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市場調查報告書

通訊網路報告 第4版 (2017年)

Telecom Network Report Ed4 2017-A Network Revolution 1G to 5G -HetNet and Densification, Towers & Small Cell Sites Network Virtualisation Hardware to Software

出版商 StatPlan Energy Limited 商品編碼 253501
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 253 pages, 60 figures, 57 tables
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通訊網路報告 第4版 (2017年) Telecom Network Report Ed4 2017-A Network Revolution 1G to 5G -HetNet and Densification, Towers & Small Cell Sites Network Virtualisation Hardware to Software
出版日期: 2017年06月05日 內容資訊: 英文 253 pages, 60 figures, 57 tables
簡介

本報告提供全球通訊網路技術、發展趨勢的相關調查,網路高密度化,提供大容量的資料流量的HetNet,經由軟體提供網路功能的網路虛擬化技術等相關分析。

摘要整理

第1章 通訊網路技術、發展

  • 網路技術
  • HetNet/異構網路
  • 虛擬化
  • 電池單元
  • 基地台的類型
  • 大型基地台
  • 小型基地台
  • 微型蜂巢式基地台
  • 區域基地台
  • 微微型蜂巢式基地台
  • 微型基地台
  • 小型基地台或DAS?
  • Wi-Fi

第2章 資料通訊量的增加

第3章 技術滲透:1G - 5G

  • 行動開發的時間軸
  • 手機用戶
  • 2G
  • 3G
  • 智慧型手機:3G & 4G
  • 4G LTE
  • 5G
  • 5G試用
  • 5G網路發展
  • 涵蓋範圍
  • 頻譜換網

第4章 中國,印度及巴基斯坦的4G轉移

  • 中國
  • 印度
  • 巴基斯坦

第5章 傳統網路架構,回傳及前傳

  • 回傳及微回傳
  • 前傳

第6章 虛擬化

  • 所有產業上虛擬化的投入
  • 虛擬化的種類
  • 虛擬化的發展
  • 虛擬化的優點
  • 虛擬化市場、其他

第7章 網路虛擬化

  • NV:網路功能虛擬化
  • SDN:軟體定義網路
  • 數據通訊的OSI模式
  • V-RAN
  • 服務供應商及企業網路、其他

第8章 集中型、分散式基頻

第9章 行動市場檢討

  • 美國的行動語音通訊的發展
  • 新的通訊企業的登場
  • 電纜
  • 網際網路
  • 行動電話、無線、其他

第10章 地上型塔,屋頂塔,DAS及街桿

第11章 大型基地台網站的裝機量

第12章 大型基地台網站的支出

  • 塔式站的價格
  • 北美
  • 歐洲
  • 中東、北非
  • 亞太地區、其他

第13章 HetNet,高密度化,及小型基地台/發展及裝機量

  • 高密度化
  • 密度為必要的理由
  • 基地台的種類
  • 簡介
  • 小型基地台的初期發展、其他

第14章 大型基地台、小型基地台BTS (基地收發站)

第15章 小型基地台網站的支出

第16章 鐵塔、單極天線的製造

  • 中國廠商
  • 其他亞洲廠商
  • 北美廠商
  • 巴西
  • 土耳其

第17章 回傳供應商

第18章 基本設備共享

  • 塔基礎設施企業
  • Telco (通訊業者) 、TowerCo (基礎設施專業公司)的經濟學
  • 縮短商品化需要的時間
  • TowerCo的經營模式

第19章 能源成本、來源

第20章 TowerCo (基礎設施專業公司) 市場

  • 塔基礎設施企業
  • 美國
  • 歐洲
  • CIS
  • 亞太地區
  • 印度
  • 印尼
  • 中國
  • 日本
  • MENA
  • 撒哈拉以南非洲
  • 南美

第20章 市場評價標準

第21章 網路用語,定義,及說明

調查手法

圖表

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目錄

We are in the midst of a telecoms revolution. The technology has moved so fast that it is always approaching obsolescence, and never more so than now as the innovation cycles accelerate. 3G increased the demands on the systems and 4G escalated the volume of data traffic beyond anyone's expectations, changing usage patterns. 5G will drive demand even further, and will require new expand-ed capabilities. At the same time, earnings are under pressure as ARPU declines. The operators have to grow capabilities and do it more cheaply. The first solution is the HetNet, densifying the networks and providing greater capacity for data traffic, with better Quali-ty of Service for users inside buildings. To deliver this from the core to the Modern telecoms networks contain an ever-increasing varie-ty of proprietary hardware. The second solution is the key enabling technology of Network Virtualisation (NV). NV can deliver network functionality via software running on industry-standard commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. Virtual networks are decoupled from the underlying network hardware. This is already happening in production networks across the world. It is enabling 4G and making the 5G revolution possible.

