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市場調查報告書

伺服器處理器指南:第4版

A Guide To Server Processors - Fifth Edition

出版商 Linley Group 商品編碼 302674
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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伺服器處理器指南:第4版 A Guide To Server Processors - Fifth Edition
出版日期: 2016年08月31日 內容資訊: 英文
簡介

伺服器處理器的市場一直持續變化,並對新的供應商開放。由於超級資料中心和雲端運算的出現,伺服器的經濟性已不再僅考慮資本支出即可,而必需加上高性能性,並求得資本支出與運用成本的平衡。 每瓦的性能,以及每瓦每美金的性能,都是促進大規模資料中心購買決策的新基準。此外,物理性密度的重要性也日益增加,這不但更進一步推動了擴張性,更創造出可內建更多寶貴的機架空間的節點之微伺服器等新的尺寸規格。

本報告提供伺服器處理器的技術·產品·市場相關調查,提供您伺服器處理器技術及伺服器系統技術詳細內容,技術及市場最新趨勢,主要供應商與其產品簡介等彙整資料。

摘要整理

第1章 處理器技術

  • 處理器的基本
    • 中央處理器(CPU)
    • 快取
    • MMU和TLB
    • 匯流排頻寬
  • CPU微架構
    • RISC VS CISC
    • Endianness
    • 標量及超標量
    • 指令排序
    • 流水線和penalty
    • 分支預測
  • 伺服器處理器及技術
    • 伺服器處理器是什麼?
    • 多核心
    • 多線
    • 系統總線
    • 記憶體子系統
    • PCI Express
  • 伺服器基準
    • SPEC基準
    • TPC基準
    • VMmark
    • HPL
    • ApacheBench

第2章 指令套組

  • x86指令套組
    • 背景
    • 初期指令套組
    • 擴張
  • ARM指令套組
    • 概要
    • 初期指令套組
    • ARMv7
    • ARMv8

第3章 伺服器系統技術

  • 基本的伺服器技術
    • 主記憶體
    • 系統Logic晶片組
    • 基板管理控制器
    • 多插座系統設計
  • 儲存
    • RAID
    • 儲存介面
  • 高性能運算
    • InfiniBand
    • RDMA Over Ethernet
    • MPI和OFED
  • 網路
    • 儲存網路
  • 伺服器尺寸規格
  • 作業系統
    • Windows伺服器
    • Linux伺服器
  • 虛擬化
    • 超管理器軟體

第4章 技術·市場趨勢

  • 技術趨勢
    • X86 VS ARM
    • SoC整合
    • 主記憶體的瓶頸
    • 微伺服器
    • 系統結構
    • 放大式(Scale-up) VS 擴充式(Scale-out)
    • 雲端運算工作負載
    • 高性能運算
  • 市場展望
    • 雲端運算
    • 開放式運算
    • 市場預測·市場區隔
    • 處理器的收益和ASP
    • ARM的可尋址市場
    • 市場佔有率

第5章 Intel

  • 企業背景
  • 產品線:概要
  • 主要的特徵與性能
    • Atom式的處理器
    • Haswell式的Xeon單一插座處理器
    • Broadwell式的Xeon單一插座處理器
    • Haswell式的Xeon多插座處理器
  • 內部架構
    • Haswell和Broadwell
    • Atom Silvermont
  • 系統設計
    • Xeon E3v3
    • Atom C2000
    • Xeon D1500
    • Xeon E5v3
    • Xeon E7v3
  • 產品藍圖
    • Xeon E3
    • Atom·Xeon D
    • Xeon E5·E7
    • FPGA集積產品
  • 總論

第6章 AMD

  • 企業背景
  • 產品線:概要
  • 主要的特徵與性能
    • 主流伺服器處理器
    • 微伺服器處理器
  • 內部架構
    • Bulldozer及Piledriver CPU
    • Jaguar CPU
    • ARM處理器
  • 系統設計
    • Opteron系統設計
    • A1100系統設計
  • 產品藍圖
  • 總論

第7章 AppliedMicro

  • 企業背景
  • 主要的特徵與性能
  • 內部架構
  • 系統設計
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 總論

第8章 Cavium

  • 企業背景
  • 主要的特徵與性能
  • 內部架構
  • 系統設計
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 總論

第9章 IBM

  • 企業背景
  • 主要的特徵與性能
  • 內部架構
  • 系統設計
  • 開發工具
  • 產品藍圖
  • 總論

第10章 HPC協處理器供應商

  • Intel Xeon Phi
  • Nvidia Tesla
  • AMD FirePro
    • 企業背景
    • 主要的特徵與性能
    • 設計詳細內容
    • 產品藍圖
    • 總論

