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市場調查報告書

產業用·商用陸上電動車輛 2016-2026年

Industrial and Commercial Electric Vehicles on Land 2016-2026

出版商 IDTechEx Ltd. 商品編碼 360805
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 318 Pages, 44 Tables, 132 Figures
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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產業用·商用陸上電動車輛 2016-2026年 Industrial and Commercial Electric Vehicles on Land 2016-2026
出版日期: 2016年08月01日 內容資訊: 英文 318 Pages, 44 Tables, 132 Figures
簡介

產業用·商用電動車佔了電動車整體市場的60% (以金額為準) 。一般預測該市場今後10年將更進一步成長到4.2倍。

本報告提供產業用·商用電動車 (EV) 市場相關調查,提供您重工業,輕工業·商業,及巴士·計程車用EV市場資料,工廠交貨價格,及今後10年的整體市場規模 (以金額為準) 預測,市場促進要素,主要的技術與未來趨勢,並彙整主要企業的簡介等資訊。

第1章 摘要整理·結論

第2章 簡介

  • 城市物流趨勢
  • 技術的不同
  • 中國的特殊案例
  • 最大的EV?
  • 不同的策略

第3章 產業用·商用EV的市場成長的促進要素

  • 趨勢
  • 商用電動車的優點

第4章 重工業用EV

  • 包含什麼
  • 課題
  • 堆高機
  • 製造商清單

第5章 輕工業用·商用EV

  • 簡介
  • 子類別
  • local service
  • 機場用EV
  • 少人數制移動車
  • Chrysler的小型貨車
  • Dong Feng China的大型小型貨車訂貨
  • 輕工業
  • 製造商清單

第6章 巴士·卡車

  • 簡介
  • 技術偏好摘要
  • 統計問題
  • 純電動巴士的成功 vs. 潛在市場
  • 中國的價格/實際成果
  • 成本趨勢:中國隨時都能猛撲
  • 市場成長的促進要素·障礙
  • 地區性差異
  • 中國,印度及城市
  • 急進性的改革
  • 對類似的巴士而言是真正的全球市場
  • 大型純電動巴士:最初的大量訂貨
  • 大型巴士的趨勢不強但在中國卻大不相同
  • 價值鏈·動力傳動
  • 混合動力車彳在轉變為純電動
  • 技術選擇的相對重要性
  • 技術分歧
  • 燃料電池巴士:進步和可能性
  • 背景的統計:汽車產業·巴士整體
  • E巴士相關新聞
  • 卡車

第7章 計程車

  • 中國,歐洲,墨西哥,英國及日本的電力計程車計劃
  • 來自菲律賓的大量訂貨?

第8章 商用三輪車

  • 背景
  • 交叉產品的三輪車
  • 三輪車使用上的優點
  • 三輪電動車:市場上各種定位
  • Mule
  • 三輪EV的引進障礙

第9章 建設·農業·採礦用的電動車

  • 概要
  • 價值命題·環境上的限制
  • 農業·採礦用自動駕駛車
  • 採礦的能源·作業的同步
  • 小型的有人車輛:加拿大的 PapaBravo
  • 起重機·升降機範例
  • Caterpillar和日本小松公司:大型混合動力車的能源採集

第10章 產業用·商用電動車的主要零組件

  • 電動車的種類
  • 多的燃料
  • 純電動車的改善
  • 串聯式 vs. 並聯式混合
  • 混合的營運形態
  • 微混合用詞不當
  • Deep雜合反應
  • 電池成本與效能關鍵
  • 儲能技術的權衡
  • 超級電容器 (等於) 超級電容器儲能
  • 增程器
  • 組合許多小電源的大影響
  • 能源採集
  • 高電壓趨勢
  • 結構用零件
  • 分散零組件趨勢
  • 動力電池
  • 動力馬達
  • 電力電子技術、其他

第11章 產業用·商用的企業簡介

  • Ayton Willow
  • Bradshaw Electric
  • Caproni JSC
  • Crown Equipment Corporation
  • Hyster-Yale
  • John Deere
  • Jungheinrich AG
  • Kion Group GmbH
  • Liberty Electric Cars
  • MAN Truck & Bus AG
  • 豐田汽車
  • Valence Technologies
  • VISEDO Oy
  • ZNTK Radom

本網頁內容可能與最新版本有所差異。詳細情況請與我們聯繫。

目錄

The only up-to-date report on the largest electric vehicle sector today.

