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市場調查報告書

多核心處理器的指南

A Guide to Multicore Processors, Third Edition

出版商 Linley Group 商品編碼 302678
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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多核心處理器的指南 A Guide to Multicore Processors, Third Edition
出版日期: 2016年05月31日 內容資訊: 英文
簡介

多核心處理器,對於稱為線程,能分割成很多小任務的應用,提供最大限度的性能和彈性。內建系統中,多核心處理器的最常見用途是封包處理。封包處理發生在路由器、安全性、儲存、寬頻基礎設施,及行動電話基地台等,廣泛的網路、通訊設備。

本報告提供多核心處理器市場相關分析,概括處理器技術、多核心應用、各種指令套組及多核心處理器的特徵、技術趨勢及市場概要彙整、主要的供應商概要等,為您概述為以下內容。

第1章 處理器技術

  • 處理器的基礎
    • 中央處理器(CPU)
    • 快取
    • MMU、TLB
    • 匯流排頻寬
  • CPU微架構
    • RISC VS CISC
    • Endianness
    • 純量和超純量
    • 指令排序
    • 流水線和罰球
    • 分支預測
    • 多核心處理器
    • 多線
  • 主記憶體
    • DRAM的基本
    • DDR的版本
    • 記憶體子系統
  • I/O與網路介面
    • 乙太網路介面
    • PCI和PCI Express
    • RapidIO
    • USB
    • SAS和SATA

第2章 多核心應用

  • 網路、通訊設備
    • 控制平面 VS 資料平面
    • 控制平面處理
    • 資料平面應用
    • 服務車do
    • 網路儲存和RAID控制器
    • 安全性
    • 寬頻基礎設施
    • 行動電話基地台
  • 共同的尺寸規格

第3章 標準的指令套組

  • 架構比較
    • 技術
    • 市場上地位
  • x86指令套組
    • 概要
    • 初期指令套組
    • 目前擴展名
  • MIPS指令套組
    • 概要
    • 初期指令套組
    • 此後的擴展名
  • PowerPC指令套組
    • 概要
    • 指令套組
  • ARM指令套組
    • 概要
    • 初期指令套組
    • 此後的擴展名
    • ARMv4架構

第4章 多核心處理器

  • 內建多核心處理器是什麼?
    • 什麼不是內建多核心處理器?
  • 一般性特徵
    • 獨立的 VS 整合處理器
    • 多核心處理器
    • 加密引擎
    • RAID及其他儲存引擎
    • 封包處理加速器
  • 基準
    • CPU基準
    • 安全性性能

第5章 技術、市場趨勢

  • 技術趨勢
    • 架構
    • 整合趨勢
    • CPU複雜性的權衡
    • 記憶體存取
  • 市場概要
    • 市場規模,各供應商
    • 銷售額市場佔有率,各指令套組架構
    • 市場預測,各部門
    • 多核心市場預測

第6章 Broadcom

  • 公司介紹
  • 主要的特徵與性能
    • XLP及XLP II處理器
    • XLP I Family:XLP4xx及XLP8xx Series
    • XLP II Family:XLP532及XLP964
  • 內部架構
  • 系統設計
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 整體概述

第7章 Cavium

  • 公司介紹
  • 主要的特徵與性能
    • Octeon II處理器
    • Octeon III處理器
  • 內部架構
    • Octeon II處理器
    • Octeon III處理器
  • 系統設計
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 整體概述

第8章 Freescale

  • 公司介紹
  • 主要的特徵與業績
    • QorIQ P3-、P4-、T4-Series處理器
  • 內部架構
    • Power e500mc、Power e5500 CPU
    • Power e6500 CPU
    • 安全性引擎
    • QorIQ封包處理加速
  • 系統設計
    • 系統界面
    • 應用案例
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 整體概述

第9章 Intel

  • 公司介紹
  • 主要的特徵與業績
  • 內部架構
    • Sandy Bridge CPU
    • 其他處理器技術
  • 系統設計
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 整體概述

第10章 LSI

  • 公司介紹
  • 主要的特徵與業績
  • 內部架構
    • ARM Cortex-A15 CPU
    • PowerPC 476FP CPU
    • Axxia架構
  • 系統設計
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 整體概述

第11章 Tilera

  • 公司介紹
  • 主要的特徵與業績
  • 內部架構
  • 系統設計
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 整體概述