第11章 其他的供應商

  • Broadcom
  • HiSilicon
  • Qualcomm

第12章 處理器比較

  • 微伺服器處理器
  • 單一插座平台
  • 2插座平台
  • 4插座平台
    • 性能
    • 集積

第13章 總論

  • 市場展望
  • 供應商的展望
  • 最後考察

附錄

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目錄

Examining the Processors Powering Scalable Computing

The server-processor market is creating openings for new vendors. With the emergence of mega data centers and cloud computing, server economics no longer focus on capital expenses alone. Demand for ultimate performance from a single processor has been replaced by a balanced view of capital and operating costs. Performance per watt and performance per watt per dollar are the new metrics driving purchasing decisions in large data centers. Physical density is also growing in importance, driving greater scalability and new form factors such as high-density servers that pack more nodes into precious rack space.

In this new era, backward compatibility is less important than before and innovation takes the front seat. Intel and AMD - the incumbent vendors - continue to innovate and advance their Xeon and Opteron designs, respectively. Integration, microarchitecture advances, and process technology are the primary factors in x86 evolution. But new entrants are eyeing cloud-computing environments as an opening for radically different architectures, for more power-efficient ARM-based architectures, and for processors that integrate hardware accelerators.

Product Information Tempered By In-Depth Analysis

This report covers processors designed specifically for servers. We provide detailed coverage of Intel's Xeon E3v5, E5v4, and E7v4 product lines as well as Xeon D processors for scale-out applications. We cover AMD's Opteron family, including Opteron X and ARM-based processors, plus AMD's joint venture with Tianjin Haiguang Advanced Technology Investment Company (THATIC). Other ARMv8-compatible products include AppliedMicro's X-Gene 2 and Cavium's ThunderX and ThunderX2. We cover IBM's Power8 and the OpenPower Foundation's future product roadmap. We speculate about potential market entries from Baikal Electronics, Broadcom, HiSilicon, Phytium, and Qualcomm. This edition also continues our coverage of coprocessors (or accelerators) for high-performance computing (HPC), including Intel's Xeon Phi, Nvidia's Tesla, and AMD's FirePro.

This report analyzes each vendor and each product, probing their strengths and weaknesses and presenting key details in a consistent, easy to compare fashion. We examine processor performance, integration, power dissipation, and overall system design. Where possible, we also look at the vendors' roadmap.

Make Informed Decisions

As the leading vendor of technology analysis for microprocessors, The Linley Group has the expertise to deliver a comprehensive look at these technologies. Our analysts use their broad experience to deliver the technical and strategic information you need to make informed business decisions. And in case you are not familiar with all of the concepts involved in processor and server designs, the report includes introductory chapters that define and describe terms such as superscalar, multithreading, pipelines, and virtualization.

This report is written for:

  • OEMs that need to make strategic vendor selections
  • ODMs supplying cloud-computing and HPC customers
  • Data-center architects looking at alternative platforms
  • Marketing and engineering staff at companies that sell other server components
  • Financial analysts who desire a detailed analysis and comparison of both incumbent and new vendors

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

About the Authors

About the Publisher

Preface

Executive Summary

1. Processor Technology

  • Processor Basics
    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Caches
    • MMUs and TLBs
    • Bus Bandwidth
  • CPU Microarchitecture
    • RISC Versus CISC
    • Endianness
    • Scalar and Superscalar
    • Instruction Reordering
    • Pipelining and Penalties
    • Branch Prediction
  • Server Processors and Technologies
    • What Is a Server Processor?
    • Multicore
    • Multithreading
    • System Buses
    • Memory Subsystem
    • PCI Express
  • Server Benchmarks
    • SPEC Benchmarks
    • TPC Benchmarks
    • VMmark
    • HPL
    • ApacheBench
    • Stream and Stream Triad
    • OpenSSL Speed

2. Instruction Sets

  • x86 Instruction Set
    • Background
    • Initial Instruction Set
    • Modern Extensions
  • ARM Instruction Set
    • Background
    • Initial Instruction Set
    • ARMv7 Architecture
    • ARMv8 Architecture
  • Power Instruction Set
    • Background
    • Instruction Set

