Cover Image
市場調查報告書

OTT法規:「不再那麼自由」網際網路

OTT Regulation - Hot Topics: Level Playing Field, Privacy, Taxation, Net Neutrality, Platform and Competition

出版商 IDATE DigiWorld 商品編碼 329395
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 150 Pages
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
價格
Back to Top
OTT法規:「不再那麼自由」網際網路 OTT Regulation - Hot Topics: Level Playing Field, Privacy, Taxation, Net Neutrality, Platform and Competition
出版日期: 2017年07月24日 內容資訊: 英文 150 Pages
簡介

過去10年,網際網路企業和OTT (over the top) 企業佔據全球經濟中樞部的中心。這些企業直到最近雖然沒有左右全球經濟那樣的力量,不過,現在也有「過分巨額的資金,毫無限制地集中在這樣的企業」的意見也出現了。

本報告提供全球各國的網際網路企業和OTT企業面臨的法規上的課題相關分析、主要的法規領域 (網路的中立性、市場競爭、租稅最佳化、隱私、著作權) 相關討論概要,及各領域的利害對立結構、各國政府 (澳洲、加拿大、德國、法國、西班牙、義大利、日本、韓國、荷蘭、英國、美國、印度、台灣、紐西蘭、EU全體等) 的法規政策的資訊彙整,為您概述為以下內容。

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 分析方法、定義

第3章 網路的中立性

  • 主要的利害關係
  • 網路的中立性相關法規
  • 美國的案例

第4章 市場競爭

  • 主要的利害關係
  • 共享型經濟企業,威脅傳統的商務
  • 網際網路界的巨大企業

第5章 稅的最佳化

  • 主要的利害關係
  • 網際網路界的巨大企業
  • 課稅與共享型經濟

第6章 隱私

  • 主要的利害關係
  • 隱私法規

第7章 著作權

  • 簡介
  • 非法拷貝防止政策
  • 出版上的課題

第8章 其他

  • VoIP
  • 加密、監視

圖表一覽

分析對象企業 (共42家)

  • Airbnb
  • Amazon
  • Aol
  • Apple
  • AT&T (ex SBC)
  • Cisco
  • Coca-Cola
  • Dell
  • Dropbox
  • eBay
  • Evernote
  • Facebook
  • GE Company
  • GetAround
  • Google
  • Handy
  • HomeAway/VRBO
  • iinet
  • Kakao Talk
  • KT
  • Lindedin
  • Lyft
  • Madison River
  • Microsoft
  • MyClean
  • Netflix
  • Pfizer
  • Procter & Gamble
  • 樂天
  • RelayRides
  • SK Telecom
  • Skype
  • Starbucks
  • TaskRabbit
  • Telstra
  • T-Mobile
  • Twitter
  • Uber
  • Verizon
  • Vonage
  • Yahoo!
  • Yelp

本網頁內容可能與最新版本有所差異。詳細情況請與我們聯繫。

目錄
Product Code: M17150MRA

This report addresses the emerging debates regarding regulation for OTT services. Indeed, as seen with Google Shopping or Apple taxes and sharing economy specific rules in many countries, the initiatives from public stakeholders are becoming more and more important.

Hot topics are so far around taxation, privacy and more recently competition rules. In the context of level playing field, often promoted by telecom operators, the regulations around Net Neutrality and OTT communications are also under the spotlight.

This report provides an overall analysis of the key topics mentioned above and a benchmark of developments at the European level, on 6 European countries (France, UK ,Germany, Netherlands, Italy, Spain) 3 American countries (USA, Canada, Brazil) and 3 Asian countries (Japan, India, Hong Kong)

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

2. Introduction on OTT concepts and markets

  • 2.1. Definitions of OTT
    • 2.1.1. Scope issues
    • 2.1.2. European framework not directly addressing OTT 12
    • 2.1.3. The BEREC approach
  • 2.2. Level Playing Field
    • 2.2.1. Traffic impacts
    • 2.2.2. Traditional telecom market impacts
    • 2.2.3. Other elements for the level playing field; Europe vs International
    • 2.2.4. Relationships between telcos and OTT
  • 2.3. OTT dynamics and key characteristics
    • 2.3.1. OTT revenue models
    • 2.3.2. OTT value chains
    • 2.3.3. OTT markets
  • 2.4. Identification of major topics for potential OTT regulation

