Petroleum Coke: Global Industry Markets & Outlook, 7th Edition 2015
|出版商||Roskill Information Services||商品編碼||237850|
|出版日期||內容資訊||英文 292 Pages, 163 Tables and 80 Figures
|石油焦:全球市場及預測 Petroleum Coke: Global Industry Markets & Outlook, 7th Edition 2015|
|出版日期: 2015年06月19日||內容資訊: 英文 292 Pages, 163 Tables and 80 Figures||
With global production of more than 130Mt in 2014, petroleum coke is both a highly valued source of carbon for anodes and graphite electrodes, and a cost-effective fuel. Electrode grade needle coke is used in the production of synthetic graphite mainly for graphite electrodes used in electric arc steel making. Low sulphur (<3%) anode grade calcinable petroleum coke is used mainly in the production of carbon anodes for electrolytic aluminium smelting. The remainder, which accounts for about 70% of output, is higher sulphur (up to 9%) fuel grade petroleum coke used as an alternative to coal mainly in cement kilns, power stations and the oil refineries where it is produced. A significant amount also goes into long term storage.
Global petroleum coke production capacity of 229Mtpy, 52% of which is in China and 22% in the USA, is far higher than output. The USA is the largest producer and exporter, accounting for 45% and 72% respectively of the world total in 2014. China, India and Brazil are the other principal sources of petroleum coke. Refining of increasingly heavy forms of crude oil, in particular those from Alberta in Canada, in recent years resulted in increased output of petroleum coke. This, however, is being offset in the USA by increased refining of light shale oils.
More than half of global consumption of petroleum coke takes place in China, the USA and India. There are regional differences in its uses, with fuel dominating in most countries outside China (where as much as 60% of the market is accounted for by anodes used in the production of aluminium). Its use as a fuel in cement production is the largest market for petroleum coke. Anode-grade material is used overwhelmingly in the production of aluminium, which is probably the second largest use of petroleum coke overall.
Global petroleum coke consumption is forecast to grow at about 3%py up to 2020, driven by demand from aluminium smelting. The use of petroleum coke in cement making is also expected to increase but that for electricity generation will decline in North America and grow slowly elsewhere, resulting in no change globally up to 2020.
The price of fuel grade petroleum coke will continue to be governed by that of thermal coal, which has been falling since 2011. Prices of anode and electrode grade material are expected to strengthen from the relatively low levels of 2014 and 2015.