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市場調查報告書 - 103579

全球碳市場:2009年

The Global Carbon Market 2009: Trading Thin Air

出版商 Priority Metrics Group
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 300+ PAGES (including 75+ tables and charts)
價格
全球碳市場:2009年 The Global Carbon Market 2009: Trading Thin Air
出版日期: 2009年10月30日 內容資訊: 英文 300+ PAGES (including 75+ tables and charts)
簡介

排放量貿易在全球往低碳社會過渡時期發揮了關鍵作用。以京都協議書中各國的承諾作為開端,全球的碳市場正在急速成長中。2005年至2008年間,該市場已從110億美元擴大至1,260億美元。

本報告書內容包括:碳權之技術上及經濟上的潛力、全球碳市場的動向與課題、2004年至2008年的市場規模、至2013年的市場發展預測、地區別價格與排放量貿易制度、法律規章概要、參與該市場之企業簡介,內容綱要摘記如下:

第1章 實施摘要

第2章 碳市場的歷史與定義

  • 碳足跡的定義
  • 排放量
  • 溫室效果
  • 溫室效應氣體排放
  • 2007年的諾貝爾和平獎
  • 京都協議書
  • 刪減目標
  • 京都機制
  • 協議期間(2008年至2012年)
  • 2012年以後的佈局 等等

第3章 市場規模與區隔

  • 京都機制
  • 清潔發展機制
  • 聯合執行
  • 國際排放貿易
  • 能源效率與燃料轉移
  • 廢棄物處理
  • 氯氟烴替代物
  • 水力發電
  • 生物量
  • 可再生能源 等等

第4章 市場的展望與課題

  • 2009年的哥本哈根會議
  • Waxman - Markey 法案
  • 歐洲的排放貿易制度
  • 配額單位
  • Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)
  • 區域溫室效應氣體的倡議
  • 澳洲的碳市場
  • 日本
  • 加拿大
  • 專案處理
  • 自願OTC市場

第5章 碳市場參與企業

  • 遵循市場的法規
  • 聯合國氣候變動綱要公約(UNFCCC)
  • EU委員會
  • 自願市場的法規
  • 清潔開發機制 等等

第6章 企業簡介

  • 企業資訊
  • 產品與品牌組合
  • 成績
  • 企業新聞
  • 收購與資產剝離
  • 技術革新
  • 今後的展望
  • 人事變動

專門術語解說

圖表

目錄

Abstract

Global climate change and reduction of greenhouse gasses (GHG) are an important concern for many US businesses and throughout the world, and are shaping policies and initiatives. The United States is responsible of 23% of the world' s GHG emissions but as of 2009, there are no federal restrictions and no binding federal carbon trading system. However, many states and corporations have committed to cutting GHG through emissions trading.

Carbon emission credits are a key component of national and international emissions trading schemes that have been implemented to mitigate global warming. They provide a way to reduce greenhouse effect emissions on a large scale by capping total annual emissions, allowing the market to assign a monetary value to any shortfall through trading. Credits can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets. Credits can also be used to finance carbon reduction schemes between trading partners and around the world. There are also many companies that sell carbon credits to commercial and individual customers interested in lowering their carbon footprint on a voluntary basis.

For trading purposes, one allowance is equivalent to one metric ton of CO2 emissions. There are three legally binding carbon trading arrangements and one major voluntary market. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement with two main trading devices, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). The European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a government-backed trading program adopted by the European Council. The United States does not participate in the Kyoto Protocol but the US voluntary carbon markets can be divided into two main segments: the voluntary, but legally binding, cap-and-trade system that is the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) and the broader, non-binding, over the counter (OTC) offset market.

Some of the main markets for carbon reduction projects include renewable energy (solar, wind and hydropower), energy efficiency / demand-side management, methane capture or waste-to-energy, reforestation, carbon capture and storage (sequestration), power plant revamping and fuel switching. These are all sectors in which the United States excels, providing gateways into carbon market participation.

Emissions trading is on track to play a key role in the world' s transition to a low-carbon economy. As countries meet their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, the global carbon market has experienced rapid growth. From 2005 to 2008, the market grew from $11 billion to $126 billion. This growth and accompanying diversification has been made possible by an increasingly elaborate set of players. In addition to the suppliers, intermediaries and end users in the carbon market, services providers are also needed in the areas of quality control, legal advisory services, information and analysis and capacity building. Legal frameworks and regulatory bodies are also present.

