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市場調查報告書

自動駕駛車致動器產業分析 (2016年)

Self-driving Vehicle Actuator Industry Report, 2016

出版商 ResearchInChina 商品編碼 358236
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 96 Pages
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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自動駕駛車致動器產業分析 (2016年) Self-driving Vehicle Actuator Industry Report, 2016
出版日期: 2016年05月18日 內容資訊: 英文 96 Pages
簡介

ADAS (先進駕駛輔助系統) 由於比起人類,機器更為可靠這個概念,而需要主動/轉向系統,因此便需要搭載致動器和控制器。致動器結構單純,只要有煞車卡鉗和轉向器,空氣閥便可,但控制器則需要組合ETC (電控節流閥) 和ESP (電動方向盤) 雙方才行。煞車系統更為複雜,一般汽油/柴油小客車是併用了液壓煞車和真空伺服制動機。但因為小客車被動安全性要優於主動安全性。 ESP和ESC (電子穩定控制系統) 便成了標準裝備,此外剎車控制也使用ESP。另一方面,為了實現自動駕駛車,ADAS和各種控制器之間的穩定通該系統便不可或缺,為此便需要控制器·製造商提供的穩固支援體制。

本報告提供各種煞車系統的最新技術·市場趨勢分析,提供您自動駕駛車必要的ADAS·底盤·煞車系統概要,及傳統煞車系統和先進煞車系統的不同點,彙整電動汽車煞車系統概要,全球EPS (電動方向盤) 產業概要,全球主要煞車系統·EPS製造商簡介等資訊,為您概述為以下內容。

第1章 剎車/轉向系統

  • 自動駕駛車的電子架構
  • 支援ADAS底盤概要
  • 典型的煞車系統結構
    • 煞車系統的原理
    • 煞車系統的電磁閥
    • 真空增壓器幫浦
  • 電動車 (EV) 用煞車系統
  • 線傳煞車
  • 混合動力汽車 (HEV) 用電傳線控液壓煞車系統
  • Mercedes-Benz的SBC煞車系統概要
    • SBC (電控煞車系統) 的原理
    • SBC結構
    • SBC的fallback方式
    • SBC致動器·迴路
  • 豐田汽車的EBC系統
    • EBC (電控煞車系統) 外部結構
    • EBC的內部結構
    • EBC用電路的分解組裝圖
    • EBC油壓系統的配線圖與電路結構
  • 電控線式剎車
    • 電動車 (EV) 後輪用電傳線控剎車
    • 大型卡車用電傳線控剎車
    • 典型線傳煞車設備的電路圖
  • ABS (防鎖死·煞車系統)
    • ABS的配置
    • ABS的內部結構
    • ABS的歷史沿革和原理
    • ABS的ESP的演變
  • ESP (ESC) 結構
    • Audi A4L ESP結構
    • ESP的行動分析
    • Audi A4L ESP的結構零件
    • Audi A4L ESP的流通
    • ESP (ESC) 的開發方向性
  • EPS (電動方向盤) 概要
    • R-EPS及P-EPS結構
    • R-EPS分析
  • 線控轉向系統概要
  • 力回饋系統模擬與線控轉向系統的必要性
  • 電控節流閥 (ETC) 結構
  • ETC的開發
  • 非接觸式ETC概要

第2章 煞車系統·EPS產業

  • 汽車用煞車系統概要
  • 汽車廠商·剎車供應商間的供給關係
  • ESC (電子穩定控制系統) 的用語
  • 全球ESC製造商市場佔有率
  • 汽車廠商·EPS供應商間的供給關係
  • 全球EPS製造商市場佔有率

第3章 煞車系統·EPS的廠商

  • Continental Automotive
  • ZFTRW
  • Bosch
  • Mando
  • Nexteer
  • BWI Group
  • Zhejiang Asia-Pacific Mechanical & Electronic
  • Akebono Brake Industry Co., Ltd
  • 日信工業
  • ThyssenKrupp
  • Advics
  • JTEKT
  • 日本精工
  • Haldex
  • Vie Science & Technology
  • Tuopu Group
  • 日立otomotibushisutemuzu
目錄
Product Code: ZYW226

The report mainly highlights the following:

  • 1. ADAS and self-driving vehicle chassis and braking system
  • 2. Traditional braking system
  • 3. Braking system for new energy vehicles
  • 4. Global EPS Industry
  • 5. Global braking system and EPS manufacturers