1. TELECOMS NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND DEPLOYMENTS - THE HETNET

Network technology is evolving rapidly to meet exponential new demands. The focus is shifting from coverage to capacity, driven by the rise in data traffic. The answer is the HetNet/Heterogeneous network. Past networks were based almost entirely on macro cellular base stations mounted on towers, rooftops and poles. They were designed for volumes of voice mail which were small by today's standards. Data traffic has grown exponen-tially and is set to escalate by leaps and bounds, driven by the Internet, videos, and a plethora of 3G and 4G mobile devices. The HetNet is provid-ing the solution; a network which combines all types of base station, each designed for a different purpose; macros on towers and rooftops, micro, metro, pico, DAS and Wi-Fi both inside buildings and outside. These issues are discussed and analysed in this report.

2. RISING VOLUME OF DATA TRAFFIC

Crucial to the technology revolution is the increased sophistication of 4G and LTE mobile devices and the explosion of data traffic. Network archi-tecture is being examined and redeveloped to meet this pressing need. Data traffic is charted, analysed by device and projected to 2020. This is straining not only network capacity but the smart phone devices as well. This has been dramatically underlined in September 2016 with the crisis which quickly brought about the demise of Samsung's flagship high-end smartphone, the Galaxy Note 7 when it repeatedly caught fire. The elec-tronics industry faces an increasing amount of power being shrunk into vanishingly small circuits. These circuits get hot and, sometimes, catch fire.

3. TECHNOLOGY PENETRATION - FROM 1G to 5G

A new mobile generation has appeared approximately every 10 years since the first 1G system, Nordic Mobile Telephone, was introduced in 1982. The first 2G system was commercially deployed in 1992, and the 3G system appeared in 2001. 4G systems fully compliant were first standardised in 2012. 5G is slowly making the transition from concept to network implementation. Network operators are already scheduling 5G trials and test beds.

4. NETWORK VIRTUALISATION - NV

Modern telecoms networks contain an ever-increasing variety of proprietary hardware. The launch of new services often demands network reconfig-uration and on-site installation of new equipment which in turn requires additional floor space, power, and trained maintenance staff. The innovation cycles accelerate and require greater flexibility and dynamism than hardware-based appliances allow. Hard-wired networks with single functions boxes are tedious to maintain, slow to evolve, and prevent service providers from offering dynamic services. Key enabling technologies for this vision include SDN (Software Defined Networking) and NFV (Network Functions Virtualisation). Virtual networks are decoupled from the underlying network hardware. NFV can deliver network functionality via software running on industry-standard commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. This is already happening in production networks across the world and is rapidly gaining ground in the telecom networks. Virtualistion can be applied at many layers using the OSI model. The technology of NV is outlined, together with its benefits. The current status of NV and a brief market survey is included.

5. MACRO BTS - NETWORK DISTRIBUTION OF GROUND BASED TOWERS, ROOFTOP TOWERS, DAS and STREET POLES

Macro base stations are the backbone of the networks providing the large area coverage to create national networks. But the networks must devel-op more granular delivery, both in coverage and capacity. We have constructed a database of macro base stations for every country, starting from the launch of mobile services in the 1980s. In an electricity network replacement happens when equipment is past its design life and risks failure, and the replacement may also be an up-grade. From 1G to 2G, 3G and 4G and LTE the technology of the networks must be up-dated to new gen-erations of technology at more frequent intervals, both is hardware and software. A regional analysis of GBTs (ground based towers) and RTTs (rooftop towers) is provided.

6. BACKHAUL

Back haul is the interface between the network core and the base station antennas and is a critical component for both macro BTS and small cell BTS. The introduction of small cells in the radio access network as a complement to the macro cell layer will introduce many new sites and back-haul challenges. Sites are expensive, installation is costly and has delayed the introduction of small cell BTS, but it is not insurmountable. The role and basics of backhaul are outlined. Backhaul typically makes up 25%-30% of the total capex cost of a macro cell RAN (radio access network) and a similar proportion of total cost for a small cell BTS.

