. Solar Energy
  • K.4. Understanding the Options for Power Systems
    • K.4.1. Present-day Energy Status
    • K.4.2. Power System Choices
      • K.4.2.1. Grid Connected Turbines
  • K.5. Modeling Potential Power Systems
  • K.6. Case Studies
    • K.6.1. Fox Islands
    • K.6.2. Monhegan Island
  • K.7. Conclusion

L. Case Study: Cape Lookout PV Hybrid Power System

  • L.1. Introduction
  • L.2. Site Characteristics
  • L.3. Analysis of the PV Hybrid Power System
    • L.3.1. System Operation
    • L.3.2. PV Array
    • L.3.3. PV Modules
    • L.3.4. Inverters
    • L.3.5. Propane Generator
    • L.3.6. Battery Bank of Lead Acid Batteries
    • L.3.7. Electrical Metering System
  • L.4. Overall Reduction in Consumption of Liquefied Propane Fuel

M. Case Study: Mt Morgan Solar Hybrid Power System

  • M.1. Introduction
  • M.2. Technology Used
  • M.3. Energy Purchase & Supply
  • M.4. Impact on the Environment
  • M.5. Conclusion

N. Case Study: PV Diesel Hybrid System in Malaysia

  • N.1. Introduction
  • N.2. Makeup of the Hybrid System
  • N.3. Operational Concepts
  • N.4. Performance of the System at Langkawi
  • N.5. Conclusion

O. Case Study: Hybrid Wind-Solar Power Plant in Texas

  • O.1. Introduction
  • O.2. System Design
  • O.3. Issues Facing the Concept
  • O.4. Basic Components for a Wind-Solar Hybrid Power System
  • O.5. Energy Storage
  • O.6. Conclusion

P. Other Hybrid Power Case Studies

  • P.1. Termosolar Borges Hybrid Power Plant (Hybrid Biomass-Solar CSP)
  • P.2. Enel Green Power Stillwater Hybrid Power Plant
  • P.3. Apple Maiden iCloud Data Center Hybrid c-Si Solar PV-Biogas Fuel Cell Generation
  • P.4. Zhangbei National Wind and PV Energy Storage and Transmission Project
  • P.5. Pacific Wind-Catalina Solar Project
  • P.6. Grand Ridge Energy Center
  • P.7. Gorona del Viento El Hierro Project
  • P.8. Bonaire Island Water en Energie Bedrijf Bonaire Biodiesel Wind Power Plant Project
  • P.9. FPL Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center
  • P.10. Kogan Creek Solar Boost Project

Q. Leading Industry Contributors

  • Q.1. 1stPower
  • Q.2. Abantia Group
  • Q.3. Advanced Energy Systems Inc.
  • Q.4. Areva SA
  • Q.5. BluWav Systems, LLC
  • Q.6. CS Energy
  • Q.7. Direct Power and Water Corporation
  • Q.8. Eaton Corporation
  • Q.9. EDF Renewable Energy (formerly enXco, Inc.)
  • Q.10. Eneco Holding NV
  • Q.11. Enel Green Power SpA
  • Q.12. ENERCON GmbH
  • Q.13. Enerex LLC
  • Q.14. General Electric Company
  • Q.15. Invenergy LLC
  • Q.16. ISE Corporation
  • Q.17. Kyocera Solar
  • Q.18. NEST Energy Systems
  • Q.19. Northern Power Systems
  • Q.20. Onsite Power Systems
  • Q.21. PitchWind Systems AB
  • Q.22. Polar Power Inc.
  • Q.23. Rocky Mountain Technologies
  • Q.24. Saft Groupe SA
  • Q.25. Solar Electrics
  • Q.26. State Grid Corporation of China
  • Q.27. Windward Energy Company