Those selling components for electric vehicles and those wishing to make the vehicles themselves must seek where the majority of the money is spent and will be spent. That must lead them to industrial and commercial electric vehicles because today these represent 60% of the value of the electric vehicle market. Indeed, this sector is set to grow 4.2 times in the next decade. Industrial and commercial electric vehicles include heavy industrial vehicles, the term referring to heavy lifting, as with forklifts.

Global sales of heavy industrial EVs by ex-factory
unit price in US$ billion*

*For the full forecast data please purchase this report
Source: IDTechEx

Then we have buses, trucks, taxis and the other light industrial and commercial vehicles. There are also a few work boats and commercial boats and one day there will be commercial electric aircraft but this is really a story about the burgeoning demand for off-road industrial vehicles and on-road commercial vehicles. In particular, industrial electric vehicles make industry more efficient and commercial electric vehicles reduce congestion. Both of them greatly reduce pollution and align closely with government objectives concerning industry and the environment, yet they minimally depend on subsidy, in contrast with some other electric vehicle types.

This report covers the technical and market trends for industrial and commercial vehicles whether hybrid or pure electric, putting it in the context of electric vehicles overall and including the activities of a host of manufacturers of the vehicles and their components and even providing future technological development roadmaps.

The market for electric industrial vehicles is already large because, by law, forklifts have to be electric when used indoors. Little growth remains in this market but outdoors almost all earthmoving and lifting vehicles use the conventional internal combustion engine. That is about to change dramatically because hybrid electric versions reduce cost of ownership and exposure to price hikes with fossil fuels. Hybrids increasingly perform better as well, with more power from stationary, ability to supply electricity to other equipment and other benefits including less noise and pollution. On the other hand, airports, often government owned or funded, are under great pressure to finish converting their Ground Support Equipment GSE to pure electric versions both on and off the tarmac partly using federal grants.

Yet another industrial trend is for use of electric vehicles to replace slow and often dangerous manual procedures. Sometimes a self-powered indoor crane replaces scaffolding. An electric stair climber replaces human effort and possible injury. On the other hand, sit-on floor cleaners in buildings, sit-on ice cleaners in ice rinks, outrider vehicles carried on trash collection trucks and a host of similar solutions speed processes and reduce injuries and costs.

Buses, trucks, taxis and the other light industrial and commercial vehicles are going electric for similar reasons but we must add the desire of national and local governments, who buy many of them, to go green, even where there is no payback. However, the size and growth of the industrial and commercial sector is less dependent on government funding and tax breaks than the more fragile market for electric cars, particularly pure electric ones. Excitingly, most of the electric vehicle technologies are changing and improving hugely and innovation often comes here before it is seen in the more publicised electric vehicle sectors such as cars.

Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs
by numbers thousands*

*For the full forecast data please purchase this report
Source: IDTechEx

Asynchronous traction motors were first widely used on forklifts: their benefits of longer life, less maintenance, low cost and freedom from magnet price hikes and heating problems are only later being seen in a few cars. Ultracapacitors otherwise known as supercapacitors permit very fast charging of buses whether by the new Level 3 charging stations or regenerative braking and they release huge surges of power when the bus is full and starting on a hill. Gas turbine range extenders have been on some buses for 12 years but they are only now being planned for cars. Fuel cells will be viable in fleets where the expensive hydrogen distribution is manageable - not for cars across the world. Energy harvesting shock absorbers about to hit the market will be very viable on buses and trucks where they can put up to 12 kW into the battery whereas such devices on cars will take longer to prove.

