Cover Image

美國的批發DER (分散式能源資源) 聚合:2016年第一季

U.S. Wholesale DER Aggregation: Q2 2016

出版商 Greentech Media Inc. 商品編碼 356383
出版日期 內容資訊 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
Back to Top
美國的批發DER (分散式能源資源) 聚合:2016年第一季 U.S. Wholesale DER Aggregation: Q2 2016
出版日期: 2016年07月06日 內容資訊: 英文

分散式能源資源 (DER) 愈來愈帶給批發能源市場結構、價格影響。美國的獨立系統操作員 (ISO) ,為了採用、收益化含需求、分散式發電 (DG) 資源的傳統的需求反應 (DR) ,早在10年前以上進行了最初的改革。可是,太陽光、儲能,及電動車資源的普及率高漲,產生收益化分散式資源的新機會,還有,在批發能源市場中,對未來的配電服務來說提高聚合的重要性。

本報告提供美國的批發DER (分散式能源資源) 聚合的相關調查,目前法規,市場活動及創新的初步試驗等說明。


第1章 簡介

第2章 ISO (獨立系統運用機關) 、RTO (地區供電機關) 概要

第3章 PJM

第4章 MISO



第7章 國家法規的變化

第8章 新的電力市場設計

第9章 結論

第10章 附錄


  • 1:簡介
  • 2:ISO、RTO概要
  • 3:PJM的互相連接
  • 4:內陸的ISO
  • 5:加利福尼亞的ISO
  • 6:ERCOT(Electric Reliability Council of Texas:德克薩斯電力信賴度協會)
  • 7:國家法規的變化
  • 8:新的電力市場設計
  • 9:結論



In recent years, consumer demand flexibility, known as demand response (DR), has increasingly become a key feature in the design and operation of electricity systems. By linking end-user consumption and production to dynamic system management, these demand response programs have achieved significant operational efficiencies, such as mitigating real-time constraints and lowering wholesale prices and end-customer costs.

This dynamic next-generation energy system requires further market evolution which fully leverages distributed energy resources (DERs) and other participatory grid edge technologies. Traditionally controlled behind-the-meter resources include load control, thermal storage and on-site generators. However, growing interest in aggregation services is pushing players, independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission organization (RTOs) to look beyond traditional behind-the-meter management. New approaches will unlock value streams for up-and-coming technologies such as distributed generation, electric vehicles and battery storage, and accordingly socialize the cost of energy delivery.

Select National Demand Response Aggregators Registered Within ISO/RTO Territories

                     Source: GTM Research

To achieve these outcomes, evolving market models have begun to integrate DERs in short- and long-term planning at all network levels. This report provides data and analysis of the ISO/RTO markets where various distributed resources are making headway, assessing current program developments and opportunities. Overall insights are also offered with respect to market size and outlook for demand-side flexibility going forward.


MISO Capacity Market: Clearing Prices for All Zones,
Delivery Year 2013/2014 to 2016/2017

                     Source: GTM Research

CAISO 2015: Total Demand Response From Each Available IOU Program

                     Source: GTM Research

Note: Chart data is available in the full report.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction and Scope
  • 2. Key Takeaways, Q2 2016
  • 3. PJM Interconnection
  • 4. Midcontinent Independent System Operator
  • 5. California Independent System Operator
  • 6. Electric Reliability Council of Texas
  • 7. National Regulatory Update
  • 8. Quarterly Company and Project Highlights
  • 9. Conclusions
  • 10. Appendix

List of Figures

2. Key Takeaways

  • Select National Demand Response Aggregators Registered Within ISO/RTO Territories

3. PJM Interconnection

  • PJM Q1 Energy Markets: Day-Ahead, Real-Time, Regulation, Synchronous Reserves
  • Delivery Year 2015/2016 Available Demand Response
  • Base Residual Auctions Transitioning to Capacity Performance
  • Demand Response Capacity Products Through Delivery Year 2017/2018
  • Demand Response Products Until Full Capacity Performance is in Effect
  • Demand Response Auction Offers and Cleared Bids
  • Demand Response Auction Prices in Delivery Areas
  • Load Management and Capacity Performance MW
  • Load Reduction Methods
  • PJM Select Registered National Aggregators Map
  • Relevant Auction Dates by Delivery Year

4. Midcontinent Independent System Operator

  • Demand Response and Behind the Meter Generation in MISO
  • MW Cleared in Planning Resource Auction for 2016/2017 Delivery Year
  • Clearing Prices for All Zones Delivery Year 2013/2014 to 2016/2017
  • Emergency Energy and Demand Response Pricing: Project Roadmap
  • Resolving Price Depression with Offer Floors
  • MISO Capacity Emergency Procedure
  • MISO Capacity Auction Redesign: Timeline for Implementation

5. California Independent System Operator

  • IOU Demand Response Capacity
  • CAISO-Administered Demand Response Programs
  • Average Hourly Proxy Demand Response Dispatched and Frequency, 2015
  • Estimated Proxy Demand Response Self-Schedules and Bids, 2015
  • 2015 IOU Demand Response Program Activity: Demand Response Capacity by Program Type
  • Total Demand Response
  • Aggregators from IOU Capacity Bidding Programs
  • Aggregators/DRPs Registered with the CPUC
  • Demand Response to Meet Aliso Canyon Shortfall
  • Demand Response Auction Mechanism: Minimum Target Capacity per IOU
  • DRAM Changes from 2016 to 2017
  • DRAM 2018 Budget Allocation and Guidance for Utility

6. Electric Reliability System of Texas

  • Energy Reliability Council of Texas Demand Response Methods: Load Resources
  • 2015 RRS Awards and Self Arranged Quantities for UFR Load Resources (MW)
  • Emergency Response Services (ERS) Hours
  • ERS Procurement February 1, 2016 to May 31, 2016
  • Number of Load and Generation Resources Procured February to May 2016
  • ERS 30-min and ERS 10-min
  • Aggregator Maximum Capacity

7. National Regulatory Update

  • Disqualifying the Provision of Emergency DR from Diesel and Other Combustion Engines: Ruling Timeline

8. Quarterly Company and Project Highlights

  • BPA Demonstration Projects Driven by Sixth Power Plan Guidance
  • Aggregated Demand Response Pilot: Energy Northwest Demonstration Project
  • Exelon Corporation Demand Response in PJM Delivery Territories

10. Appendix

  • Independent System Operators and Regional Transmission Organizations
  • DER Aggregation, Coordination and Scheduling Entities
  • Reliability Pricing Model Structure and Timing: Capacity Market Timing
  • U.S. Electricity Market Structure and DR Participation Potential
  • Key Demand Response Characteristics
  • Sectoral Composition and Breakdown of Demand Response
  • Potential Peak Reduction by ISO/RTO
Back to Top