第12章 處理器比較

  • 不滿30W的處理器
  • 30∼50W的處理器
  • 超過50W的處理器

第13章 整體概述

  • 市場及技術趨勢
    • 無線基礎設施
    • 企業和資訊中心網路
    • 網路控制平面
  • 供應商的展望
    • Intel
    • Broadcom
    • Cavium
    • Freescale
    • 其他的多核心處理器供應商
  • 結論

本網頁內容可能與最新版本有所差異。詳細情況請與我們聯繫。

目錄

Get the Facts Quickly

"A Guide to Multicore Processors" provides an in-depth look at 32- and 64-bit high-speed embedded processors with four or more CPU cores. This completely revised report from The Linley Group contains 190+ pages of information on high-end processors from AMD, AppliedMicro, Baikal Electronics, Broadcom, Cavium, Intel, Mellanox (Tilera/EZchip), and NXP.

The report focuses on general-purpose RISC and x86 processors that have four or more CPU cores running at 1.0GHz or more, excluding specialized architectures (e.g. DSPs, NPUs). This report covers processors for embedded applications, focusing on networking, communications, storage, and security; it excludes multicore products designed for servers or for mobile devices. (We cover these processors, as well as embedded processors with fewer than four CPU cores, in other reports.)

"A Guide to Multicore Processors" delivers detailed coverage of all applicable products in AMD's Opteron A1100 family; AppliedMicro's Helix family; Broadcom's XLP II family; Cavium's Octeon III and ThunderX families; Intel's embedded Xeon and Xeon-D lines; Mellanox's Tile-Gx family; and NXP's QorIQ T series, LS1 series, and LS2 series.

This handy guide, packed with valuable information, brings you up-to-date on the newest developments in this important market and gives you the analysis you need to help choose a supplier or partner. The report also provides market-share and market-size data for the embedded and multicore markets.

"A Guide to Multicore Processors" begins with tutorials on the key technologies implemented by these products, background on the embedded market, and a discussion of the newest technology and market trends. Following these introductory chapters, the report delivers thorough coverage of all announced products in this area. For each major vendor, the report examines the performance, features, and architecture of each product, highlighting strengths and weaknesses in a consistent, easy-to-compare fashion. The report concludes with our own comparisons of these products and conclusions about which will fare best.

What's New in This Edition

Since publishing the previous edition of this report in 2014, we have updated the coverage to include many new announcements, including:

  • AMD's new Opteron A1100 family
  • AppliedMicro's Helix processors
  • More detailed coverage of Cavium's ARMv8-compatible ThunderX processors
  • NXP's newest ARM-based LS1- and LS2-series processors
  • Intel's new Xeon and Xeon D processors
  • Final 2015 market size and vendor share
  • Embedded-processor forecasts to 2020

Executive Summary

Multicore processors offer the best performance and flexibility for applications that are divisible into many small tasks, called threads. In embedded systems, the most common application for these products is networking, because each data packet can usually have its own thread. Packet processing is common in a wide range of networking and communications equipment, including routers, security appliances, storage subsystems, broadband infrastructure, and cellular base stations.

To ease programming, these multicore processors employ general-purpose instruction sets, such as x86, the Power Architecture (PowerPC), MIPS, and ARM. This characteristic distinguishes them from dedicated network processors (NPUs), which use custom instruction sets that are more difficult to program - and from packet-processing ASICs, which are not programmable at all. Most multicore embedded processors also include specialized hardware that accelerates packet-processing tasks. Thus, they are widely favored for complex networking applications that require programmability, customization, and high performance. In addition, these devices are useful for a broad range of embedded systems that require general-purpose programmability.

We estimate the total revenue from general-purpose embedded processors fell 1% in 2015 after two years of growth. This decline was largely due to China's slowdown in wireless-base-station deployments and a trend toward using more ASICs. Growth took place in other segments, however, such as security, Internet gateways, automotive, industrial, and storage.

Intel still leads the embedded-processor market by revenue. Despite their relatively high power consumption and relatively poor feature integration, Intel's products offer the industry's best single-thread performance - a big advantage in control-plane processing. The company's recent acquisition of Altera, the second-largest FPGA vendor, creates opportunities for future products that integrate embedded processors with programmable logic. In 2015, Intel also became the leading supplier of multicore processors for communications systems - a position held for many years by Freescale, which suffered from the wireless slowdown.