Nevertheless, it is important to look at industrial and commercial electric vehicles as part of all electric vehicles out there - as we do - because it is increasingly true that one company will produce EVs for many end uses and even make key components. This achieves the product reliability and cost advantages that come from highest volume manufacture based on standardisation and shared research.

Main areas the report covers

The report provides forecasts of the heavy industrial, light industrial & commercial, bus and taxi global markets by numbers, ex-factory price and total market value for the coming decade. In addition to chapters on these sectors, there are chapters on the market drivers, the key technologies and their future trends all pulled together with summary charts, graphs and profiles of latest company activity.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Dominant electric commercial vehicle types and influences change
  • 1.2. Market forecasts
  • 1.3. IDTechEx forecast for commercial vehicles 2016-2026
  • 1.4. Latest progress
  • 1.5. Examples of new industrial and commercial vehicles and projects announced in 2016
    • 1.5.1. Powertrain choices change radically
  • 1.6. Electrical machine systems take more cost, batteries less
  • 1.7. The elephant in the room: conventional vehicles
  • 1.8. News in 2016
    • 1.8.1. New electric drivetrain from partners UQM, Eaton and Pi Innovo - June 2016
    • 1.8.2. Short radius trucks go pure electric - July 2016

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Urban logistics trends
  • 2.2. Technology disagreement
  • 2.3. The special case of China
    • 2.3.1. Pollution control is urgent
    • 2.3.2. Particulate matter - China the worst
    • 2.3.3. Inadequate roads and parking
    • 2.3.4. Example of action BYD
  • 2.4. Biggest EV?
  • 2.5. Different strategies
  • 2.6. Battery Vehicle Work Rounds for Very Long Range
    • 2.6.1. Light truck with fuel cell, battery and supercapacitor
  • 2.7. Reusable electric powertrain

3. MARKET DRIVERS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EVS

  • 3.1. Trends
  • 3.2. Advantages of electric commercial vehicles

4. HEAVY INDUSTRIAL EVS

  • 4.1. What is included
  • 4.2. Challenges
  • 4.3. Forklifts
    • 4.3.1. Small forklift success
    • 4.3.2. A look at many FC forklifts across the world
    • 4.3.3. Plug Power transforms the industry
    • 4.3.4. Asia Pacific Fuel Cell Technologies APFCT
    • 4.3.5. Forklift market analysis
    • 4.3.6. FC material handling fleets and standards
    • 4.3.7. Market analysis
    • 4.3.8. FC material handling fleets and standards
  • 4.4. Listing of manufacturers
    • 4.4.1. Statistics for all types of industrial lift truck
    • 4.4.2. Manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs

5. LIGHT INDUSTRIAL & COMMERCIAL EVS

  • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.1.1. Overview
    • 5.1.2. One quarter of commercial vehicles in Germany can be electric now?
  • 5.2. Sub categories
  • 5.3. Local services
  • 5.4. Airport EVs
    • 5.4.1. USA statistics
    • 5.4.2. GSE by airline and airport
    • 5.4.3. Here come hybrids
    • 5.4.4. US incentives
    • 5.4.5. Overall market
    • 5.4.6. Airport applications widen
    • 5.4.7. Sea-Tac Airport 2014
  • 5.5. Small people-movers
  • 5.6. Chrysler minivan in 2015
  • 5.7. Dong Feng China big minivan order
  • 5.8. Kargo Canada
  • 5.9. Light industrial
  • 5.10. All-terrain vehicles for commercial use
  • 5.11. Listing of manufacturers