3. Privacy

  • 3.1. Synthesis
  • 3.2. Key stakes: personal data now available at unprecedented levels, but with it come various privacy risks
    • 3.2.1. A contrasting approach to privacy between EU and US
    • 3.2.2. Trans-Atlantic data transfer evolves from Safe harbour to Privacy Shield
  • 3.3. Initiatives and reactions in Europe
    • 3.3.1. At the EU level: Reform of EU data protection rules
    • 3.3.2. France
    • 3.3.3. UK
    • 3.3.4. Germany
    • 3.3.5. Netherlands
    • 3.3.6. Italy
    • 3.3.7. Spain
  • 3.4. Initiatives and reactions in the Americas
    • 3.4.1. The US approach to data protection
    • 3.4.2. Canada
    • 3.4.3. Brazil
  • 3.5. APAC
    • 3.5.1. Japan
    • 3.5.2. Hong Kong
    • 3.5.3. India

4. Platform and competition

  • 4.1. Synthesis
  • 4.2. Focus on Uber's embattled expansion
    • 4.2.1. Europe
    • 4.2.2. Americas
    • 4.2.3. Asia-Pacific
  • 4.3. Key stakes
  • 4.4. European Union
  • 4.5. UK
    • 4.5.1. Independent review of the collaborative economy
    • 4.5.2. NRA and NCA opinions
  • 4.6. France
  • 4.7. Germany
    • 4.7.1. White book Digital regulatory policy for growth, innovation, competition and participation
    • 4.7.2. Bundeskartellamt
    • 4.7.3. Other initiatives
  • 4.8. Italy
    • 4.8.1. Sharing Economy Act
    • 4.8.2. AGCM
  • 4.9. Spain
    • 4.9.1. Transportation and ride sharing
    • 4.9.2. CNMC investigation
  • 4.10. Netherlands
    • 4.10.1. Ministry of Economic Affairs
    • 4.10.2. ACM platform investigation
  • 4.11. Canada
    • 4.11.1. Policy and regulation
    • 4.11.2. Canadian Competition Bureau
  • 4.12. Hong Kong
    • 4.12.1. A difficult regulatory environment
    • 4.12.2. Recommendations by the Hong Kong Consumer Council
  • 4.13. USA
  • 4.14. Brazil
  • 4.15. India
    • 4.15.1. TRAI OTT consultation
    • 4.15.2. Supreme Court hearing on privacy
    • 4.15.3. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways on ride-sharing
  • 4.16. Japan

5. Taxation

  • 5.1. Synthesis
  • 5.2. Key stakes: Multinational and major companies “avoiding” full payment of various taxation schemes
    • 5.2.1. “Double Irish and Dutch sandwich” system to shift value overseas
    • 5.2.2. The Luxembourg tax regime, revealed through LuxLeaks
    • 5.2.3. VAT and other discrepancies also cause for concern
    • 5.2.4. Income stashed overseas
  • 5.3. Reactions to tax avoidance schemes
    • 5.3.1. At the European level
    • 5.3.2. Brazil
    • 5.3.3. Canada
    • 5.3.4. France
    • 5.3.5. Germany
    • 5.3.6. Hong Kong
    • 5.3.7. India
    • 5.3.8. Italy
    • 5.3.9. Spain
    • 5.3.10. United States
    • 5.3.11. UK
    • 5.3.12. Japan
    • 5.3.13. Netherlands
  • 5.4. Appendix
    • 5.4.1. The six key measures proposed by the European Commission to fight tax avoidance
    • 5.4.2. Action Plan on VAT- Towards a single EU VAT area

6. Net neutrality

  • 6.1. Synthesis
  • 6.2. Key stakes
    • 6.2.1. Consumer impact
    • 6.2.2. Technical-economic issues
  • 6.3. European Union
    • 6.3.1. Legacy
    • 6.3.2. Net neutrality in the 2009 framework
    • 6.3.3. Net neutrality in the TSM
  • 6.4. France
    • 6.4.1. Regulator (ARCEP)
    • 6.4.2. Legislation
  • 6.5. UK
    • 6.5.1. Regulator (Ofcom)
    • 6.5.2. Legislation
  • 6.6. Germany
    • 6.6.1. Regulator (BNetzA)
    • 6.6.2. Legislation
  • 6.7. Italy
  • 6.8. Spain
  • 6.9. Netherlands
  • 6.10. Canada
  • 6.11. Hong Kong
  • 6.12. USA
  • 6.13. Brazil
  • 6.14. India
    • 6.14.1. Creating a legal framework for net neutrality
    • 6.14.2. Zero rating
  • 6.15. Japan

