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Heating for the Future: Identifying Global Hotspots for District Energy

出版商 Lux Research 商品編碼 307577
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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未來的暖氣:確認地區能源之全球熱點 Heating for the Future: Identifying Global Hotspots for District Energy
出版日期: 2014年06月23日 內容資訊: 英文





  • 中國領導地區能源開發的規模,同時歐洲領導能源轉換效率;可是替代技術可有更高的效率和低碳排放量


  • 與分散式暖氣比較,最大削減74%成本的區域供熱成為勝者,不過最富有魅力的技術依氣候與燃料而不同




Buildings consume nearly 40% of global primary enegy, of which about 40% is used to heat, cool, and condition the indoor built environment. Traditionally buildings are fuelled by petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and even coal, but an opportunity exists to decouple the energy source from the building, through district heating and cooling (DHC) networks. Fuel agnostic, these networks can leverage multiple fuels, achieve higher converstion efficiencies, and provide a more reliable supply of heating and cooling. DHC has been around for decades, but only deployed at scale in China and Northern Europe. In this report, we identify six proven alternative heat generation methods for district heating, and evaluate their economic viability for across the continental U.S., EU-27, and East Asia. Performance is measured in total cost of operation, and the focus is on commercial, residential, and multi-residential buildings. Among the high-potential regions are the Northeastern U.S., Spain, and Poland, as well as South Korea and several Japanese cities.

Table of Contents



China leads in scale of district energy development, while Europe leads in efficiency of energy conversion; but alternative technologies enable greater efficiency and lower carbon output.


District heating emerges as a winner, with cost reductions as high as 74% compared with distributed heating, but most attractive technologies differ depending on climate and fuel.



Table of Figures

  • Figure 1: Graphic Commercial and residential buildings consume 41% of primary energy
  • Figure 2: Graphic Heat supply for buildings is dominated by fossil fuels in the EU-27
  • Figure 3: Graphic Current penetration of district energy in residential building stock - Europe and North America
  • Figure 4: Graphic Campus and MUSH dominate district energy installations in the U.S.
  • Figure 5: Graphic Growth of district heating in China is dramatic (China values estimated for 2005-2012)
  • Figure 6: Graphic DE fuel flexibility allows adoption of new technologies
  • Figure 7: Graphic Load distribution for a typical commercial building is not normally distributed
  • Figure 8: Table CO2 footprint of heating and cooling sources have a wide variance
  • Figure 9: Table Common heat generation sources are still combustion-based
  • Figure 10: Graphic District heating system is de-coupled from the buildings it serves
  • Figure 11: Graphic Customers are absent from the value chain of district energy equipment procurement
  • Figure 12: Graphic Heating and cooling demand comparison - U.S./Europe/Asia
  • Figure 13: Table Building types well-suited to DE
  • Figure 14: Table Climate zones indicate commercial building peak heating load
  • Figure 15: Table DH heat generation cost comparison (excluding fuel costs)
  • Figure 16: Table DE network connection cost comparison
  • Figure 17: Graphic TCO grows with an increase in distribution losses for DH technologies - residential scenario, Sweden
  • Figure 18: Graphic TCO ranges across all geographies - commercial building
  • Figure 19: Table DE suitability scoring - category weightings
  • Figure 20: Graphic Global DE suitability - All Technologies
  • Figure 21: Table Most Attractive DH Regions - EU
  • Figure 22: Table Most Attractive DH Regions - APAC
  • Figure 23: Graphic U.S. DE suitability - All Technologies
  • Figure 24: Table Most Attractive DH Regions - U.S.
  • Figure 25: Graphic Cost savings potential of district heating technologies
  • Figure 26: Graphic TCO (20-year) Comparison across building types - Sapporo, Japan
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