6. BUSES AND TRUCKS

  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Summary of technical preferences
  • 6.3. Statistics issues
  • 6.4. Successful pure electric buses vs addressable market
  • 6.5. Chinese price/performance
  • 6.6. Cost trends - China ready to pounce
  • 6.7. Market drivers and impediments
  • 6.8. Regional differences
  • 6.9. China, India and cities
  • 6.10. Radical change
  • 6.11. Truly global market for similar buses
  • 6.12. Large pure electric buses: first big orders 2014/5
  • 6.13. Weak trend to larger buses but not in China
  • 6.14. Value chain and powertrain
  • 6.15. Hybrids becoming pure electric
  • 6.16. Relative importance of technical options
  • 6.17. Technology disagreement
  • 6.18. Fuel cell buses: progress and potential
    • 6.18.1. Use of solar on hybrid fuel cell shuttle buses
  • 6.19. Background statistics: automotive industry and buses in general
    • 6.19.1. Automotive industry
    • 6.19.2. School buses
    • 6.19.3. Largest bus manufacturers
    • 6.19.4. Review of 2012-2014
  • 6.20. E-bus news in 2016
  • 6.21. Trucks
    • 6.21.1. Which Electric Truck Powertrain Wins?
    • 6.21.2. Medium and heavy duty trucks
    • 6.21.3. Travel through Munich in a vehicle that is 100% electric, clean, quiet
    • 6.21.4. News in June 2016 - Mack Trucks to Evaluate Wrightspeed Route Powertrain in Mack LR Model
    • 6.21.5. News in July 2016 - Argonne to lead consortium for new CERC medium- and heavy-duty truck technical track

7. TAXIS

  • 7.1. Electric taxi projects in China, Europe, Mexico, UK, UK, Japan
  • 7.2. Huge order from the Philippines?
  • 7.3. Terra Motors Interview Tokyo September 2015
    • 7.3.1. Introduction
    • 7.3.2. Latest market appraisal
    • 7.3.3. View of India
    • 7.3.4. View of Bangladesh
    • 7.3.5. View of Vietnam
    • 7.3.6. View of Philippines
    • 7.3.7. View of Japan
    • 7.3.8. IDTechEx conclusion

8. THREE WHEEL COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

  • 8.1. Background
  • 8.2. Three wheelers as crossover products
  • 8.3. Operational benefit of three wheel
    • 8.3.1. Introduction
    • 8.3.2. Nissan DeltaWing
    • 8.3.3. The basics driving us to three wheel
    • 8.3.4. Energy efficiency
    • 8.3.5. Relative magnitude of energy dissipation
    • 8.3.6. Occupancy trend favours 3 wheel?
    • 8.3.7. Low cost three wheel vehicle market
    • 8.3.8. The Indian three wheel market - the largest globally
    • 8.3.9. Electric three wheeler penetration
  • 8.4. Benefits of three wheelers
  • 8.5. Three wheel electric vehicles: varied positioning in the market
    • 8.5.1. Twike, Piaggio, Xingui and others contrasted
    • 8.5.2. Toyota scenario
    • 8.5.3. Spira4u in 2015
  • 8.6. Mule: Modern Electric Workhorse to Slice Through Urban Traffic Easily
  • 8.7. Barriers for adoption of three wheel EVs

9. ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR CONSTRUCTION, AGRICULTURE AND MINING

  • 9.1. Overview
  • 9.2. Value proposition and environmental restrictions
  • 9.3. Autonomous vehicles for agriculture and mining
  • 9.4. Energy and work synchronization in mining
  • 9.5. Light manned vehicles - PapaBravo Canada
  • 9.6. Examples of cranes and lifters
  • 9.7. Caterpillar and Komatsu: energy harvesting on large hybrid vehicles
    • 9.7.1. CALSTART partnerships
    • 9.7.2. Other electrification of large vehicles