Although the Kyoto Protocol will expire in 2012, there is general consensus that a cap-and-trade system will be established in the United States and a global carbon trading system will be a fixture in the world economy for decades. Carbon is predicted by some to become a commodity with its emissions regulated worldwide.

Trading Thin Air makes important forecasts regarding the future of the carbon market and highlights ways current and prospective players can position themselves in this global market. No other market research report provides both the comprehensive analysis and extensive data that Trading Thin Air offers. Plus, you' ll benefit from extensive data, presented in easy-to-read diagrams, tables and charts.

Report Methodology

The information in Trading Thin Air is based on primary and secondary research. Primary research entailed in-depth interviews with participants throughout the market including supplier entities, intermediaries and buyers to obtain information on carbon market trends, marketing programs and exchange methods. Secondary research involved data gathering from relevant sources, including industry and consumer publications, newspapers, government reports, company literature, corporate annual reports and conference proceedings and presentations.

Key Report Deliverables

  • firm understanding of the technical, economic, and market potential of carbon credits,
  • key trends and issues,
  • historical (2004-2008) market size and growth,
  • projected (2009-2013) market size and growth,
  • pricing by region and trading scheme or device,
  • current and pending legislation and regulatory initiatives,
  • international markets, policy, and implementation status,
  • activity by region of the world and product/market segment,
  • areas to target for greater GHG emission reduction,
  • profiles of leading project developers, financial services companies investing in the market, brokers and traders, exchanges, end users (compliance buyers, voluntary buyers, public entities, non-government organizations (NGOs), and individuals), quality control, legal advisory services, and providers of information and analysis, and
  • overview of carbon credit standards and accounting registries.

Who Should Buy This Report

  • Business Development Executives-to understand the dynamics of the market and identify possible investment opportunities.
  • Financial and Investment Professionals-to identify new product service offerings for their investors and clients.
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Facility Managers-to pinpoint ways to participate in the carbon emission credit market as a buyer or seller.
  • Government and NGO Leadership-to assess the economic, political and social impact of this market.
  • Information and Research Center Librarians-to provide students, researchers and other colleagues with the vital information they need to do their jobs more effectively.
  • Research and Development Professionals-to stay on top of GHG reduction incentives and market dynamics.

How You' ll Benefit from This Report

If your company or organization is intrigued by the opportunity to trade carbon credits or already participating in this emerging global market, you will find this report invaluable, as it provides a comprehensive package of information and insight not offered in any other single source. You will gain a thorough understanding of the current market for carbon credits, as well as projected markets and trends through 2013.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1-Executive Summary

  • Carbon Trading
  • Compliance Markets
  • Assigned Amount Units (AAUs).
  • European Union Allowances (EUAs)
  • Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)
  • Emission Reduction Units (ERUs)
  • Other Compliance Markets
  • Australia
  • The US Compliance Market
  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)
  • Other North American Initiatives
  • United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen
  • American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES)
  • Voluntary Markets
  • Chicago Climate Exchange
  • Over the Counter (OTC) Market
  • Carbon Market Participants
  • Regulation
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • Standards Sponsors
  • Suppliers
  • Intermediaries
  • Buyers
  • Other Services
  • Summary

Chapter 2-Carbon Market History and Definitions

  • Carbon Footprint Defined
  • Reducing Carbon Footprint
  • The Greenhouse Effect
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • 2007 Nobel Peace Prize
  • The Kyoto Protocol
  • Emission Targets
  • Kyoto Mechanisms
  • Commitment Period (2008-2012)
  • The Bali Roadmap-Kyoto post 2012
  • Poznan 2008
  • Carbon Credits vs. Carbon Taxes
  • Cap-and-Trade Criticisms
  • Compliance Markets
  • International Emissions Trading (IET)
  • European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS)
  • Joint Implementation
  • Clean Development Mechanism
  • The New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme
  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)
  • California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 AB 32
  • Western Climate Initiative
  • Midwestern Regional GHG Reduction Accord (MGGRA)
  • Other State and Provincial Programs
  • Voluntary Markets
  • Chicago Climate Exchange
  • Over the Counter Market
  • Voluntary Emission Reductions (VERs)
  • Government Voluntary Purchasing Programs
  • Japan' s Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan on the Environment
  • Japan' s Voluntary Market
  • Australia' s Greenhouse Challenge Plus
  • EPA Climate Leaders
  • Canadian GHG Clean Start Registry