R. Appendix

S. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Power Generation Efficiency- DFC/T® System uses Less Fuel per Unit of Electricity than Other Power Generators
  • Figure 2: CO2 Emissions by Technology
  • Figure 3: DFC/T® Has Low NOx Emissions as Compared to Other Technologies
  • Figure 4: Hybrid Power System
  • Figure 5: Power Coefficient vs. Tip Speed Ratio
  • Figure 6: Basics for Wind Hydrogen System for an Off-Grid Community
  • Figure 7: Fuel Cell
  • Figure 8: MTG-SOFC Hybrid Configuration
  • Figure 9: MCFC Configuration
  • Figure 10: MTG-SOFC 220 kW Demonstration at the NFCRC
  • Figure 11: GTE-SOFC 300MW Central Generation Cycle
  • Figure 12: Biogas Power Plant (Schmack Biogas)
  • Figure 13: Geothermal Power Plant Detail
  • Figure 14: Geothermal Power Plant Husavik, Iceland
  • Figure 15: Representation of Integration of Solar PV with DG Set
  • Figure 16: Integrated Energy System
  • Figure 17: Load Pattern of a Typical Day
  • Figure 18: Variation of Average Daily Load
  • Figure 19: Power Supplied by SPV, DG Set & Battery Bank for Configuration A
  • Figure 20: Energy Generation & Share of SPV for Configuration A
  • Figure 21: Power Supplied by SPV, DG Set & Battery Bank for Configuration B
  • Figure 22: Energy Generation & Share of SPV for Configuration B
  • Figure 23: Power Supplied by SPV, DG Set & Battery Bank for Configuration C
  • Figure 24: Energy Generation & Share of SPV for Configuration C
  • Figure 25: Electricity Generation Coupled at DC Bus Bars
  • Figure 26: Electricity Generation Coupled at AC Bus Bars
  • Figure 27: Electricity Generation Coupled at AC/DC Bus Bars
  • Figure 28: Total Cost of the System during the Lifetime of the Project
  • Figure 29: Optimal System Type at Different Natural Conditions with Fixed Oil Price (USD0.70/L)
  • Figure 30: Optimal System Type at Different Natural Conditions with Fixed Oil Price (USD1.30/L)
  • Figure 31: Costs Comparison at Different Oil Prices
  • Figure 32: Management Mechanism of Ownership in China at Village Level (%)
  • Figure 33: Risk & Return Evaluation of Projects
  • Figure 34: Monastery of Simonos Petras
  • Figure 35: Daily Energy Demand of the Remote Consumer
  • Figure 36: Small Hydro Turbine of the Monastery
  • Figure 37: Photovoltaic Installation of the Monastery
  • Figure 38: Existing Hybrid Installation for the Simonos Petras Monastery
  • Figure 39: Analytical Energy Management Plan of the Remote Hybrid Installation
  • Figure 40: Energy Production Analysis on Monthly Basis
  • Figure 41: Energy Production Analysis on an Annual Basis
  • Figure 42: RES-based Electricity Production Analysis on Monthly Basis
  • Figure 43: PV Electricity Generation Evaluation on a Monthly Basis
  • Figure 44: New England Islands Acreage Distribution
  • Figure 45: Cuttyhunk Island Yearly Electrical Load
  • Figure 46: Population Distribution of Energy Demanding Islands
  • Figure 47: NOAA C-MAN and Buoys in Northeast
  • Figure 48: Map of Fox Islands in Penobscot Bay, Maine
  • Figure 49: Fox Islands Electric Load
  • Figure 50: Mount Desert Rock Hourly Average Wind Speeds
  • Figure 51: Annual Electric Load and Wind Energy Production vs. Number of Wind Turbines
  • Figure 52: Net Annual Energy Flow from the Grid vs. Number of Turbines
  • Figure 53: Net Cost of Energy vs Electricity Cost from Mainland and Choice of WTG
  • Figure 54: Map of Monhegan Island, Maine
  • Figure 55: Yearly Electric Load on Monhegan Island
  • Figure 56: Matinicus Rock Hourly Average Wind Speed
  • Figure 57: Levelized Cost of Energy as a Function of Heating Load
  • Figure 58: PV Array on Power Building
  • Figure 59: Hybrid System Operation during Daytime
  • Figure 60: Hybrid System Operation during Nighttime
  • Figure 61: Hybrid System Operation during Shortfall
  • Figure 62: Langkawi Cable Car Solar Hybrid System - Middle and Top Station
  • Figure 63: System Performance at Langkawi
  • Figure 64: Hybrid Wind-Solar Dispatchable Power System
  • Figure 65: Load Duration Curve with Baseload and Wind Capacities
  • Figure 66: Profile of Typical Wind Plant Output and ERCOT Load
  • Figure 67: ERCOT Peak Day Load and Solar Generation Profile
  • Figure 68: Les Borges Blanques Power Plant
  • Figure 69: Enel Green Power Stillwater Hybrid Power Plant
  • Figure 70: Image from Apple Maiden iCloud Data Center
  • Figure 71: Zhangbei National Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project
  • Figure 72: Pacific Wind-Catalina Solar Project
  • Figure 73: Grand Ridge Energy Center
  • Figure 74: Schematic of the Gorona del Viento El Hierro Project
  • Figure 75: Bonaire Island WEB Biodiesel Wind Power Plant Project
  • Figure 76: FPL Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center
  • Figure 77: Kogan Creek Solar Boost Project
  • Figure 78: Examples of Hybrid Power Systems Used in Communications
  • Figure 79: Wind/PV Home Systems in Inner Mongolia
  • Figure 80: Energy Flow for all Renewable Hybrid
  • Figure 81: Micro Grid System Architecture
  • Figure 82: Energy Flow for Small Hybrid
  • Figure 83: Parallel System - Smaller Diesel
  • Figure 84: Switched System - Larger Diesel

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Characteristics of Wind/Solar Energy Components versus Diesel Components
  • Table 2: GTE-HTFC Application Regimes
  • Table 3: Immediate Requirements for Hybrid Systems
  • Table 4: Load Data of a Typical Site
  • Table 5: Variation of Rating & Energy Supplied by Energy Sources
  • Table 6: Electricity Access by the End of 2010
  • Table 7: Costs of Grid Extension in Selected Countries (in USD per kilometer)
  • Table 8: Component Costs
  • Table 9: Cost of Electricity Production with Diesel Generator in Hawaii
  • Table 10: Hybrid COE with Wind/Solar Energy in Hawaii
  • Table 11: COE with Diesel Generator and Renewable Energy Resources as Function of Loan Terms and Diesel Price
  • Table 12: Average Wind Speeds at NOAA C-Man Stations and Buoys
  • Table 13: Rated Power and Cost Assumptions of Three Mid-sized Wind Turbines
  • Table 14: Economic and Performance Parameters for Different Wind/Diesel Systems
  • Table 15: Performance and Economic Parameters for Hybrid Systems
  • Table 16: Station Capacity at Langkawi
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