10. KEY COMPONENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC VEHICLES

  • 10.1. Types of electric vehicle
  • 10.2. Many fuels
  • 10.3. Born electric
  • 10.4. Pure electric vehicles are improving
  • 10.5. Series vs parallel hybrid
  • 10.6. Modes of operation of hybrids
    • 10.6.1. Plug in hybrids
    • 10.6.2. Charge-depleting mode
    • 10.6.3. Blended mode
    • 10.6.4. Charge-sustaining mode
    • 10.6.5. Mixed mode
  • 10.7. Microhybrid is a misnomer
  • 10.8. Deep hybridisation
  • 10.9. Hybrid vehicle price premium
  • 10.10. Battery cost and performance are key
  • 10.11. Trade-off of energy storage technologies
  • 10.12. Ultracapacitors = supercapacitors
    • 10.12.1. Where supercapacitors fit in
    • 10.12.2. Advantages and disadvantages
    • 10.12.3. Can supercapacitors replace batteries?
    • 10.12.4. Supercapacitors - a work round for troublesome batteries
    • 10.12.5. Supercabatteries: lithium-ion capacitors
  • 10.13. Range extenders
    • 10.13.1. What will be required of a range extender?
    • 10.13.2. Three generations of range extender
    • 10.13.3. Fuel cell range extenders
    • 10.13.4. Single Cylinder Range Extenders
  • 10.14. Big effect of many modest electricity sources combined
  • 10.15. Energy harvesting
  • 10.16. Trend to high voltage
  • 10.17. Structural components
  • 10.18. Trend to distributed components
  • 10.19. Trend to flatness then smart skin
  • 10.20. Traction batteries
    • 10.20.1. After the shakeout in car traction batteries
    • 10.20.2. The needs have radically changed
    • 10.20.3. It started with cobalt
    • 10.20.4. Great variety of recipes
    • 10.20.5. Other factors
    • 10.20.6. Check with reality
    • 10.20.7. Lithium winners today and soon
    • 10.20.8. Reasons for winning
    • 10.20.9. Lithium polymer electrolyte now important
    • 10.20.10. Winning chemistry
    • 10.20.11. Titanate establishes a place
    • 10.20.12. Laminar structure
    • 10.20.13. Niche winners
    • 10.20.14. Fluid situation
  • 10.21. Traction motors
    • 10.21.1. Traction motor trends
    • 10.21.2. Shape of motors
    • 10.21.3. Examples of motors in action
    • 10.22. Power electronics

11. INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL COMPANY PROFILES

  • 11.1. Ayton Willow
  • 11.2. Bradshaw Electric
  • 11.3. Caproni JSC
  • 11.4. Crown Equipment Corporation
  • 11.5. Hyster-Yale
  • 11.6. John Deere
  • 11.7. Jungheinrich AG
  • 11.8. Kion Group GmbH
  • 11.9. Liberty Electric Cars
  • 11.10. MAN Truck & Bus AG
  • 11.11. Toyota Motor
  • 11.12. Valence Technologies
  • 11.13. VISEDO Oy
  • 11.14. ZNTK Radom

APPENDIX - ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC NON-ROAD EVS NOW AND IN FUTURE

