Cryptography in the Quantum Computing Era
|出版日期||內容資訊||英文 27 Pages, 8 Tables, 1 Figure
|量子運算的時代的加密技術 Cryptography in the Quantum Computing Era|
|出版日期: 2017年10月23日||內容資訊: 英文 27 Pages, 8 Tables, 1 Figure||
在資訊理論的領域，活用量子力學的成果，這個50年間達成了大幅度的成長。並且現在，以量子理論為基礎量子運算的實用化為目標，在全球各國透過公私合作推動研究開發。另一方面，若量子運算發展，容易突破傳統的加密技術，對應量子電腦 (或有抗性的) 加密技術的開發很緊迫。
Quantum mechanics, the branch of physics dealing with elementary particles at the atomic level and the revolutionary principles of superposition and entanglement, has come a long way from the discovery of the initial fundamentals in the early nineteenth century. The field of quantum computing has since emerged from the physics, finding theoretical application in modern computation systems.
Research in quantum computing is closely tied to the discipline of information theory, a mathematical concept concerned with communication, coding, and encryption, pioneered by the likes of Turing, von Neumann, and Shannon in the mid-twentieth century. Various applications of quantum information theory were developed in the last 50 years, and laboratory testing has shown promise in converting some of the theories into reality. As a result, quantum computing has been high on the research agenda of governments and tech organizations worldwide.
In a quantum computing model, the basic unit of information is called the quantum bit (qubit), which can be represented by photons, for example (the quantum equivalent of binary digits in classical computing). Using qubits and quantum gates (a type of logic gate), the development of a quantum circuit model of computation has been made possible, enabling the use of algorithms to theoretically solve highly complex mathematical problems in a much shorter time frame than is currently possible.
Over the years, researchers have managed to develop improved hardware with ever lower error rates per quantum gate that can carry out arbitrarily long quantum computations. Quantum computing and information theory could therefore create powerful computers, capable of staggering processing speeds and incredibly accurate measurements, as well as enabling the foundation of a highly secure communication infrastructure. However, this same type of power presents dangers as well in that it could just as easily break many of the cryptographic technologies in use today.
In 1994, Peter Shor developed an algorithm capable of efficient quantum factorization of large prime numbers. Prime numbers underpin the encryption algorithms used in public key infrastructures (PKI). Such algorithms are secure today because such factorization (decomposition) is practically impossible, even using supercomputers. But Shor's algorithm, if applied using a quantum computer, could easily crack even the latest, most complex asymmetric encryption algorithms, such as elliptic curve cryptography (ECC).