Swept up by a wave of industry consolidation in 2015, Freescale was acquired by NXP. The main motive was to augment NXP's positions in automotive processors and microcontrollers - markets in which Freescale also excels. But despite the China slowdown, Freescale's QorIQ embedded processors remain formidable competitors, and the company is rapidly introducing new ARM-based products to supplement the existing Power Architecture chips. Its broad line of high-performance embedded processors addresses many applications.

The third-largest embedded-processor supplier in 2015 was Broadcom, which was acquired by Avago. (The combined company operates as Broadcom Ltd.) This vendor gained share during the year, largely on the success of its ARM-based StrataGX family. The MIPS-compatible XLP family fared less well. Broadcom is pinning future hopes on its Vulcan processors, which will use a new 64-bit ARMv8-compatible CPU that will enable the company to pursue new markets. The first Vulcan chips have yet to appear, however, and the project may be affected by the layoffs, cutbacks, and reorganizations that are following the Avago merger.

Cavium, the fourth-largest embedded-processor supplier, enjoyed in 2015 another year of healthy growth. The MIPS-compatible Octeon chips are the cash cow. Although their relatively simple MIPS64-compatible CPUs lag in single-thread performance, their small size enables Cavium to create large multicore designs - up to 48 CPUs in the largest Octeon III model. Consequently, the company focuses on the data plane, where its many small CPUs and wealth of hardware accelerators are ideal. Cavium also began reaping some revenue in 2015 from its new ThunderX family, which uses custom-designed 64-bit CPUs that are ARMv8 compatible. The largest ThunderX chip also has 48 CPUs.

In addition to the NXP-Freescale and Avago-Broadcom megamergers, Mellanox acquired EZchip, which had recently acquired startup Tilera. These deals could strengthen Tilera's position and its project to make the world's largest ARM-based embedded processor, the 100-core Tile-Gx100. In the past, Mellanox has preferred to sell systems and board-level products instead of merchant silicon, so the combined company is mapping a new strategy for 2016 and beyond.

AMD entered the ARM-based embedded-processor market in 2015 with its Opteron A1100 family, and AppliedMicro followed its ARMv8-compatible Helix 1 embedded processors with the second-generation Helix 2. Both product lines have their strong points but face stiff competition from the leading vendors. Nevertheless, they are further signals of the market's strong shift to ARM by every major vendor except Intel. This transition will continue into the next decade, because many embedded systems have long lifespans, and developers need time to port their software.

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

About the Authors

About the Publisher

Preface

Executive Summary

1 Processor Technology

  • Processor Basics
    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Caches
    • MMUs and TLBs
    • Bus Bandwidth
  • CPU Microarchitecture
    • RISC Versus CISC
    • Endianness
    • Scalar and Superscalar
    • Instruction Reordering
    • Pipelining and Penalties
    • Branch Prediction
    • Multicore Processors
    • Multithreading
  • Main Memory
    • DRAM Basics
    • DDR Versions
    • Memory Subsystems
  • I/O and Network Interfaces
  • Ethernet Interfaces
  • PCI and PCI Express
  • RapidIO
  • USB
  • SAS and SATA

2 Multicore Applications

  • Networking and Communications Equipment
    • Control Plane vs. Data Plane
    • Control-Plane Processing
    • Data-Plane Applications
    • Services Cards
    • Networked Storage and RAID Controllers
    • Security
    • Broadband Infrastructure
    • Cellular Base Stations
  • Common Form Factors