IDTECHEX RESEARCH REPORTS AND CONSULTANCY

TABLES

  • 1.1. Numbers of industrial & commercial EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2016-2026
  • 1.2. Unit prices, ex factory, of industrial & commercial EVs, in US$ thousands, globally, 2016-2026
  • 1.3. Market value of industrial & commercial EVs, in US$ billions, sold globally, 2016-2026
  • 2.1. Examples of very different bus and freight solutions for essentially the same types of vehicle and some of the relative benefits and challenges. Commonalities highlighted in color.
  • 3.1. Some reasons why ICE vehicles are replaced with EVs
  • 3.2. Advantages of pure electric commercial vehicles, enjoyed to some extent by hybrid electric versions
  • 3.3. Potential challenges of electric commercial vehicles
  • 4.1. 27 examples of manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs by country
  • 5.1. 150 manufacturers of light industrial and commercial EVs and drive trains by country and examples of their products
  • 6.1. Market for conventional diesel buses, hybrid and pure electric buses > 8t by rationale, end game in green
  • 6.2. Price spread $K of buses >8t by region and technology 2012 and 2015, with exceptional prices excluded. High priced market red. Low priced market green. Significant price decrease bright green.
  • 6.3. Market drivers and impediments are summarised below.
  • 6.4. Advantages of pure electric buses, enjoyed to some extent by hybrid electric buses
  • 6.5. Market drivers of future purchasing of buses by region and % growth. Green shows strongest market drivers
  • 6.6. League table of EV traction battery manufacturers mWh
  • 6.7. The typical chassis-plus-body value chain of hybrid buses 2015. Main added value shown in green
  • 6.8. Trend of pure electric bus value chain - integral bus
  • 6.9. Trend of pure electric bus value chain - integral bus with structural electronics
  • 6.10. Some of the main technological options compared
  • 6.11. Examples of very different bus and freight solutions for essentially the same types of vehicle and some of the relative benefits and challenges. Commonalities highlighted in color.
  • 6.12. Some of the factors increasing pure electric bus range 2016-2026
  • 6.13. e-bus drive train technology options compared, with commercially problematic issues highlighted
  • 6.14. 2012 and 2013 production of heavy buses by country from OICA correspondents' survey
  • 6.15. Second quarter YTD 2014 and 2013 production of heavy buses by country
  • 6.16. School bus statistics for USA and China 2015
  • 6.17. First half sales by country for commercial vehicles CV 2013/3/4
  • 6.18. Top five bus manufacturers 2005, 2011, 2015, Chinese in red, with output number of buses >8t
  • 6.19. Domestic bus sales in China in October 2014
  • 6.20. Rank of automotive manufacturers by production in 2013. LCV includes Minibuses," derived from light commercial vehicles, are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat a
  • 6.21. Examples of E-bus news in 2016 with IDTechEx comment
  • 7.1. 19 projects testing pure electric taxis
  • 8.1. Domestic sales by category in India
  • 8.2. Planned Deployment of Electric 3 wheelers in India
  • 10.1. Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
  • 10.2. Traction battery technologies in 2012, number percentage lead acid, NiMH and lithium
  • 10.3. Traction battery technologies in 2022 number percentage lead acid, NiMH and lithium
  • 10.4. Traction battery technology by applicational sector 2010 and 2020, examples of suppliers and trends
  • 10.5. What is on the way in or out with traction batteries
  • 10.6. Over 450 vertically integrated lithium traction battery cell manufacturers, their chemistry, cell geometry and customer relationships (not necessarily orders)
  • 10.7. Summary of preferences of traction motor technology for vehicles
  • 10.8. Advantages vs disadvantages of brushed vs brushless vehicle traction motors for today's vehicles
  • 10.9. 68 industrial and commercial electric vehicles and their motor details.
  • 10.10. Examples of electronics and electrics replacing mechanical parts in electric vehicles.
  • 10.11. Examples of cost reduction of electrics/ electronics by radical alternatives.