As far as ADAS is concerned, a simple alarm is not enough, and even at the critical moment, active braking system, active deceleration or steering system are needed, for machines are more reliable than people. And controllers and actuators are thus introduced. An actuator is very simple, consisting of brake caliper, steering gear, and air valve, while a controller involves ETC (Electric Throttle Control) and EPS (Electric Power Steering). The brake system is very complicated, and the brake system for the ordinary gasoline and diesel passenger vehicle is controlled by hydraulic system and vacuum servo. But for passenger vehicles, passive safety is superior to active safety. Hence, ESP (ESC, Electronic Stability Control) needs standard configuration, and the brake control system is ESP, which can also control ETC.

To enable active ADAS and self-driving, deep communication between ADAS and controllers is indispensable, which requires controller manufacturers to provide deep support. Of course, they can also create a new system to bypass the original controller. However, the original controller has gained safety certification for scores of years, and the new system has not been certified, which greatly adds costs and complexity. Moreover, it is not realistic for vehicles to be mass-produced. Therefore, it is necessary to win the great support from controller manufacturers. But these controller manufacturers have their own ADAS, unwilling to give up this market. As a result, controller manufacturers do not make available some ports or provide support, so that customers are forced to choose their full set of ADAS. So we can see that the whole ADAS, including sensor algorithm, of Chang'an and Geely is all from Bosch, which has a great impact on China-made sensor manufacturers.

Given the ESC system is paramount, most OEMs have related technology. Various names for ESC, hence, have sprung up. Although the prices for these ESC systems are higher than those of Bosch and Continental, manufacturers still use them to maintain their own independence, with Hyundai, for example, adopting Mando's ESC system. It takes more than 20 years to develop a new ESC system, during which period large amount of capital and practice cost will be incurred.

Most electric vehicles still adopt the braking system of fuel vehicles and gain additional braking power with EVP or Bosch iBooster. As for these electric vehicles, ESC is still the master controller of braking system. But things have changed. As electric vehicles can, through AC motor, achieve reverse deceleration and recover braking energy, the load of EV braking system reduces considerably. And the new technology drive-by-wire braking system can thus be used.

Drive-by-wire braking system has been extensively used in F1cars, and is replaced when the driving range reaches less than 2,000 km, which causes high costs. Its braking sensitivity is much higher than that of traditional braking systems. Moreover, its flexibility increases dramatically. Hence, the braking system is very practical in the field of ADAS and self-driving. This is why Tesla can achieve intelligentization more easily. Drive-by-wire braking system substitutes ESC system or TCS (traction control system), which allows vehicle manufacturers to get rid of dependence on ESC manufacturers. Tesla Model S, Porsche 918 Spyder, and Audi R8-ETRON adopt this design. There are two systems inside the car: one is traditional front wheel hydraulic brake without EVP, which has the function of ABS; the other is rear-wheel drive-by-wire braking system, which uses electrical signal and motor to control brake calipers.

The disadvantages of drive-by-wire braking system are also evident: first, small braking force due to limited motor power; second, high requirements for heat resistance of brake discs. Porsche 918 Spyder and Audi R8-ETRON adopt ceramic brake discs while Tesla uses high-grade ITT brake discs. Third, due to small volume left for braking motor, only permanent magnet motor can be used. And when you put on brakes, permanent magnet has long been working under the high temperature, thus leading to demagnetization. The reliability of drive-by-wire braking system is yet to be tested. At present, the system, which incurs high costs, can not be used as main braking system but only as auxiliary brake.

In the field of EPS, things get better. China acquired Nexteer, and some enterprises can produce low-end C-EPS. However, the future development of EPS is targeted at R-EPS. There is still an obvious gap between at home and abroad. EPS market is highly concentrated, with the top four manufacturers holding a combined market share of over 75%. The market share of Jtekt exceeded one third. After selling ZF Lenksysteme, ZF still has TRW steering business, reflecting that it has placed emphasis on steering system.

For fuel vehicle design, if you want to develop ADAS or self-driving, it may well be the fastest and most cost-effective way to cooperate with Bosch rather than Continental, whose ESC system is rare in China. As for independent sensor design companies, it is the best choice to partner with manufacturers capable of developing ESC braking system, and the same is true of international companies. Take Sweden-based Autoliv, which invested JPY30 billion in April 2016 to cooperate with Japan's Nissin Kyogo. With regard to China-made vehicle design, we suggest the cooperation with South Korean Mando

In terms of hybrid electric vehicle design, it is best way to adopt ZFTRW IBC and Continental MK C1 to develop ADAS or self-driving. At the early stage of promotion. Continental and ZF are eager to get support from vehicle manufacturers. Moreover, due to its high integration level, the self-driving function can easily be set in drive-by-wire hydraulic brake.