7. BASE TRANSCEIVER STATIONS (BTS) FOR MACRO CELLS AND SMALL CELLS

The total market is surveyed, macro and micro. Forecasts of base station capex, analysed by macro site additions, macro site upgrades and re-placements, and new small cell sites with annual expenditure from 2015 to 2020. Total mobile traffic is analysed by cell site types: macro cell, in-building small cell, outdoor small cell, Wi-Fi hotspots, residential femtocell, DAS/RRH.

8. MOBILE MARKET REVIEW

The structure, current status and technology development of the major countries are reviewed, together with commentary on the leading players in each country. The development of telecoms communications and its technology is reviewed in the countries where it was developed.

9. INSTALLED BASE OF MACRO CELL SITES

This chapter is concerned with macro cell GBTs, RTTs and street pole base stations, and does not include small cell base stations. The installed base of macro towers and poles is forecast annually from 2015 to 2020 for the world, for regions and is analysed by 213 countries.

10. EXPENDITURE ON MACRO CELL SITES

The market for construction of new macro base stations (BTS), ground-based, rooftop and street poles, upgrades and replacement of aged assets is estimated and forecast in nominal $ from 2015 to 2020, for the world, for regions and is analysed by 213 countries. Market commentary is pro-vide by regions and major countries.

11. SMALL CELLS - COMPACT BASE STATIONS (C-BTS) - DEVELOPMENTS AND INSTALLED BASE

The steady growth of the macro cellular infrastructure does not fully reflect the real rate of expansion of the networks. With mobile data traffic ex-pected to double annually, small cell base stations are set to play an important role in expanding the capacity of wireless networks. Small cells provide flexibility and increased QoS capabilities. Past development of small cells is analysed to help predict the future path. Shipments are ana-lysed in units by cell type. The cost components of a small cell installation are analysed.

12. EXPENDITURES ON SMALL CELL SITES

Global expenditure on installing small cells with related costs and backhaul is estimated for 2015 and projected annually to 2020 for regions and 33 countries. Capex is analysed by residential/non-residential and by cell type.

13. MANUFACTURERS OF STEEL LATTICE COMMUNICATIONS TOWERS AND MONOPOLES

Global production capacity and market shares are tabled for the top 44 producers of steel lattice comms towers and monopoles, together with total country production capacity and profiles of the leading suppliers.

14. BACKHAUL VENDORS

Backhaul vendors can be divided into two distinct groups. The macro backhaul vendors are now in a mature industrial ecosystem, but typically for a new technology the small cell vendors are in the earliest stage of development, consisting of a large number of small companies and start-ups, many of which will fail or will be acquired by larger rivals, before coalescing into a mature ecosystem. The top 48 companies are listed by macro/ small cell backhaul market participation.

12. INFRASTRUCTURE SHARING

Tower sharing allows operators to cut down on capital expenditure. Infrastructure cost for operators is estimated to decline by 16% to 20%. Run-ning and maintenance of tower infrastructure, form a significant portion of operator Opex. Divesting responsibility for infrastructure unlocks value. Site and/or tower sharing is the most common form of network sharing, but full network sharing is gaining traction. The various forms of infrastruc-ture sharing are outlined and the towerco market is analysed by country. A breakdown of tower construction cost by component is given.

13. THE TOWERCO MARKET

Infrastructure and network sharing, either between operators or via independent tower owners, is growing rapidly but has a distinct regional pat-tern. MNOs share assets with jointly-owned infracos in Europe, Japan and many other regions. Independent towercos started in the United States and are also prevalent in India, in China since 2015, in Southeast Asia and are making headway rapidly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The incidence of sharing is given by regions and major countries with total numbers of macro towers and the numbers owned by towercos. Detailed market profiles are given for regions and leading countries.

15. ENERGY COSTS AND SOURCES

Energy accounts for 30% of the network operating costs of an MNO. 90% of sites have diesel base generators where towers are off-grid or as standby to grid supply when grid-connected. For cost and environmental reasons there is a growing trend towards renewables systems, mainly solar PV or hybrid systems of solar PV and wind power.