FIGURES

  • 1.1. Numbers of industrial & commercial EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2016-2026
  • 1.2. Unit prices, ex factory, of industrial & commercial EVs, in US$ thousands, globally, 2016-2026
  • 1.3. Market value of industrial & commercial EVs, in US$ billions, sold globally, 2016-2026
  • 1.4. Japanese strawberry picking robot
  • 1.5. The Wall-Ye V.I.N. robot created by Christophe Millot and Guy Julien, picks grapes in a vineyard
  • 1.6. Daimler is developing the Mercedes-Benz Future Truck 2025, an autonomous vehicle for on-road goods transport.
  • 1.7. Peloton Technology
  • 1.8. Domino's Pizza Enterprises announced its experimental DRU autonomous pizza delivery robot
  • 1.9. Bonirob from Deepfield Robotics automates and speeds up analysis.
  • 1.10. 'Dancer bus' is a project by JSC 'vejo projektai'
  • 1.11. Citaro will hit the market as an E-Cell (BEV), as well as a F-Cell (FCV)
  • 1.12. View of Volvo Group on future of truck powertrains
  • 1.13. 48V mild hybrid commercial van
  • 1.14. Volvo Truck Technology view of 48V mild hybrid truck opportunity
  • 1.15. Nanowinn tourist bus
  • 1.16. UQM PowerPhaseDT
  • 1.17. Mercedes pure electric eTruck
  • 2.1. Trend of freight transport urban vs long haulage 2010-2025
  • 2.2. Transport of people 2010-2025
  • 2.3. LCV and urban bus usage hours
  • 2.4. China carbon dioxide emissions vs rest of world
  • 2.5. Green vehicles in China 2015-2020
  • 2.6. Sales of BYD electric buses in China 2015
  • 2.7. BYD deployment of electric taxis
  • 2.8. BYD QIN hybrid car
  • 2.9. Strategy of Iveco Italy in late 2014
  • 2.10. Siemens truck charging
  • 2.11. Siemens costings
  • 2.12. Catenary truck charging by country
  • 2.13. Vehicle architecture and characteristics
  • 2.14. Effect of fuel cell on payload. Fuel cell control.
  • 2.15. Fuel cell + supercapacitors control
  • 2.16. Simulation comparison
  • 2.17. Display at EVS29
  • 2.18. Savings and benefits
  • 2.19. Layout
  • 3.1. Efficiency in power needed per person per distance for different forms of on-road passenger transport
  • 3.2. Bus size vs fuel consumption
  • 4.1. Caterpillar CAT series hybrid diesel electric bulldozer
  • 4.2. Mitsubishi diesel electric hybrid lifter
  • 4.3. Heavy electric vehicle
  • 4.4. Toyota fuel cell forklift and other fuel cell vehicles and activities
  • 4.5. Fuel cell forklifts from across the world
  • 4.6. Refuelling a Plug Power unit
  • 4.7. APFCT fuel cell forklift system showing two refueller cabinets
  • 4.8. Top 20 industrial lift truck suppliers in 2014
  • 4.9. World industrial truck statistics/orders and shipments
  • 5.1. Electric bus in Nepal
  • 5.2. Kargo Light
  • 5.3. Mobile electric scissor lift by Wuhan Chancay Machinery and Electronics
  • 5.4. Garbage collecting electric car
  • 6.1. Tata Motors CNG hybrid bus in India left and BYD K9 pure electric bus from China right that is the most widely trialled and adopted of its type
  • 6.2. Ex-factory lowest price range of diesel, hybrid and pure electric 35-90 seat urban buses in China vs North America/ Europe 2012 and 2015. Chinese cost reduction of hybrids is obscured by move to more expensive hybrids (long range
  • 6.3. Passenger travel by bus by region in England.
  • 6.4. BYD articulated pure electric Lancaster bus for 120 passengers with 170 km range announced late 2014
  • 6.5. The value chain is changing radically due to vehicle design being changed as summarised below. Ladder type hybrid bus chassis top
  • 6.6. Structural supercapacitor as car or bus bodywork, experimental
  • 6.7. UITP summary of technological options for buses
  • 6.8. MAN Lion urban bus with supercapacitors and no traction battery, the favoured practice in China
  • 6.9. EV powertrain technology roadmap
  • 6.10. Percentage share of 92 fuel cell bus trials 1990-2015 by fuel cell manufacturer
  • 6.11. North American sales of school buses 2000-2009, total buses sold
  • 6.12. Top five sales volume of light bus manufacturers in November 2013
  • 6.13. Top five sales volume of medium bus manufacturers in November 2013
  • 6.14. Top five sales volume of large bus manufacturers in November 2013
  • 6.15. The Nikola One has 6X6 all-wheel drive
  • 6.16. The Extended Range Electric Vehicle EREV truck
  • 6.17. Planned TEVA hybrid truck and JAC production line.