3 Standard Instruction Sets

  • Architecture Comparison

List of Figures

  • Figure 1-1. Basic processor design.
  • Figure 1-2. Simple superscalar processor design.
  • Figure 1-3. CPU pipelining examples.
  • Figure 1-4. Generic multicore processor.
  • Figure 1-5. Interleaved tasks on a multithreaded CPU.
  • Figure 1-6. DRAM evolution.
  • Figure 2-1. The control plane and the data plane.
  • Figure 4-1. Standalone and integrated general-purpose processors.
  • Figure 4-2. Typical curve of IPSec performance versus packet size.
  • Figure 5-1. Worldwide revenue market share of embedded microprocessors, 2014 and 2015.
  • Figure 5-2. Worldwide revenue market share of embedded processors for communications, 2014 and 2015.
  • Figure 5-3. Worldwide revenue market share of embedded processors by instruction set, 2015.
  • Figure 5-4. Forecast for embedded-processor revenue by application, 2015-2020.
  • Figure 5-5. Forecast for embedded-processor revenue by communications sub-segment, 2015-2020.
  • Figure 6-1. Block diagram of AppliedMicro Potenza CPU.
  • Figure 6-2. Block diagram of AppliedMicro Helix 1 processor.
  • Figure 6-3. Block diagram of a gateway based on AppliedMicro Helix 1.
  • Figure 7-1. Broadcom XLP II family.
  • Figure 7-2. Broadcom Interchip Coherency Interface (ICI 2.0).
  • Figure 7-3. VMM execution mode in MIPS64 Release 5.
  • Figure 7-4. Block diagram of Broadcom GC4400 CPU core.
  • Figure 7-5. Block diagram of Broadcom XLP500-series processor.
  • Figure 7-6. Line card based on Broadcom XLP980.
  • Figure 8-1. Cavium Octeon III family.
  • Figure 8-2. Block diagram of Cavium Octeon III CN7890.
  • Figure 8-3. Block diagram of Cavium ThunderX CN8890.
  • Figure 8-4. Block diagram of ParPro O3E-110 card using CN7890.
  • Figure 9-1. Positioning for Intel embedded processors.
  • Figure 9-2. Block diagram of Intel Haswell microarchitecture.
  • Figure 9-3. Block diagram of Intel Haswell embedded Xeon E5-2680v3.
  • Figure 9-4. Dual-socket system design based on Intel Xeon E5v3.
  • Figure 9-5. Block diagram of Intel Xeon D.
  • Figure 10-1. Block diagram of Mellanox Tile-Gx72.
  • Figure 11-1. NXP QorIQ T- and LS-series communications processors.
  • Figure 11-2. Microarchitecture of NXP Power e6500 CPU.
  • Figure 11-3. Block diagram of NXP QorIQ LS1088A.
  • Figure 11-4. Second-generation Data Path Acceleration Architecture.
  • Figure 12-1. Block diagram of AMD Opteron A1170.

List of Tables

  • Table 2-1. Some common single-board-computer standards.
  • Table 5-1. Worldwide revenue of the top eight vendors of embedded micro-processors.
  • Table 5-2. Worldwide revenue of the top six vendors of embedded processors for communications systems.
  • Table 5-3. Forecast for embedded-processor revenue by application, 2015-2020.
  • Table 5-4. Forecast for embedded-processor revenue by communications sub-segment, 2015-2020.
  • Table 6-1. Key parameters for AppliedMicro Helix 1 processors.
  • Table 7-1. Key parameters for Broadcom XLP500 series.
  • Table 7-2. Key parameters for Broadcom's XLP900 series.
  • Table 8-1. Key parameters for Cavium Octeon III CN78xx processors.
  • Table 8-2. Key parameters for Cavium Octeon III CN77xx processors.
  • Table 8-3. Key parameters for Cavium Octeon III CN73xx and CN72xx.
  • Table 8-4. Key parameters for Cavium ThunderX processors.
  • Table 9-1. Intel code names and product numbers.
  • Table 9-2. Intel embedded multicore processors.
  • Table 9-3. Key parameters for Intel Xeon E5v3 embedded processors.
  • Table 9-4. Key parameters for Intel Xeon D embedded processors.
  • Table 9-5. Key parameters for Intel DH89xx Coleto Creek chips.
  • Table 10-1. Key parameters for Mellanox Tile-Gx processors.
  • Table 11-1. Key parameters for NXP QorIQ T4 processors.
  • Table 11-2. Key parameters for QorIQ LS1 quad- and octa-core processors.
  • Table 11-3. Key parameters for QorIQ LS2 processors with Cortex-A57.
  • Table 11-4. Key parameters for QorIQ LS2 processors with Cortex-A72.
  • Table 12-1. Key parameters for AMD Opteron A1100 processors.
  • Table 13-1. Comparison of sub-30W multicore processors.
  • Table 13-2. Comparison of 30-50W multicore processors.
  • Table 13-3. Comparison of 50-100W multicore processors.
  • Table 13-4. Comparison of multicore processors consuming more than 100W.
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