16. GLOSSARY, DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS

A 37 page glossary is provided, which includes explanations and diagrams of terms and concepts commonly used in the telecoms sector. Acro-nyms are the bane of the IT and CT sectors and they are proliferating all the time. This glossary is comprehensive but by no means complete.

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • Evolution of the technology generations 1G to 5G
  • Spectrum refarming
  • Introduction to virtualisation in all industries
  • Network virtualisation
  • MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator and Sub-Brands
  • Backhaul and Fronthaul
  • Development of the market
  • Macro cell sites and base stations
  • Tower ownership
  • The HetNet, Densification and small cells

1. TELECOMS NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND DEPLOYMENTS

  • Network technology
  • HetNet/Heterogeneous Network
  • Virtualisation
  • Cells
  • Types of base station
  • Macro cells
  • Small cells
  • Microcells
  • Metrocells
  • Picocells
  • Femtocells
  • DAS
  • Small cells or DAS?
  • Wi-Fi

2. RISING VOLUME OF DATA TRAFFIC

3. TECHNOLOGY PENETRATION - 1G to 5G

  • Timeline of mobile development
  • Unique mobile subscribers
  • 2G
  • 3G
  • Smartphones - 3G & 4G
  • 4G LTE
  • 5G
  • 5G trials
  • 5G network deployments
  • Coverage
  • Spectrum refarming

4. MIGRATION TO 4G IN CHINA, INDIA AND PAKISTAN

  • China
  • India
  • Pakistan

5. TRADITIONAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE, BACKHAUL AND FRONTHAUL

  • Backhaul
  • Macro and micro backhaul
  • Front haul

6. VIRTUALISATION

  • Introduction to virtualisation in all industries
  • Types of virtualisation
  • The development of virtualisation
  • The benefits of virtualisation
  • The virtualisation market
  • Server virtualisation
  • Desktop virtualisation
  • Application virtualisation

7. NETWORK VIRTUALISATION

  • NV Network Function Virtualisation
  • SDN Software-defined Networking
  • The OSI model of data communications
  • V-RAN
  • Service providers and enterprise networks
  • MNOs and the virtual network
  • The NV market
  • MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator
  • MVNO Business models
  • MVNE - Mobile Virtual Network Enabler
  • MVNA Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator
  • Sub-brands
  • MVNO and sub-brand segments

8. CENTRALISED AND DISTRIBUTED BASEBAND

9. MOBILE MARKET REVIEW

  • The development of mobile telephony in the United States
  • The emergence of new telecommunications players
  • Cable
  • The Internet
  • Cellular and Wireless
  • Europe
  • The development of mobile telephony in Europe
  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Poland
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • CIS
  • Russia
  • Ukraine
  • The development of mobile telephony in the CIS
  • MENA
  • Saudi Arabia
  • North Africa
  • Egypt
  • Algeria
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • EAC - East African Community
  • Ethiopia
  • Kenya
  • Uganda
  • ECCAS, Economic Community of Central African States
  • DR Congo
  • ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Ghana
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • SADC Southern African Development Community
  • South Africa
  • Mozambique
  • Tanzania
  • Asia Pacific
  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • The development of mobile telephony in Japan
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Central and South America
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • Argentina

10. NETWORK DISTRIBUTION OF GROUND BASED TOWERS, ROOFTOP TOWERS, DAS AND STREET POLES

11. INSTALLED BASE OF MACRO CELL SITES

12. EXPENDITURE ON MACRO CELL SITES

  • Prices of tower base stations
  • NORTH AMERICA
  • EUROPE
  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Poland
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • Revenue of tower construction
  • CIS
  • Russia
  • Ukraine
  • MENA
  • Saudi Arabia
  • North Africa
  • Egypt
  • Algeria
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Tower sharing
  • EAC - East African Community
  • Kenya
  • Uganda
  • ECCAS, Economic Community of Central African States
  • DR Congo
  • ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Ghana
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • SADC Southern African Development Community
  • South Africa
  • Mozambique
  • Tanzania
  • Asia Pacific
  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Central and South America
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • Argentina