  • 6.18. EDI CNG hybrid truck
  • 6.19. The electric truck by the BMW Group and the SCHERM group
  • 6.20. A Mack® LR® model retrofitted with the Wrightspeed Route™ 1000 powertrain
  • 7.1. Taxi fire caused by a bad lithium-ion battery in a Chinese electric taxi
  • 7.2. BYD taxi rollouts in late 2014
  • 7.3. BYD Qin hybrid car
  • 7.4. The Terra Motors e-trike
  • 7.5. E-trikes used as taxis
  • 7.6. Logos compared
  • 7.7. Expensive version for developed countries and basic version for undeveloped countries
  • 8.1. Nissan DeltaWing
  • 8.2. Energy dissipation through air resistance
  • 8.3. Typical Chinese three wheel on-road vehicles.
  • 8.4. Electric Three Wheel Taxi by LangFang Sandi Electric Tricycle Co. Ltd.
  • 8.5. Bubble e-bike
  • 8.6. Domestic market share for 2012-13
  • 8.7. Bajaj Auto is a dealer in the manufacturing of commercial three wheel vehicles
  • 8.8. Bajaj Affordable Three Wheel Commercial Vehicle 2014 (2,000 usd) available in Natural Gas, Liquefied Gas and Diesel versions
  • 8.9. Electric vehicle cost breakeven
  • 8.10. Twike pedal-assisted electric vehicle left in Switzerland and some of the 100 Mexico City pedelec taxis right
  • 8.11. Piaggio tilting three wheel scooters with conventional engines and below one from Xingue China
  • 8.12. Toyota i-Road pure electric tilting three wheeler
  • 8.13. Spira4u
  • 8.14. Mule: Modern Electric Workhorse to Slice Through Urban Traffic Easily
  • 9.1. Grizzly robot electric vehicle for agriculture and mining
  • 9.2. Sanyo commercial vehicle with extending solar panels for charging when stationary and mine with electric trucks using local solar and wind
  • 9.3. Energy and work synchronization
  • 9.4. Pure electric light mining vehicles
  • 9.5. Bailey hybrid electric crane
  • 9.6. Konecranes hybrid electric stacker
  • 9.7. Pure electric manlift
  • 10.1. Hybrid bus powertrain
  • 10.2. Hybrid car powertrain using CNG
  • 10.3. Some hybrid variants
  • 10.4. Evolution of plug in vs mild hybrids
  • 10.5. Trend to deep hybridisation
  • 10.6. Evolution of hybrid structure
  • 10.7. Price premium for hybrid buses
  • 10.8. Three generations of lithium-ion battery with technical features that are sometimes problematical
  • 10.9. Battery price assisting price of hybrid and pure electric vehicles as a function of power stored
  • 10.10. Probable future improvement in parameters of lithium-ion batteries for pure electric and hybrid EVs
  • 10.11. Comparison of battery technologies
  • 10.12. Where supercapacitors fit in
  • 10.13. Energy density vs power density for storage devices
  • 10.14. Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade.
  • 10.15. Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
  • 10.16. Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
  • 10.17. Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity
  • 10.18. The principle of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells
  • 10.19. Trend of size of the largest (in red) and smallest (in green) fuel cell sets used in 98 bus trials worldwide over the last twenty years.
  • 10.20. Electric machine and ICE sub-assembly
  • 10.21. 48V Model chosen
  • 10.22. Evolution of traction batteries and range extenders for large hybrid electric vehicles as they achieve longer all-electric range over the next decade.
  • 10.23. Main modes of rotational energy harvesting in vehicles
  • 10.24. Main forms of photovoltaic energy harvesting on vehicles
  • 10.25. Maximum power from the most powerful forms of energy harvesting on or in vehicles
  • 10.26. Hybrid bus with range improved by a few percent using solar panels
  • 10.27. Possible trend in battery power storage and voltage of power distribution
  • 10.28. Volkswagen view of the attractions of 38V
  • 10.29. Mitsubishi view of hybrid vehicle powertrain evolution
  • 10.30. Flat lithium-ion batteries for a car and, bottom, UAVs
  • 10.31. Supercapacitors that facilitate fast charging and discharging of the traction batteries are spread out on a bus roof
  • 10.32. Here comes lithium
  • 10.33. Approximate percentage of manufacturers offering traction batteries with less cobalt vs those offering ones with no cobalt vs those offering both. We also show the number of suppliers that offer lithium iron phosphate versions.
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