3. Server System Technology

  • Basic Server Architecture
    • Main Memory
    • System-Logic Chipset
    • Baseboard-Management Controller
    • Multisocket System Design
  • Storage
    • RAID
    • Storage Interfaces
  • High-Performance Computing
    • InfiniBand
    • RDMA Over Ethernet
    • MPI and OFED
  • Networking
    • Storage Networking
  • Server Form Factors
  • Operating Systems
    • Windows Server
    • Linux Server
  • Virtualization
    • Hypervisor Software

4. Technology and Market Trends

  • Technology Trends
    • CPU Architecture
    • SoC Integration
    • The Main-Memory Bottleneck
    • Microservers
    • System Fabrics
    • Scale Up Versus Scale Out
    • Cloud-Computing Workloads
    • High-Performance Computing
    • Microservices and Virtualization
    • New Processors From China and Russia
  • Market Outlook
    • Cloud Computing
    • Open Compute Project
    • Market Forecast and Segmentation
    • Processor Revenue and ASP
    • Addressable Market for ARM
    • Market Share

5. Intel

  • Company Background
  • Product-Line Overview
  • Key Features and Performance
    • Atom-Based Processors
    • Xeon E3 Processors
    • Xeon D Processors
    • Xeon E5 Multisocket Processors
    • Xeon E7 Multisocket Processors
  • Internal Architecture
    • Broadwell Core
    • Skylake Cores
    • Broadwell Server-Integrated North Bridge
    • Atom Silvermont
  • System Design
    • Xeon E3v5
    • Atom C2000
    • Xeon D-1500
    • Xeon E5v4
    • Xeon E7v4
  • Product Roadmap
    • Xeon E3
    • Atom
    • Xeon D
    • Xeon E5 and E7
    • FPGA-Integrated Products
  • Conclusions

6. AMD

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
    • Opteron Mainstream Server Processors
    • Opteron X-Series Processors
    • Opteron A-Series Processors
  • Internal Architecture
    • Bulldozer and Piledriver CPUs
    • Jaguar CPU
    • ARM Cortex-A57 CPU
  • System Design
    • Opteron System Design
    • Opteron A1100 System Design
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

7. AppliedMicro

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
    • X-Gene 2
    • X-Gene 3
  • Internal Architecture
  • System Design
  • Development Tools
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

8. Cavium

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
  • Internal Architecture
  • System Design
  • Development Tools
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

9. IBM

  • Company Background
  • Key Features and Performance
  • Internal Architecture
  • System Design
  • Development Tools
  • Product Roadmap
  • Conclusions

10. HPC Coprocessor Vendors

  • Intel Xeon Phi
    • Company Background
    • Key Features and Performance
    • Internal Architecture
    • Product Roadmap
    • Conclusions
  • Nvidia Tesla
    • Company Background
    • Key Features and Performance
    • Internal Architecture
    • Product Roadmap
    • Conclusions
  • AMD FirePro
    • Company Background
    • Key Features and Performance
    • Internal Architecture
    • Product Roadmap
    • Conclusions
  • HPC Comparisons
  • HPC Conclusions

11. Other Vendors

  • Baikai
    • Company Background
    • Key Features
    • Conclusions
  • Broadcom
    • Company Background
    • Key Features
    • Conclusions
  • HiSilicon
    • Company Background
    • Key Features
    • Conclusions
  • Phytium
    • Company Background
    • Key Features
    • Conclusions
  • Qualcomm
    • Company Background
    • Key Features
    • Conclusions
  • Thatic

12. Processor Comparisons

  • High-Density Applications
    • Performance
    • Integration
    • Summary
  • Single-Socket Platforms
    • Performance
    • Integration
    • Summary
  • Two-Socket Platforms
    • Performance
    • Integration
    • Summary
  • Four-Socket Platforms
    • Performance
    • Integration
    • Summary

13. Conclusions

  • Market Outlook
    • Opportunities for ARM
  • Vendor Outlook
    • Intel
    • AMD
    • AppliedMicro
    • Cavium
    • Other Vendors
    • HPC Coprocessors
  • Closing Thoughts

Appendix: Further Reading

Index

List of Figures:

  • Figure 1-1. Basic processor design.
  • Figure 1-2. Simple superscalar processor design.
  • Figure 1-3. CPU pipelining examples.
  • Figure 1-4. Block diagram of a typical server processor.
  • Figure 1-5. Interleaved tasks on a multithreaded CPU.
  • Figure 3-1. Typical single-processor server architecture.
  • Figure 3-2. Typical multisocket server architecture.
  • Figure 3-3. Rack-mount servers and a standard-size rack.
  • Figure 3-4. Lenovo's BladeCenter H.
  • Figure 3-5. Typical blade-server architecture.
  • Figure 4-1. Cisco M-Series Modular Server.
  • Figure 4-2. Facebook's Yosemite design.
  • Figure 4-3. Server-processor shipments by segment, 2015-2020.
  • Figure 5-1. Intel server-processor roadmap.
  • Figure 5-2. Block diagram of Intel Broadwell microarchitecture.
  • Figure 5-3. Block diagram of Intel Broadwell server processor.
  • Figure 5-4. Block diagram of Intel Silvermont microarchitecture.
  • Figure 5-5. Server design based on Intel Xeon E3v5.
  • Figure 5-6. Server design based on Intel Atom C2570.
  • Figure 5-7. Server design based on Intel Xeon D-1500.
  • Figure 5-8. Two-socket server design based on Intel Xeon E5-2600v4.
  • Figure 5-9. Four-socket server design based on Intel Xeon E7v4.
  • Figure 6-1. Block diagram of AMD Bulldozer/Piledriver CPU module.
  • Figure 6-2. Block diagram of AMD Opteron A1170 server processor.
  • Figure 6-3. Two-socket server design based on AMD Opteron 4300.
  • Figure 7-1. Block diagram of AppliedMicro Potenza CPU core.
  • Figure 7-2. Block diagram of AppliedMicro X-Gene 2 processor.
  • Figure 7-3. Kontron X-Gene1 node for the Symkloud platform.
  • Figure 7-4. Block diagram of AppliedMicro X Gene 3 processor.
  • Figure 8-1. Block diagram of Cavium ThunderX CN8890NT.
  • Figure 8-2. Two-socket server design using Cavium ThunderX.
  • Figure 9-1. IBM Power8 memory architecture.
  • Figure 9-2. Block diagram of IBM Power8 CPU core.
  • Figure 9-3. IBM Power8 multiprocessor cluster.
  • Figure 10-1. Microarchitecture of Intel Knights Landing CPU.
  • Figure 10-2. Block diagram of Intel Xeon Phi 7200 processor.
  • Figure 10-3. Block diagram of Nvidia Pascal GP100 core.
  • Figure 10-4. Block diagram of Nvidia Tesla P100 accelerator.
  • Figure 10-5. Block diagram of AMD Hawaii compute unit.
  • Figure 10-6. Block diagram of generic high-performance compute node.
  • Figure 10-7. Block diagram of Intel Xeon Phi compute node.
  • Figure 13-1. Server-processor performance comparison.

List of Tables:

  • Table 1-1. Selected SPEC benchmarks.
  • Table 4-1. Worldwide revenue of the leading vendors of merchant server processors.
  • Table 5-1. Summary of selected Intel x86 server processors.
  • Table 5-2. Key parameters for selected Intel Atom server processors.
  • Table 5-3. Key parameters for selected Intel Xeon E3v5 server processors.
  • Table 5-4. Key parameters for selected Intel Xeon D processors.
  • Table 5-5. Key parameters for selected Intel Xeon E5 dual-socket procesors.
  • Table 5-6. Key parameters for selected Intel Xeon multisocket processors.
  • Table 6-1. Key parameters for AMD Piledriver-based Opteron processors.
  • Table 6-2. Key parameters for selected AMD Opteron processors.
  • Table 6-3. Key parameters for AMD Opteron X2150.
  • Table 6-4. Key parameters for AMD Opteron A-Series processors.
  • Table 6-5. Key parameters for AMD SR56x0 north-bridge chips.
  • Table 6-6. Key parameters for AMD SP5100 south-bridge chip.
  • Table 7-1. Key parameters for AppliedMicro X-Gene processors.
  • Table 8-1. Key parameters for Cavium dual-socket ThunderX processors.
  • Table 9-1. Key parameters for IBM Power8 merchant processors.
  • Table 10-1. Key parameters for Intel Xeon Phi 7200 processors.
  • Table 10-2. Key parameters for Nvidia Tesla coprocessor cards.
  • Table 10-3. Key parameters for Nvidia compute cores.
  • Table 10-4. Key parameters for AMD FirePro S-series coprocessor cards.
  • Table 10-5. Key parameters for double-precision HPC server nodes.
  • Table 10-6. Key parameters for single-precision HPC server nodes.
  • Table 11-1. Emerging server-processor vendors.
  • Table 12-1. Comparison of SoCs for high-density servers.
  • Table 12-2. Comparison of processors for single-socket servers.
  • Table 12-3. Comparison of processors for two-socket servers.
  • Table 12-4. Comparison of processors for four-socket servers.
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