13. THE HETNET, DENSIFICATION AND SMALL CELLS - DEVELOPMENTS AND INSTALLED BASE

  • Densification
  • Why we need to densify
  • Types of base station
  • Introduction
  • The early developments of small cells
  • Why were these early micro/picocellular 2G base stations not successful?
  • The penetration of small cell base stations
  • Market segments
  • Small cell shipments to 2015
  • Cost of deployment of small cells

14. BASE TRANSCEIVER STATIONS (BTS) FOR MACRO CELLS AND SMALL CELLS

15. EXPENDITURES ON SMALL CELL SITES

16. MANUFACTURERS OF LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES

  • Chinese manufacturers
  • Other Asian manufacturers
  • North American manufacturers
  • Brazil
  • Turkey

17. BACKHAUL VENDORS

18. INFRASTRUCTURE SHARING

  • Tower infrastructure companies
  • The economics of telcos and towercos
  • Reduced time-to-market
  • The towerco business model

19. ENERGY COSTS AND SOURCES

20. THE TOWERCO MARKET

  • Tower infrastructure companies
  • United States
  • Europe
  • CIS
  • Asia Pacific
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • China
  • Japan
  • MENA
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • South America

20. CRITERIA FOR MARKET EVALUATION

  • Criteria for MNO market evaluation - numbers of subscribers, ARPU, ARPA

21. NETWORK GLOSSARY, DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS

  • GBT Ground based tower
  • SMB Small and Midsize Business
  • Standards
  • NV Network Virtualisation

METHODOLOGY

Figures

  • Figure 1: HetNets
  • Figure 2: Types of macro cell ground based towers (GBT)
  • Figure 3: Street poles
  • Figure 4: Macro cell rooftop towers (RTT)
  • Figure 5: Microcell base station
  • Figure 6: Metrocell base station
  • Figure 7: Picocell base station
  • Figure 8: Some examples of femtocells offered by member companies of the Femto Form
  • Figure 9: Mobile network coverage and evolving technologies
  • Figure 10: 4G LTE penetration, top 20 countries, Q4 2015
  • Figure 11: US total data consumption by device type in petabytes/month, 2014 to 2020
  • Figure 12: Data traffic from wireless and mobile devices 2010 to 2020
  • Figure 13: 2G o 4G download rates
  • Figure 14: Global mobile connections by technology, 2010 to 2020
  • Figure 15: Coverage of 4G in 2016,
  • Figure 16: The difference in take-up of 3g and 4G in China
  • Figure 17: The Backhaul Network in the MNO Architecture
  • Figure 18: Traditional and virtual architecture
  • Figure 19: Perceived attributes of NV solutions
  • Figure 20: NV Vendors considered among NV end users
  • Figure 21: Regional distribution of MVNOs, December 2015
  • Figure 22: The 10 countries with the largest number of MVNOs as of June 2015, were:
  • Figure 23: Fully distributed and mixed centralised and distributed baseband deployments
  • Figure 24: The countries of the East Africa Community
  • Figure 25: The countries of the Economic Community of Central African States
  • Figure 26: The countries of the Economic Community of West African States
  • Figure 27: The countries of the Southern African Development Community
  • Figure 28: Global installed base of telecoms towers, 2016-2021
  • Figure 29: Global installed telecoms towers by region, 2016
  • Figure 30: Installed telecoms towers (active), USA and Canada, 2016-2021
  • Figure 31: Installed telecoms towers, Europe by country, 2016-2021
  • Figure 32: Installed telecoms towers, CIS by country, 2016-2021
  • Figure 33: Installed telecoms towers, Middle East by country, 2016-2021
  • Figure 34: Installed telecoms towers, North Africa by country, 2016-2021
  • Figure 35: Installed telecoms towers, Sub-Saharan Africa by country, 2016-2021
  • Figure 36: Global installed telecoms towers, China and India, 2016-2021
  • Figure 37: Global installed telecoms towers, selected countries in Asia Pacific excluding China and India by country, 2016-2021
  • Figure 38: Global installed telecoms towers, selected countries in LAC, 2016-2021
  • Figure 39: The structure of tower ownership in Europe, 2016 and 2020
  • Figure 40: Illegal rooftop towers in India
  • Figure 41: Evolution of network design increased densification resulting from the move from voice services to data usage
  • Figure 42: The Gartner Hype Curve
  • Figure 43: Cumulative shipments of small cells, 2011 to 2016
  • Figure 44: Cumulative shipments of small cells by cell type, 2013 to 2016
  • Figure 45: Annual shipments of small cells by type, 2014 to 2017
  • Figure 46: Total cost of installation of small cells by cost component
  • Figure 47: Mobile traffic by cell site type by 2020
  • Figure 48: Demand for cellular base stations, macro and micro, 2016-21.
  • Figure 49: Structure of a mobile network
  • Figure 50: Breakdown of tower expenses, capex and opex, as a % of total cost in a typical site
  • Figure 51: Number of countries permitting sharing or co-location of passive infrastructure for telecoms operators
  • Figure 52: Example of infrastructure sharing of 2 tenants and 4 tenants, antennas and base stations
  • Figure 53: Number of bad-grid and off-grid towers, in 2014 and projected for 2020.
  • Figure 54: Number of towers owned by independent towercos and by MNOs in regions and selected countries
  • Figure 55: Analog vs digital signals
  • Figure 56: Containers vs. virtual machines
  • Figure 58: 2G o 4G download rates
  • Figure 59: Current Telecommunications Hierarchy Diagram.
  • Figure 60: High level NFV framework