For electric vehicle design, if you adopt permanent magnet motor, given the narrow working range and poor high-temperature resistance of permanent magnet motor, braking system cannot depends too much on the opposing torque of the motor, hence the need to use the powerful booster brake system like Bosch iBooster. If you use AC induction motor, braking system can rely heavily on the opposing torque of the motor, and rear wheel can use the most advanced EMB, or the real drive-by-wire brake.

Table of Contents

1 Braking and Steering System

  • 1.1 Electronic Architecture of Self-driving Cars
  • 1.2 Overview of ADAS-related Chassis
  • 1.3 Structure of Typical Braking System
    • 1.3.1 Principle of Braking System
    • 1.3.2 Magnetic Valve of Braking System
    • 1.3.3 Vacuum Booster Pump
  • 1.4 EV Braking System
  • 1.5 Brake by Wire
  • 1.6 Drive-by-wire Hydraulic Brake System for HEV
  • 1.7 Overview of Mercedes-Benz SBC Braking System
    • 1.7.1 Principle of Mercedes-Benz Sensortronic Brake Control (SBC)
    • 1.7.2 Structure of Mercedes-Benz SBC Braking System
    • 1.7.3 Fallback Mode of Mercedes-Benz SBC Braking System
    • 1.7.4 Actuator Loop for Mercedes-Benz SBC Braking System
  • 1.8 Toyota EBC System
    • 1.8.1 Exterior Structure of Toyota EBC System
    • 1.8.2 Interior Structure of Toyota EBC System
    • 1.8.3 Block Diagram for Toyota EBC System Circuit
    • 1.8.4 Connection Diagram for Toyota EBC Hydraulic System and Circuitry
  • 1.9 Drive-by-wire Brakes
    • 1.9.1 Drive-by-wire Brakes of EV Rear Wheel
    • 1.9.2 Drive-by-wire Braking System for Heavy-duty Trucks
    • 1.9.3 Circuit Diagram for Typical Brake-By-Wire System
  • 1.10 ABS
    • 1.10.1 Location of ABS
    • 1.10.2 Internal Architecture of ABS
    • 1.10.3 ABS History and Principle
    • 1.10.4 ABS Evolving into ESP
  • 1.11 Structure of ESP (ESC)
    • 1.11.1 Structure of Audi A4L ESP
    • 1.11.2 ESP Work Analysis
    • 1.11.3 Components of Audi A4L ESP
    • 1.11.4 Distribution of Audi A4L ESP
    • 1.11.5 Development Direction of ESP (ESC)
  • 1.12 Overview of EPS
    • 1.12.1 Structure of R-EPS and P-EPS
    • 1.12.2 R-EPS Analysis
  • 1.13 Overview of Steering-by-wire System
  • 1.14 Steering-by-wire System Needs to Simulate Force-feedback System
  • 1.15 Structure of Electric Throttle Control
  • 1.16 Development of Electric Throttle Control
  • 1.17 Overview of Non-contact Electric Throttle Control

2 Braking System and EPS Industry

  • 2.1 Overview of Automotive Braking System
  • 2.2 Supply Relationship between Vehicle Manufacturers and Brake Suppliers
  • 2.3 ESC Terms
  • 2.4 Market Share of Global ESC Manufacturers
  • 2.5 Supply Relationship between Vehicle Manufacturers and EPS Suppliers
  • 2.6 Global EPS Market Share

3 Braking System and EPS Manufacturers

  • 3.1 Continental Automotive
  • 3.2 ZFTRW
  • 3.3 Bosch
  • 3.4 Mando
  • 3.5 Nexteer
  • 3.6 BWI Group
  • 3.7 Zhejiang Asia-Pacific Mechanical & Electronic
  • 3.8 Akebono
  • 3.9 Nissin Kyogo
  • 3.10 ThyssenKrupp
  • 3.11 Advics
  • 3.12 Jtekt
  • 3.13 NSK
  • 3.14 Haldex
  • 3.15 Vie Science & Technology
  • 3.16 Tuopu Group
  • 3.17 Hitachi Automotive Systems
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