Chapter 3-Market Size and Segmentation

  • Kyoto Mechanisms
  • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  • Joint Implementation
  • International Emissions Trading (IET)
  • CDM Pipeline
  • JI Pipeline
  • CDM Project Types
  • Energy Efficiency (EE) + Fuel Switching
  • Agro-forestry
  • Reforestation / Afforestation
  • Landfill Gas (LFG)
  • Waste Management
  • Coal Mine Methane (CMM)
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • Fugitive Emissions
  • Hydropower
  • Wind
  • Biomass
  • JI Project Types
  • Voluntary Carbon Market Projects
  • Renewable Energy
  • Methane
  • Forestry / Land Use
  • Geological Sequestration
  • Other
  • CDM Project Process
  • JI Project Process
  • CDM and JI Buyers
  • CDM Sellers
  • JI Sellers
  • Russia and JI Projects
  • The Voluntary Markets
  • The Voluntary Market in the United States
  • State-level carbon emissions trading schemes
  • California: Global Warming Solutions Act
  • Hawaii: Global Warming Solutions Act of 2007
  • Minnesota: Next Generation Energy Act of 2007
  • New Jersey: Global Warming Response Act
  • Oregon: Global Warming Actions
  • Washington: Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change
  • Regional Initiatives

Chapter 4-Market Outlook and Issues

  • Copenhagen 2009
  • Waxman-Markey Bill
  • European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS)
  • Assigned Amount Units (AAUs)
  • The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)
  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
  • The Australian Carbon Market
  • Japan
  • Canada
  • Project-Based Transactions
  • The Voluntary Over-the-Counter (OTC) Market

Chapter 5-Carbon Market Participants

  • Regulation in the Compliance Markets
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • EU Commission
  • Regulation in the Voluntary Markets
  • Clean Development Mechanism
  • Chicago Climate Exchange Offsets Program
  • The Gold Standard
  • Voluntary Carbon Standard
  • VER+ Standard
  • Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standards
  • Plan Vivo
  • Voluntary Offset Standard
  • Other Standards
  • EPA Climate Leaders Offset Guidance
  • Greenhouse Gas Services Standard
  • Greenhouse Friendly
  • Protocols
  • Offset Provider Certification Programs
  • Green-e Climate
  • Quality Assurance Scheme for Carbon Offsetting
  • 2008 Changes
  • Regulatory Bodies
  • UNFCC Secretariat
  • Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board (CDM EB)
  • JISC
  • Compliance Committee
  • Designated National Authorities
  • Designated Operational Entity
  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
  • Suppliers
  • Project Developers
  • Mandated Installations
  • Financiers
  • Consultants
  • Technology Development Transfer
  • Policy Environment
  • Intermediaries
  • Brokers
  • Traders
  • Exchanges
  • Emerging Market Exchanges
  • Private Sector Financial Companies
  • Buyers
  • Compliance Buyers
  • Voluntary Buyers
  • Other Services
  • Quality Control
  • Legal Advisory Services
  • Information and Analysis
  • Capacity Building
  • Registries

Chapter 6-Company Profiles

  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • Innovation
  • Outlook
  • Personnel Changes
  • 3Degrees
  • APX Inc
  • Baker & McKenzie
  • Blue Source
  • CantorCO2e
  • Climate Focus
  • Credit Suisse
  • EcoSecurities
  • Equator LLC
  • Evolution Markets
  • Fortis
  • MGM International
  • RNK Capital
  • Sterling Planet
  • TFS Energy
  • TUV SUD