Tables

  • Table 1: Prefixes for units of data speed
  • Table 2: Global mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
  • Table 3: Global mobile connections by technology, 2010 to 2020
  • Table 4: Penetration of 2G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
  • Table 5: Penetration of 3G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
  • Table 6: Penetration of 3G & 4G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
  • Table 7: 4G leaders at end 2016
  • Table 8: Penetration of 4G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020.
  • Table 9: Coverage of 4G in 2016
  • Table 10: Number of 4G base stations in China, 2017
  • Table 11: Reasons to Use Virtualisation
  • Table 12: OSI Open Source Interconnection, 7 Layer Model
  • Table 13: The first MVNOs
  • Table 14: Segments of the MVNO and Sub-brand market
  • Table 15: Major Mobile Operators in the United States
  • Table 16: MVNOs in the United States
  • Table 17: The distribution of macro cell sites by type
  • Table 18: Distribution of GBTs and urban cell sites; RTTs, DASs and street poles in 2016.
  • Table 19: Global installed telecoms towers in thousands, by region, 2016-2021
  • Table 20: Installed telecoms towers, North America by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 21: Installed telecoms towers, Europe by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 22: Global installed telecoms towers, CIS by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 23: Installed telecoms towers, Middle East by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 24: Global installed telecoms towers, North Africa by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 25: Installed telecoms towers, Sub-Saharan Africa by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 26: Global installed telecoms towers, Asia by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 27: Global installed telecoms towers, Pacific by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 28: Installed telecoms towers, South America by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 29: Installed telecoms towers, Central America by country, 2016-2021
  • Table 30: Expenditure on telecoms towers by region, 2015 to 2020
  • Table 31: Costs of constructing a telecoms towers in selected countries and regions
  • Table 32: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, USA and Canada nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 33: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Europe, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 34: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, CIS, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 35: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Middle East nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 36: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, North Africa, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 37: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Sub-Saharan Africa, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 38: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, China and India nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 39: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers, replacements and upgrades, Asia nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021 (including China and India)
  • Table 40: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Pacific, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 41: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, South America, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 42: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Central America, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
  • Table 43: Small cells expenditure at installed cost by region, 2015 to 2020
  • Table 44: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in Europe by country, 2015 to 2020
  • Table 45: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in North America by country, 2015 to 2020
  • Table 46: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in Middle East by country, 2015 to 2020
  • Table 47: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in Asia Pacific by country, 2015 to 2020
  • Table 48: Manufacturers of steel towers and poles, by share of production capacity
  • Table 49: Backhaul vendors, macro cell and small cell
  • Table 50: Share of towerco ownership of towers by region, 2016
  • Table 51: Incidence of sharing in regions and selected countries
  • Table 52: Number of independent towers in regions and selected countries, installed base, 2016
  • Table 53: Top telecom tower companies in the United States with number of towers installed, 2012, 2014 and 2016
  • Table 54: Tower portfolios of operator-promoted tower infrastructure companies/telecom operators and of third party tower companies in India, 2015
  • Table 55: Numbers of towers owned by Japanese telecoms operators
  • Table 56: OSI Open Source Interconnection, 7 Layer Model
  • Table 57: Small cell characteristics
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