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Level of advancement of regulation and/or debate
  • Table 2: Common rules vs. ECS-specific regulations
  • Table 3: Regulatory Imbalances between Network Operators and Application Providers
  • Table 4: Current view on debates related to OTT communications
  • Table 5: Comparison of data protection legislation between the countries covered
  • Table 6: What will change in the European regulations on privacy protection
  • Table 7: French regulatory principles
  • Table 8: Major FTC regulations by area
  • Table 9: FTC's sector regulation
  • Table 10: Approaches for competition regulation of OTTs
  • Table 11: Examples of taxes targeting OTT players specifically
  • Table 12: Comparison of VAT rates on linear and on-demand audiovisual media services
  • Table 13: Tax/profit ratio paid by leading US Internet and non-Internet companies
  • Table 14: Offshore profits and tax haven subsidiaries of a selection of US giants
  • Table 15: Regulatory approaches for Net Neutrality in the benchmarked countries
  • Table 16: Allowable use of the word “unlimited” according to Ofcom
  • Table 17: Excerpt from CRTC's 2012-15 work plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: A potential classification of services
  • Figure 2: Tentative definition of OTT services
  • Figure 3: BEREC's OTT taxonomy
  • Figure 4: Comparison of global telco and OTT service market revenues, 2010-2020
  • Figure 5: IP traffic growth
  • Figure 6: Comparison of telco and OTT characteristics for communication services
  • Figure 7: Telefónica's approach to a level playing field in data and consumer protection
  • Figure 8: Issues of level playing field going beyond the traditional scope
  • Figure 9: Usual view of debates between telcos and OTTs
  • Figure 10: Real view of interactions between telcos and OTTs
  • Figure 11: The five parts of the Telco vs OTT equation
  • Figure 12: OTT as intermediate between ‘users' and ‘others'
  • Figure 13: Partnerships between OTTs and telcos
  • Figure 14: Telco OTT initiatives in communications
  • Figure 15: Telco as intermediary between ‘users' and large OTTs
  • Figure 16: Telco as intermediary between ‘users' and ‘others'
  • Figure 17: Operating profile of a telco
  • Figure 18: Current positioning of telcos on digital products
  • Figure 19: Time spent on the Internet in 2016
  • Figure 20: Correspondence between offline and online services and applications
  • Figure 21: Two sided models for OTTs
  • Figure 22: Platform approaches of OTT
  • Figure 23: Internet value chain
  • Figure 24: The evolution to a simpler disintermediated value chain
  • Figure 25: Breakdown of worldwide OTT markets
  • Figure 26: Breakdown of worldwide paid OTT markets
  • Figure 27: Worldwide revenues of digital content in 2013
  • Figure 28: Worldwide advertising markets breakdown in 2016 and 2020
  • Figure 29: Player shares of online advertising revenue, 2015
  • Figure 30: Global OTT competitive landscape
  • Figure 31: Estimated annual per-user revenue for Internet services worldwide, 2011-2015
  • Figure 32: Top Internet players all over the board in 2015
  • Figure 33: Bundling impacts on the map services
  • Figure 34: World's biggest security breaches, October 2015 and April 2017
  • Figure 35: Frequently used online services: comparison of their use and trust levels (2015 survey)
  • Figure 36: The EU-US Privacy Shield Fact Sheet
  • Figure 37: Evolution of consent
  • Figure 38: Examples of platform markets
  • Figure 39: Multisided vs product platforms vs resellers
  • Figure 40: Examples of external effects
  • Figure 41: Single- vs. multi-homing
  • Figure 42: Gatekeeper problems
  • Figure 43: EU agreement with Amazon to phase out “most favoured nation” clauses
  • Figure 44: Different rules for ECS and ISS
  • Figure 45: Amended definition of ECS as proposed by draft ECC
  • Figure 46: Number of VTC licences issued in Spain
  • Figure 47: The “Double Irish” and “Dutch sandwich” scheme
  • Figure 48: An overview of the Luxembourg tax scandal
  • Figure 49: Number of VoD providers situated in selected European countries
  • Figure 50: Comparison of regulatory and tax pressures on VoD businesses in select European countries
  • Figure 51: The European Commission's proposal to limit tax avoidance
  • Figure 52: Key VAT facts: the scale of VAT within the EU
  • Figure 53: The Action Plan on VAT, presented by the EC
  • Figure 54: Google News Spain's homepage
  • Figure 55: Share of Fortune 500 Companies with subsidiaries in the top tax havens, 2015
  • Figure 56: The Action Plan on VAT, presented by the EC
  • Figure 57: How the current EU cross-border VAT system works vs EC's proposed Single EU VAT area
  • Figure 58: The current EU VAT rates and EC's proposed new VAT rates
  • Figure 59: EC guideline on how VAT applies to EU cross-border online sales
  • Figure 60: DT Music Free
  • Figure 61: Key issues around Net Neutrality
  • Figure 62: Evolution of transit prices
  • Figure 63: Transit vs peering volume growth by region, 2013-2020
  • Figure 64: Evolution of traffic, cost and revenues in the telecom industry
  • Figure 65: Ofcom presentation on Net neutrality (2006)
  • Figure 66: Restrictions applied within the European Union
  • Figure 67: Leaked Council ‘non-paper' (May 2015)
  • Figure 68: The end of net neutrality? Not quite...
  • Figure 69: EU net neutrality: no blocking or throttling says EC
  • Figure 70: Number of contributions to NN guidelines consultation
  • Figure 71: Degrees of traffic management
  • Figure 72: StreamOn zero rating
  • Figure 73: Regulation in the Netherlands
  • Figure 74: CRTC letter to Rogers
  • Figure 75: Administrative net neutrality timeline India
  • Figure 76: TRAI transparency obligation template
  • Figure 77: LINE Mobile “Communication Free Plan” zero rating LINE, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram

Geographic area & Players

Asia-Pacific

  • Hong Kong
  • India
  • Japan

Europe

  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Netherlands
  • Spain
  • United Kingdom

North America

  • Canada
  • United States

Latin America

  • Brazil

Actors

  • ACM
  • AGCM
  • AGCOM
  • Airbnb
  • Akamai
  • Alibaba
  • Amazon Kindle
  • Amobee
  • ANRT
  • AOL
  • Apple
  • ARCEP
  • AT&T
  • Baidu
  • Bell Mobility
  • BEREC
  • BlaBlaCar
  • BNetzA
  • Bobsled
  • Boku
  • Booking
  • BskyB
  • BT
  • Cell C
  • Cisco
  • CNMC
  • CNMT
  • Comcast
  • CRTC
  • DataSparks
  • DBA
  • Dell
  • Deutsche Telekom
  • Didi Chuxing
  • Dropbox
  • Evernote
  • Everything Everywhere
  • Expedia
  • Facebook
  • FreeBeeData
  • FREETEL
  • GE
  • Google
  • H3G
  • Hulu
  • ITunes
  • J:COM
  • JD.com
  • Kayak
  • KDDI
  • Level 3
  • LINE
  • LoveFilm
  • Meetic
  • Microsoft
  • MTN
  • Nest
  • Netflix
  • NTT DOCOMO
  • O2
  • Ofcom
  • Orange
  • PriceMinister
  • Rakuten
  • Rogers
  • Salesforce
  • Samsung
  • SingTel
  • Skype
  • Spotify
  • Sprint
  • Starbucks
  • TalkTalk
  • Tango
  • Telecom Egypt
  • Telecom Italia
  • Telefónica
  • Telkom
  • Telstra
  • Telus
  • Tencent
  • The Priceline Group
  • Three
  • T-Mobile
  • T-Mobile USA
  • TRAI
  • Trivago
  • Twitter
  • Uber
  • Verizon
  • Viber
  • Vimpelcom
  • Virgin Media
  • Vodacom
  • Vodafone
  • Waze
  • WeChat
  • WhatsApp
  • Wikipedia
  • Xfinity
  • Yahoo!
  • YouTube

Slideshow

Introduction on OTT services

  • Introduction: OTT concepts

Level Playing Field

  • Telco concerns with OTTs
  • Introduction: Level Playing Field
  • Level Playing Field: the case of communication
  • Level Playing Field: the case of communication

OTT dynamics

  • OTT markets
  • OTT concepts and markets
  • OTT market dynamics and competition: concerns on competition and privacy

OTT regulation hot topics

  • Where is the debate heating up?
  • Taxation: Internet giants “avoiding” full payment of corporate tax
  • Taxation: overall view in selected countries
  • Privacy: users concerned, but few of them taking action
  • Privacy: overall view in selected countries
  • Privacy: GDPR in Europe
  • Platforms: Internet giants and the unfair use of their dominance
  • Platforms: overall view in selected countries
  • Net neutrality: EU vs USA
  • Net Neutrality: Europe
  • Net Neutrality: overall view in selected countries
Back to Top