Glossary of Acronyms

List of Figures

  • Figure 1-1. The Kyoto Compliance Market
  • Figure 1-2. CDM Project Categories, as a share of volumes supplied (2008)
  • Figure 1-3. Transaction Values on the Voluntary Carbon Market
  • Figure 1-4. Carbon Market Participants
  • Figure 2-1. Global Carbon Emission Estimates
  • Figure 2-2. The Greenhouse Effect
  • Figure 2-3. Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Sources and Activities
  • Figure 2-4. Kyoto Protocol Participation Map
  • Figure 2-5. Regional Shift in Emissions Share
  • Figure 2-6. Joint Implementation Illustration
  • Figure 2-7. Joint Implementation Track 2 Procedure
  • Figure 2-8. CDM Project Cycle
  • Figure 2-9. RGGI Participants and Observers
  • Figure 2-10. Western Climate Initiative Partners and Observers-July 2009
  • Figure 2-11. Reduction Schedule for CCX Members Baseline Through 2010
  • Figure 3-1. Flexible Mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol
  • Figure 3-2. European Union Linking Directive
  • Figure 3-3. CDM Project Categories, as a share of volumes supplied 2008
  • Figure 3-4. CDM Project Categories, as a share of volumes supplied 2002-2008
  • Figure 3-5. Anaerobic Digester Facility
  • Figure 3-6. CDM and JI Project Comparison 2007
  • Figure 3-7. Offset Credit Sources in the Voluntary Market
  • Figure 3-8. Carbon Sequestration Illustration
  • Figure 3-9. Average Time from Registration Request until Registration
  • Figure 3-10. Joint Implementation Project Process
  • Figure 3-11. Primary CDM and JI Buyers by Country As shares of volumes purchased, 2006 through 2008
  • Figure 3-12. Location of CDM Projects (As a share of volumes supplied) 2008
  • Figure 3-13. Locations of CDM Projects 2002-2008
  • Figure 3-14. Number of JI Projects by Host Country
  • Figure 3-15. Host country for JI projects, number of projects and kERUs
  • Figure 3-16. Location of JI Projects (as a share of volumes supplied) 2003-2007
  • Figure 3-17. Transaction Values on the Voluntary Carbon Market
  • Figure 3-18. Transaction Volume by Type of Buyer, Voluntary OTC Market 2008
  • Figure 3-19. Transaction Volume by Buyer Location, OTC Market 2008
  • Figure 3-20. Transaction Volume by Project Location, OTC 2008
  • Figure 3-21. Volume and Number of Offset Projects by State 2007
  • Figure 3-22. Average Market Prices in US$ 2006-2008
  • Figure 3-23. CCX Price and Volume History 2003-2008
  • Figure 3-24. Project Prices by Project Type, Voluntary OTC Market
  • Figure 3-25. Average Credit Prices by Project Type, OTC 2007 vs. 2008
  • Figure 4-1. Map of Australia and New Zealand
  • Figure 5-1. Growth in Carbon Market 2005-2008
  • Figure 5-2. Players and Institutions in the Carbon Market
  • Figure 5-3. The Regulated Market
  • Figure 5-4. Total CER Project Procedure
  • Figure 5-5. Frequency of Technology Transfer for the Main Host Country As a Percentage of the Projects
  • Figure 5-6. Technology Suppliers Percentage of Projects Involving a Technology Transfer
  • Figure 5-7. Transaction Volume by Type of Buyer-OTC
  • Figure 5-8. Transaction Volume by Type of Buyer-OTC Market 2008

List of Tables

  • Table 1-1. Kyoto Mechanism-AAUs2008-2013
  • Table 1-2. EU ETS Market Volume and Values 2004-2013
  • Table 1-3. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), CERs 2004-2013
  • Table 1-4. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Secondary Market CERs (gCERs) 2004-2013
  • Table 1-5. Joint Implementation (JI)-ERUs 2004-2013
  • Table 1-6. Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) 2008-2013
  • Table 1-7. The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) 2004-2013
  • Table 1-8. The Voluntary Over-the-Counter Market (OTC) 2004-2013
  • Table 1-9. Carbon Market Exchanges and Related Products and Services
  • Table 2-1. Top Carbon Emitting Countries and Emissions 2007
  • Table 2-2. Changes in CO2 Emissions, Selected Countries 1992-2007
  • Table 2-3. Relative CO2 Emission from Various Fuels
  • Table 2-4. Countries Included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and Their Emissions Targets 1990 through 2008/2012
  • Table 2-5. Allowance Based EU-ETS Trading Volumes and Values 2006-2008
  • Table 2-6. Kyoto-AAUs Trading Volumes and Values 2008
  • Table 2-7. Compliance Market Values in $M-Project Based 2005-2008
  • Table 2-8. Regulatory Carbon Market Component Summary
  • Table 2-9. RGGI Market Values in $M 2008-2009
  • Table 3-1. CDM Pipeline Detail by Project Type July 1, 2009
  • Table 3-2. Status of CDM projects
  • Table 3-3. JI Pipeline Detail by Project Type July 1, 2009
  • Table 3-4. JI Project Status July 1, 2009
  • Table 3-5. CDM Methodologies and Related Scope
  • Table 3-6. Hydropower CDM Projects July 1, 2009
  • Table 3-7. Wind CDM Projects January 1, 2009
  • Table 3-8. Renewable Energy Project Volumes Sold in OTC; 2007 and 2008
  • Table 3-9. Methane Project Volumes Sold in OTC; 2007 and 2008
  • Table 3-10. Land Based Credits Sold in OTC; 2007 and 2008
  • Table 3-11. Volumes by Other Project Type (ktCO2e) 2007 and 2008
  • Table 3-12. Top Country CER Purchasers
  • Table 3-13. Top 20 Authorized Buyers
  • Table 3-14. Growth in Carbon Market, values in US$M 2004-2008
  • Table 3-15. Annual volumes in MtCO2e 2004-2008
  • Table 4-1. Carbon Market Value in Millions USD 2004-2008
  • Table 4-2. Carbon Market Value in Millions USD 2009-2013
  • Table 4-3. Carbon Market Volumes 2004-2013
  • Table 4-4. EU ETS Market Volume and Values 2004-2013
  • Table 4-5. Kyoto Mechanism-AAUs 2008-2013
  • Table 4-6. The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) 2004-2013
  • Table 4-7. Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) 2008-2011
  • Table 4-8. The Australian Carbon Market 2004-2013
  • Table 4-9. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), CERs 2004-2013
  • Table 4-10. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Secondary Market CERs 2004-2013
  • Table 4-11. Joint Implementation (JI)-ERUs 2004-2013
  • Table 4-12. The Voluntary Over-the-Counter Market (OTC) 2004-2013
  • Table 5-1. Voluntary Market Standards
  • Table 5-2. Offset Provider Members of the Chicago Climate Exchange
  • Table 5-3. Offset Aggregator Members of the Chicago Climate Exchange
  • Table 5-4. Offset Aggregator Members of the Chicago Climate Exchange
  • Table 5-5. Carbon Market & Investors Association Brokerage Members
  • Table 5-6. CCX Liquidity Providers
  • Table 5-7. Carbon Market Exchanges and Related Products and Services
  • Table 5-8. Private Sector Financial Companies
  • Table 5-9. Carbon Finance Products
  • Table 5-10. Applicants to Participate in RGGI Auction June 17, 2009
  • Table 5-11. CCX Business Members
  • Table 5-12. CCX Business Members (cont.)
  • Table 5-13. CCX Members-Public Entities
  • Table 5-14. Carbon Market Law Firms
  • Table 5-15. Carbon Market Consultancies
  • Table 5-16. Independent Registries and Registry Infrastructure Providers
  • Table 5-17. Standard and Exchange Specific Registries
  • Table 6-1. Companies Profiled
  • Table 6-2. 3 Degrees Incorporated Profile
  • Table 6-3. APX Incorporated Profile
  • Table 6-4. Baker & McKenzie Profile
  • Table 6-5. Blue Source Profile
  • Table 6-6. CantorCO2e Profile
  • Table 6-7. Climate Focus Profile
  • Table 6-8. Credit Suisse Profile
  • Table 6-9. EcoSecurities Group Profile
  • Table 6-10. Equator LLC Profile
  • Table 6-11. Evolution Markets Profile
  • Table 6-12. Fortis Profile
  • Table 6-13. MGM International Profile
  • Table 6-14. Natsource Profile
  • Table 6-15. RNK Capital LLC Profile
  • Table 6-16. Sterling Planet, Incorporated Profile
  • Table 6-17. Tradition Financial Services/TFS Energy/TFS Green Profile
  • Table 6-18. TUV SUD America Profile
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